Criminal Investigation Procedures Essay
The use of collection of the evidence is critical for a case to be successful. A case can rest on the evidence collected at a crime scene and the evidence collected from statements recovered from the police in interviews. The police use many methods in order to construct an interview one of these include the MO system. The MO system is known as the criminal’s method of working.
Investigators use this in order to find the criminal as it is always hard to act differently to past crimes as this is their natural way. The MO system records information and descriptions of past criminals and their pattern and methods when committing a crime. This recorded information of past criminals will help when identifying a criminal which has similar patterns and methods of committing a crime. The MO system has a 10 point system which will try to explain any motive or explain why they committed a crime.
The ten point system can be found below.* Classword- This will try to identify the class of the person who has committed the crime. The place in which the crime was also committed must be described as this may be a key point in the investigations carried out.* Entry- The point of entry into the crime scene must be identified and described as this also may be a key factor in identifying the person.* Means- The method of gaining entry into the building needs be described such as Have they gained entry using a door or a window?* Object- This will try to identify why they have committed the crime in the first place such as if the criminal would have a personal gain if they had committed the crime.
* Time- This would describe the occasion and if a building was empty which may have attracted the criminal or if the area was less busy around that certain time of day.* Style- This will describe what their style of approach to the crime was for example if a person has pretended to have a trade in order to gain access to that particular place.* Tale- What were the reasons for being in that area at that time?* Pal- This will try to identify if the person had any accomplices which will also identify a network of criminals which have also been involved.* Transport- Identifies if a mode of transport was used to. This can determine if skid marks, tread or even the use of CCTV are found.
* Trademarks- This may be left by the criminal such as a signature piece such as taking jewellery or leaving graffiti which could identify the criminal if they are known to the police.This ten point system can be explained further in the police notebook attached to this assignment. I have used this ten point system to identify the modus operandi of the suspect in my case.The police can use other systems in order to gain more information regarding a case; this information may involve collecting evidence to provide reason for a future prosecution. Surveillance can be used by the police to identify a possible suspect and to determine whether they were close to the area when the crime was committed.
For planned attacks such as terrorism the Echelon system can be used. The Echelon system studies telephone calls, emails, faxes and other modes of communication which the suspect may be using to stay in contacts with their accomplices. The Echelon system requires satellite systems which will track any computer signals going through the airwaves, the system will then study all signals looking for certain words which may suggest a future attack.A message will then be passed onto the police who will investigate the situation. CCTV can also be used in order to gain enough evidence for a prosecution, with the use of CCTV suspects can be watched in order to keep in close contact with them which may help with the investigation. Police may collect evidence using CCTV such as accomplices which may be in contact with the suspect.
CCTV is mainly used when there is not enough evidence to provide a warrant or a prosecution. Phone calls can also be tapped to monitor the use of the telephone which may be used by the suspect to stay in contact with accomplices. This audio surveillance can be used like the visual aspects of surveillance. It can be used to collect further evidence which may be needed for the case.Agent Provocateurs can also be used when collecting further evidence.
An agent provocateur is a member of a police force which will ensure that a criminal will carry out a crime in order for them to make an arrest. However an agent provocateur can also be a member of the suspect’s group which may have been asked by the police to carry out an undercover investigation lead by the police. This method of surveillance can be helpful as the suspect will may trust the undercover person enough to carry out a crime and tell that person. However if the suspect were to find out that they were being investigated by an undercover police officer or friend this could become dangerous as this person will be seen as a traitor. Thus the suspect may involve members of their group which may turn violent.
Alternatively the police themselves can follow a suspect in order to identify the places that the suspect visits; these may include places in which they may commit a crime or accomplice’s houses. This could lead to a possible conviction of the suspect and any other members of the group involved. If the police were to follow the suspect to a possible crime scene the police would be able to interrupt this and take the suspect in for question. Thus being able to question the suspect about past crimes which the police suspect they were involved in.
The National Crime Intelligence Service (NCIS) can also be used to collect potential evidence although the NCIS is mainly used to gather intelligence information on the more in depth cases such as terrorist attacks much like the Echelon system. The NCIS will gather information on future attacks which will involve proving the suspect is guilty in order for the plan to be carried out, thus the NCIS rarely get involved in the investigations as they will only hand potential plans over to the police in order for them to investigate further.The National Crime Squad is a section of the British Police force which is mainly involved in organised crime such as drug trafficking. The NCS works closely with the NCIS in order to prove that a suspect is guilty of a crime which has been committed. The NCS will be called into serious crimes against the public such as murders or kidnappings; they will then take over the case until a suspect is proven to be guilty.
The evidence collected by the NCS can be added to the MO of the suspect in order to help with getting a conviction against the suspect.Interpol was created in 1923 to assist with the international police organisations. The two organisations can work together in order to provide a conviction against any international suspects which may have move to a different country to avoid being caught. Interpol can also offer the use of international intelligence in order to track the suspect down and collect any evidence. This evidence collected can also be checked by the two organisations carrying out the investigations thus proving that all evidence collected is in fact relevant to the case and may lead to a prosecution.
Crime stoppers is a telephone hotline which is given to the public to help with any possible criminal behaviour occurring. The public will be asked to phone in with any possible leads to a case which cannot be investigated further due to lack of evidence. The evidence given to the police from the public will then be overlooked and possibly added to evidence already found. Due to the public knowledge of this system the public feel more inclined to help as they can see each case on the television.
However because of the public involvement many prank calls maybe received which could cause false information being followed.