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Chapter 16 Review Answers

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How did Enlightenment ideas influence the Atlantic revolutions?
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– old ideas were challenged by Enlightenment ideas – monarchy was replaced by republic – state control of trade was replaced by free trade – identity as subject of an empire was replaced by political citizenship
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Among the Atlantic revolutions, how is the French Revolution considered to be more radical than the American Revolution?
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– the French Revolution, especially during its first five years, was a much more violent and far-reaching movement than its American counterpart – the French revolutionaries perceived themselves to be starting from scratch in creating a new social order, while the Americans sought to restore or build upon earlier freedoms – while the American Revolution expressed the tensions of a colonial relationship with a distant imperial power, the French insurrection was driven by sharp conflicts with French society
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In response to Napoleon’s conquest and reform of European lands outside France, the people in the conquered lands did what?
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Accepted many of the reforms but revolted against French control
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In which ways did the French Revolution differ from other Atlantic Revolutions?
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Unlike the other Atlantic Revolutions, the French Revolution led to the execution of their king
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How did women participate in the French Revolution?
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Women joined in the major events of the revolution
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How did class and racial differences shape the revolutionary goals of different groups in Haiti?
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– slaves wanted freedom and the end of the slave trade and slavery – free peoples of color wanted equal treatment for all free peoples regardless of race – whites of modest means (Petits Blancs) wanted equality of citizenship for all whites
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Interpret the meaning of freedom in post-revolutionary Haiti?
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Independence and the end of slavery
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What did the leaders of the various independence movements in Latin America do to gain the support of the general population?
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Appeal to nativist feelings by defining all these born in the Americas as Americanos
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Why have the Atlantic revolutions been described as democratic revolutions?
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Their overall thrust was to extend political rights further than ever before
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How did the Atlantic revolutions influence subsequent movements that spread throughout Europe in the nineteenth century?
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All were committed to Republicanism and social equality
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How did the end of the international slave trade affect Africa?
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Reliance on slave labor increased in West and East Africa
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What was common set of circumstances that contributed to the abolition of slavery in the Atlantic world and the end of serfdom in Russia in the nineteenth century?
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fear of rebellion, economic inefficiency, and more concerns
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Summarize the driving forces behind the abolition of slavery?
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– there was a growing belief that slavery was not essential for economic progress – some Christians on both sides of the Atlantic felt that slavery was incompatible with their religious beliefs – abolitionist movements brought growing pressure on governments to close down the trade in slaves and then to ban slavery itself
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In the nineteenth century, what did nationalism in Europe fuel?
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a competitive dive for colonies in Asia and Africa
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What represents the influence of nationalism in the nineteenth century?
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the political unification of Germany and Italy
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Construct the various arguments made in support of women’s rights?
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– Enlightenment and Revolutionary ideas of liberty and equality must include women – women were individuals who should enjoy equal rights with men – women as mothers of future generations should be able to participate in civil and political activities (Maternal Feminism) – raising the status of women also raised the status of the nation (argument most commonly expressed in the Islamic world and China)
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Based on your knowledge of world history, describe the suffrage movement in the Western world in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
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men gradually gained the right to vote throughout the 19th century, while women gained the right to vote after World War I
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Provide a reason why the Atlantic Revolutions had a positive effect on global history.
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– the Atlantic Revolutions allowed for the creation and spread of more Democratic governments – the Atlantic Revolutions helped spread the idea of natural rights around the world, such as India
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Provide a reason why the Atlantic Revolutions had a negative effect on the global history.
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– in Latin America, the revolutionary era resulted in a period of political, economic, and social upheaval in the newly formed nations of that region – the French Revolution allowed for the rise of Napoleon and a period of political upheaval in Europe during the early 19th century