AP US History Unit 3 Study Guide

1796 Election
This was the race for the presidency after George Washington retired. John Adams was the Federalist Party’s candidate and Thomas Jefferson was the Democratic-Republican’s candidate. It was a very intense race, with the issues focusing heavily on personalities. John Adams, who was mostly supported in New England, won the election and became president. As runner-up, Thomas Jefferson became vice president. Along with the presidency, Adams inherited the violent quarrel with France.

1800 Election
There were no primaries, no nominating convention, no candidate speeches, and no entourage of reporters. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams was elected by representatives in congress. Jefferson was denounced as a Bible-burning atheist, the father of mulatto children and a mad scientist. John Adams was a monarchist. In 1796 Jefferson had become Adam’s vice president by virtue of finishing second. There was a tie between Aaron Burr and Jefferson for president, but in the end Jefferson won. On march 4 1801 the transition from Adams to Jefferson marked the first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in world history.

Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.

Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) laws passed by a Federalist-dominated Congress aimed at protecting the government from treasonous ideas, actions, and people

Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)

Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.

United States Constitution
1787, Continental Congress made a constitution after Articles of Confederation failed; It included a central government divided into three branches (president, Senate, House of Representatives, and Supreme Court) and controlled by checks and balances. The Bill of Rights were ten amendments to the new constitution that guaranteed rights of freedom to citizens; made a national gov’t that controlled taxes, army, trade, and currency.

Constitutional Convention
A meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the Articles of Confederation; resulted in the drafting of the Constitution.

Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank

Development of Political Parties
National political parties were unknown in America when Washington became president. Whigs and Tories and federalists and antifederalists had opposed each other, but these groups were factions rather than parties. They faded away when the issue that they were fighting over was resolved. The Founding Fathers thought that organized opposition to the government seemed disloyal. The first semblances of political parties emerged when Jefferson and Madison organized their opposition to the Hamiltonian financial program because people interpreted the Constitution differently. Political parties are essential to democracy these days, because the party that is not in power plays that invaluable role of the balance wheel on the machinery of government, ensuring that politics never drifts too far out of kilter with the wishes of the people.

Federalist Papers
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name “Publius” to defend the Constitution in detail.

Federalist. Powerful central government. Wanted expansion of federal power. Get support of the weathly and willing to go into debt to turn them away from state government and toward federal government. Get money from revenue tariffs (raise money) and protective tariffs (protect American industries). Supports Bank of the U.S.

George Washington
(1732-1799) Led America’s Continental Army to victory over Britain in the Revolutionary War and was the first President of the U.S, from 1789-1797. Because of his central role in the founding of the United States, he is often call the “Father of his Country.”

Great Compromise
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.

Jay’s Treaty
1794 – It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.

James Madison
(1809-1813) and (1813-1817) The War of 1812, the US declares war on Great Britain. In 1814, the British (technically the Canadians) set fire to the Capitol. The Treaty of Ghent ends the war in 1814., The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. Favored strict interpretation of the Constitution.

John Adams
(1797-1801) The 11th Amendment is added to the Constitution in 1798. Washington D.C. becomes America’s official capitol in 1800., He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself

Judiciary Act
A law that established the federal court system and the number of Supreme Court justices and that provided for the appeal of certain state court decisions to the federal courts

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.

Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
a 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict

Northwest Ordinance 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery

…, English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

Shay’s Rebellion
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes

State Constitutions
Each of the states set out to create its own government. The framers wanted to make it more representative. By creating separate branches of government, Americans hoped to prevent any one part of government from becoming too powerful.

Thomas Jefferson
…, Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.

Three-Fifths Compromise
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)

Virginia Plan
“Large state” proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.

Voting Rights

Washington’s Farewell Address
-Washington retired from office after his 2nd term in 1797. His Farewell Address is actually a letter. In it he reacted sharply to Republicans, by warning against international entanglements (more specifically, denouncing against the Republicans that had been conspiring with the French to frustrate the Federalist diplomatic program.and against the dangers of permanent alliances with foreign nations. (Ex. The Jay Treaty)Warned against sectionalism (Ex: put down the Whiskey Rebellion). Temporary alliances wouldn’t be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in “extraordinary emergencies”. He also spoke against partisan bitterness. (Federalist and Republican parties) 1775-1825

Whiskey Rebellion
(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton’s excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.

XYZ Affair
1798 – A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.’s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand’s three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters “X, Y and Z” for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.

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