ch 9 weight management: overweight, obesity, and underweight

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what % of people in the US is overweight or obese
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68%
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is overweight or obesity in women, poor people, blacks and hispanics?
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yes
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what % is obesity in children
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34
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when your BMI is over 25 you are
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overweight and/or obese
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when energy in is greater then energy out that cause
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weight gain
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where is fat stored?
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in fat cells of adipose tissue
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what does body fat depend on
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number and size of fat cells
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what are periods in life where fat cell numbers increase
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late childhood and early puberty
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what is cell proliferation
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when you have high triglycerides that causes an increase in fat cell size
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what do high triglycerides cause?
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and increase in fat cell size
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when energy out is greater than energy in that causes you to
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lose weight
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when fat cell size decreases but there is no change in number that is because
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energy out is greater than energy in
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what removes triglycerides from blood storage
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lipoprotein lipase
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LPL
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lipoprotein lipase
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what do obese people have more of
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lipoprotein lipase
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what causes varying activity of LPL
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gender
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where is the most female activity of LPL
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breast, hips and thighs
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where is the most male activity of LPL
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abdominal
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fat oxidation is not efficient in
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obese people
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when the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls
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set point theory
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what is a genetic disorder that has excessive appetite, massive obesity, short stature, and often mental retardation
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prader-willi
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what may determine predispositions to obesity
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genetics
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what are the two things genes interact with
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1) diet and physical activity 2)satiety and energy balance
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human genome
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you cannot change your genome but you can influence the epigenome
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what can influence the epigenome
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physical activity
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what is the obesity genome called?
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ob
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what is expressed by the codes for the protein leptin
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ob
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what is a protein produced by adipose tissue that is directly linked to a decrease in appetite and an increase in energy expenditure
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leptin
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what acts as a hormone in the hypothalamus
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leptin
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what happens with an increase in body fat to the hormone protein leptin?
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an increase in body fat causes an increase in leptin which surpresses appetite
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what promotes negative energy balance
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leptin
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what is the obesity gene
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a genetic deficiency of leptin or genetic mutation
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is the obesity gene rare?
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yes
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what is leptin resistance
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when people have leptin it just fails to supress appetite
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what is caused by fructose consumption
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leptin resistance
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what triggers your desire to eat
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ghrelin
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what promotes positive energy balance and weight gain
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ghrelin
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what is decreased by physical activity, gastric bypass surgery and weight gain?
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ghrelin
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ghrelin increases with the lack of
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sleep
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uncoupling proteins
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influences the storing of fat
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what are two types of body fat
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1)brown adipose tissue 2) white adipose tissue
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what releases stored energy as heat
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brown adipose tissue
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what is uncoupled from ATP formation that expends energy
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brown adipose tissue
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brown adipose tissue is found in
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newborns
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what is less than 1% of adult fat
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brown adipose tissue
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brown adipose tissue is found less in
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obese
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what stores fat for other cells to use
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white adipose tissue
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all of the circumstances that we encounter daily that push us towards fattness
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obesogenic environment
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is there an interaction between environment and genetics?
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yes
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present and past eating and activity patterns influence current body weight
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yes
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availabilty of food can cause
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overeating
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the serving size of food can cause
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overeating
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for an extra $.67 to upsize a meal, you consume and extra
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400kcal, 36gm of fat, and $1-$7 of healthcare costs
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exercise uses about
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150 calories a day or about 1000 calories a week
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life requires little exertion because of
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modern technology
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inactivity contributes to
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weight gain and poor health
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what is the DRI prevention of weight gain
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60 mins of moderate activity everyday
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NEAT
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nonexcercise activity thermogensis
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what causes 350 extra kcal burned per day
answer

NEAT
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what are 3 indicators that show overweight or obesity
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1)BMI 2)waist circumference 3) disease risk profile
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disease risk profile takes into account
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family history, life threatening diseases, and common risk factors for chronic disease
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what do you need for beneficial weight loss
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1)you need to consider health status 2)you have to have motivation
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what is the key component to weight loss
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motivation
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when health is not the motivation for weight loss that is usually in people that are
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overweight but in good health
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when a person has 2 or more risk factors and it is recommended that u lose weight that is usually seen in people who are
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overweight or obese with risk factors
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people who are obese and overweight with a life-threatening condition are always
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recommended to lose weight
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most people are not
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successful in losing weight and maintaining it
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being obese and overweight has social consequences like
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being judged at school, jobs, and in other social situations
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what are the psychological problems of being overweight or obese
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embarrassment which leads to anxiety and depression
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what has little success with weight loss maintenance
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diet books and weight-loss programs
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what are popular diets that promote quick weight loss
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fad diets
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what limits food choices which reduces energy intake
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fad diets
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what is an herbal weight-loss product that uses the illegal ephedrine
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St. John’s Wort
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what does ephedrine do?
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stimulates modest weight loss with high risk factors
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did laws ban ephedrine?
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yes
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strategies for weight loss depend on
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1) the degree of obesity 2) risk of disease
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you can use drugs as a
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long-term comprehensive weight-loss programs
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can drugs have medical risks but can also assist with modest weight loss
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yes
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what two drugs do the FDA approve
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1)orlistat 2)phentermine
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weight loss drug that inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in the GI tract, thus blocking digestion and absorption of dietary fat and limiting energy intake
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orlistat
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drug that enhances the release of neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which suppresses appetite
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phentermine
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what is the BMI of clinically severe obesity?
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greater than 40
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there are more then ___ surgeries performed each year which causes a loss ____% of body weight initially
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200,000 20-32%
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gastic lipase is a surgery that
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reduces food capacity in the stomach which effectively limits food intake
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what reduces the production of ghrelin
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surgeries like gastric lipase
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surgies have
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health related benefits
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surgies cause
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long-term safety and effectiveness
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what is the cosmetic procedure that removes fat
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liposuction
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liposuction has
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little weight loss and no health benefits
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what are successful weight loss strategies
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1)small changes 2)moderate losses 3)reasonable goals
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what are reasonable weight loss goals
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a reasonable rate of weight loss which would be 1/2 to 2lbs/week or 10% over 6 months
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are there benefits to moderate weight loss
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yes
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do you need to incorporate healthy eating and physical activity to lose weight
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yes
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do you have to be realistic about energy intake?
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yes
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providing less energy than needed causes you to
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lose weight
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to lose weight you should avoid
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restricting eating and rapid weight loss
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what is a major goal to lose weight
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to have nutritional adequacy without excess
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to lose weight u should try to stop eating how many calories per day?
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500-1000
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you should eat breakfast
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every day
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eating breakfast frequently is
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inversely related to obesity
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what is the minimum amount of calories you should have per day?
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1200
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should you have multivitamins or MVI?
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yes
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you should eat ___ portion
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small
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you should eat ___ food at each meal
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less
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you want to feel satisfied not
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stuffed
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to lose weight u should have structured
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meal replacement plans
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having lower energy density foods causes
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weight loss
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for weight loss always remember
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water
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water helps with
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weight management
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focusing on fiber can help you
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lose weight
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fiber is
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low in energy density and high in nutrients
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what requires energy to eat?
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fiber
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what speeds up food consumption
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fiber
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some fats are
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energy density and cause satiation
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you should select carbs carefully to
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lose weight
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should u watch out for empty calories?
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yes
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what do not provide vitamins or minerals?
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empty calories
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what are examples of empty calories?
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fat, sugar, and alc
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what is the best approach to weight management
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moderate physical activity plus activities of daily life-200-300 min/week
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a combination of diet and physical activity causes you to
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lose more fat, retain more muscle, and regain less weight
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what causes a reduction of abdominal fat
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physical activity
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kcal expenditure depends on
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body weight, intensity, and duration
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the greater the energy deficit created by exercise the greater
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the fat loss
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discretionary kcals are ___ with physical activity
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higher
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metabolism
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speeds up with activity
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what has immediate and long-term effects?
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metabolism
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physical activity ___ fat and ___ lean body mass
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decreases, increases
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strength training exercise decreases
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abdominal fat
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do you have a delayed appetite after physical activity
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yes
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what does physical activity help curb?
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inappropriate appetite
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what promotes self esteem
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physical activity
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choose activities like
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walking
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should you choose physical activity that you enjoy and are willing to do regularly
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yes
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should you have low to moderate intensity work out
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yes
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energy-expending daily activities like steps cause
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weight loss
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what is usually the first to go with spot reducing exercise
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abdominal fat
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how does the atmosphere influence weight loss
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pleasant and comfy makes you eat more food
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how does accessibility influence weight loss
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less effort needed to obtain food makes you eat more
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how does socializing influence weight loss
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the longer the meal is the more you are going to eat if its past just eating slow to get hungry, visual cues, and distractions
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why do u need to control your portion size when you are eating
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because you will gain more weight the bigger it is
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what distractions should u look out for while eating
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1) initiating eating 2)interfering with internal controls 3)extending duration of eating
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when there is a large assortment of food that
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increases food consumption
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packaging and portion size can influence your
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weight loss
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the “clean plate club” is ___ good
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not
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the serving containers only work when you dont
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go for multiple servings
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changing behavior by manipulating cues or environmental factors that trigger behavior
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behavior modifications
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what type of attitude helps u lose weight
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positive, matter-of-fact
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becoming aware of behaviors and keeping records of what you eat can help
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weight loss
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changing your behaviors include
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1)setting small, specific goals 2)practice 3)reward (not food reward)
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cognitive skills are based on 2 things
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1)problem solving which gets you to the solution and 2) cognitive reconstructing
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what is cognitive reconstructing
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when you learn to replace negative thoughts
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personal attitude helps u understand
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the personal relationship someone has with food and the sound emotional health of a person
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what are some support groups
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WW, TOPS, OA
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WW
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weight watcher
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TOPS
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taking off pounds sensibly
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OA
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overeaters annoynomus
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what is weight loss maintenance
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achieving a weight loss of at least 10% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least a year
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what is successful weight loss?
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reaching a goal within a half of year and then plateauing
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what should u do when you plateau
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keep eating and exercising the same to maintain the weight
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prevalence of successful weight loss is
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difficult to determine
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1 out of 6 maintained weight loss without
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a specific goal
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what are components of a successful weight loss
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1)vigorous exercise 2)careful eating patterns 3)frequent self-monitoring
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weight loss causes a ____ in metabolism
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decrease
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it takes more to prevent weight ___ than to prevent weight ____
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regain, gain
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how many low calorie meals should u eat per day?
answer

4-5
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to maintain weight u should eat food with
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high nutrient density and low in energy density
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what meal should u always eat
answer

breakfast
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you should monitor your weight…
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frequently
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how much tv should u watch per week?
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less than 10 hours
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who should u consult with
answer

RD, physician or other supports
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what can u possibly change your environment through?
answer

public health laws
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you need to stretch beyond individuals to
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adress social networks, community institutions, and government policies
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what effects no more than 2% of US adults
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being underweight
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to gain weight u need to combine
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physical conditioning and high energy intakes
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demand for energy contributes to
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being underweight
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physical activity and growth and development contribute to
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being underweight
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is it difficult to gain weight if u are underweight?
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yes
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why is it difficult to gain weight if u are underweight
answer

adaptive thermogenesis
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why would u need to learn to habits and try new foods?
answer

to gain weight
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is underweight the same thing as being ano?
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no
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what is the major difference from being underweight and being ano
answer

ano people starve themselves
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if you want to gain weight should u have adequacy and balance?
answer

yes
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when u want to have energy dense foods, regular meals daily, large portions, extra snacks, and juice and milk you are trying to
answer

gain weight
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why do people who need to gain weight exercise?
answer

to build muscle
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what makes outrageous claims to weight loss?
answer

fad diets
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what does not need requirements to prove claim?
answer

fad diets
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what does not need to be supported with credible research and the research is usually distorted
answer

fad diets
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how much do americans spend on fad diets?
answer

$33billion a year
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do fad diets tend to ignore dietary recommendations
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yes
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fad diets tend to work for only
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a short period of time
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what fails to produce long lasting results
answer

fad diets
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what claims to not count calories but it actually does
answer

fad diets
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fad diets are designed to have
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low energy intake
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fad diets tend to lack
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variety and are monotonous
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do fad diets often recommend dietary supplements
answer

yes
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what cannot support optimal health over time
answer

fad diets
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what tips the energy balance equation to greater energy expenditure
answer

fad diets
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if you are making long term lifestyle changes what are you trying to do
answer

lose weight
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a healthy weight loss plan should be
answer

flexible and have variety

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