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AP human geography urban development

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Agglomeration
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a built up area consisting of central city and its surrounding suburbs.
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Barriadas
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a neighborhood, usually a slum or lower class.
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Bid-rent theory
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explains that the price/demand for land increases closer to the CBD.
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Blockbusting
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the process of white families selling their homes because of fears that blacks would move in and lower the property value.
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CBD
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stands for central business district, location of skyscrapers and companies.
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Centrality
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the strength of dominance of an urban center over its surrounding area, larger than the MSA or agglomeration.
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Centralization
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the movement of people, capital, services, and government into the central city.
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Christaller, Walter
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he created the Central Place Theory, which explains how services aredistributed and why there are distinct patterns in this distribution.
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City
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centralized area with a mayor and local government, usually bigger than a town.
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Cityscape
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similar to a landscape, yet of a city.
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Colonial City
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cities founded by colonial powers, such as Mexico City by the Spanish. (these often contain plazas, large Catholic cathedrals, and historic architecture, most of these are in Latin America and in Southern Asia, in India)
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Commercialization
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the process of the increasing importance of business.
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Concentric ring model
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states that the city is organized into a series of concentric rings in which the downtown (CBD) is the the focus of the city’s commercial, social, and civic life.
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Counterurbanization
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a net migration from urban to rural areas.
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Decentralization
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the process of dispersing decision-making outwards from the center of authority.
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Deindustrialization
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process of social and economic change caused by removal of industry.
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Early cities
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Cities of the ancient world (-3500 to -1200).
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Economic base
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Communities collection of basic industry.
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Edge cities
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clusters of large buildings away from the central business district.
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Emerging cities
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City currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate.
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Employment structure
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graph showing how primary secondary and tertiary sector jobs are separated
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Entrepôt
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Trading center where goods are exported and imported without cost
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Ethnic neighborhood
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A neighborhood with distinctive ethnic composition
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Favela
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A shantytown or slum, especially in Brazil
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Female-headed household
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A household dominated by a woman
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Festival landscape
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a landscape of cultural festivities
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Gateway city
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a settlement which acts as a link between two areas
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Gender
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a person’s sex
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Gentrification
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the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class, resulting in the displacement of lower-income people.
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Ghetto
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A usually poor section of a city inhabited primarily by people of the same race, religion, or social background
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Globalization
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Development of worldwide patterns of economic relationships
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Modernism
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based on a belief in the preeminence of scientific rationality and the inevitability of human progress. Emphasizes function over form and universal models of how things are or should be. In architecture and urban design, modernism meant functional, bozy skyscrapers in the CBD, multistory apartment towers in the central city, and mile after mile of ranch houses in the suburbs.
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Multiple nuclei model
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A more flexible model in the sense that the districts in the model are not always of the same shapes or the same spatial arrangements.
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Postmodernism
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flatly rejects the worldview that there are universal models for how the world does or should functions. It celebrates diversity and denies that any perspective, style, or subgroup has a monopoly on truth or beauty. The architecture emphasized style, aesthetics, decoration, context and historic preservation (form as well as function).
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Sector model
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argues that housing calues in US cities conformed to a pattern of sectors radiationg out form the downtown rather than of concentric zones.
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Suburbanization
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Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century.
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Urban realms
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realatively independent suburban regions functionally tied to a mixed-use “suburan downtown”.