Anthropology Quizzes #3-4

question
Anthropologists define ________ as the expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to individuals. a.intersex d.gender b.sex e.dimorphism c.reproduction
answer
d.gender
question
Studies of physical differences indicate that: a.chromosomes are the primary determinants of human behavior. b.all individuals fall into the two assumed categories of male and female c.women's bodies are not strong enough for heavy labor. d.biology drives the division of labor. e.human male and female bodies are more similar than different.
answer
e.human male and female bodies are more similar than different.
question
The learned behaviors perceived as masculine or feminine are called: a.sexual dimorphism. d.universal beliefs. b.alternate sexualities. e.gender stratification. c.cultural constructions.
answer
c.cultural constructions.
question
A primary component of the "fag discourse" in US high schools is: a.bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as sufficiently masculine, even if the boys are heterosexual. b.bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as not sufficiently masculine, even if the boys are heterosexual. c.bullying of girls whose behavior is seen as masculine, even if the girls are heterosexual. d.bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as sufficiently masculine, especially if the boys are homosexual. e.bullying of girls whose behavior is seen as masculine, especially if the girls are homosexual.
answer
b.bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as not sufficiently masculine, even if the boys are heterosexual.
question
The discussion of machismo in Latin America in the text indicates that: a.all cultures construct masculinity in the same way. b.conceptions of machismo and masculinity are variable and shifting. c.each culture constructs masculinity differently, but are always internally consistent in that construction. d.machismo really has nothing to do with masculinity at all. e.masculinity is constructed variably across and within cultures, but is always conceived and performed consistently by individuals.
answer
b.conceptions of machismo and masculinity are variable and shifting.
question
The United States requires that individuals identify legally as: a.either male or female. d.male, female, or middle sex. b.male, female, or intersexual. e.heterosexual, homosexual, or intersexual. c.male, female, or transgender.
answer
a.either male or female.
question
Individuals whose culture identifies them as "neither man nor women" in India are called: a.machos. d.transgendered. b.hijras. e.hermaphrodite. c.Two-Spirits.
answer
b.hijras.
question
Early feminist anthropological studies focused on identifying: a.the myth of matriarchy in prehistoric societies. b.the underlying roots of universal male dominance. c.gender equality in industrialized societies. d.sources of female power in nonindustrialized cultures. e.gender stratification in U.S. schools.
answer
b.the underlying roots of universal male dominance.
question
Emily Martin's analysis of the "fairy tale" of the egg and the sperm as presented in U.S. textbooks does NOT indicate that: a.the scientific language of biology promotes gendered stereotypes of male and female behavior. b."female" eggs aggressively pursue more "passive" male sperm until conception occurs. c.cultural constructions are reinforced by imagery that highlights biological differences. d.stereotypes of male and female behavior are portrayed as naturally occurring patterns. e.the anthropomorphizing of egg and sperm coincides with issues in the antiabortion discourse.
answer
b."female" eggs aggressively pursue more "passive" male sperm until conception occurs.
question
Gender stereotypes are defined as: a.culturally based preconceived notions about the attributes of differences between, and proper roles for, men and women. b.the way gender identity is expressed through action. c.the ways humans learn to behave and recognize behaviors as masculine or feminine within cultural context. d.the expectation of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to people of different sexes. e.a set of cultural ideas about the essential character of different genders that functions to promote and justify gender stratification.
answer
a.culturally based preconceived notions about the attributes of differences between, and proper roles for, men and women.
question
More than 80 percent of victims of domestic violence in the United States: a.are female. d.are abused by a stranger. b.are male. e.deserved it. c.are transgender.
answer
a.are female.
question
Gender-based violence commonly occurs: a.in the home. d.both A and C b.during wartime. e.all of the above c.on college campuses.
answer
e.all of the above
question
Studies on women's participation in the industrialized labor force indicate that: a.social inequality decreased once women gained economic power. b.women were unable to resist male dominance once engaged in the global economy. c.household labor became more equitable once women began earning a salary. d.exploitation of women decreased as women became the majority of managers. e.patriarchal relations in the home were repeated in the workplace.
answer
e.patriarchal relations in the home were repeated in the workplace.
question
Sexuality involves: a.both personal choices and cultural ideas. b.personal choices only. c.cultural ideas only. d.biology and personal choices, but not cultural ideas. e.biology and cultural ideas, but not personal choices.
answer
a.both personal choices and cultural ideas.
question
Margaret Mead's work in the islands of the western Pacific contributed which of the following to a greater understanding of human sexuality? a.This work provided evidence that men are naturally sexually promiscuous. b.This work challenged the assumptions that sexual practices should be private rather than public. c.This work provided evidence that women are naturally sexually promiscuous. d.This work explored the commonalities between human sexual practices and the sexual practices of other primates. e.This work challenged the assumptions that U.S. attitudes about sexuality were universal traits fixed in human nature.
answer
b.This work challenged the assumptions that sexual practices should be private rather than public.
question
According to contemporary cultural anthropologists, humans in most cultures engage in sexual activity: a.both for procreation and fun. d.as a form of economic exchange. b.for procreation only. e.very seldom. c.for fun only.
answer
a.both for procreation and fun.
question
Which of the following is described as a lack of attraction to others? a.homosexuality d.heterosexuality b.bisexuality e.sexual violence c.asexuality
answer
c.asexuality
question
Scientists have found that human sexuality: a.fits into several simplistic categories. b.is marked by diversity, flexibility, and fluidity. c.fits into only two categories: normal and deviant. d.always remains the same over an individual's lifetime. e.is impossible to quantify.
answer
b.is marked by diversity, flexibility, and fluidity.
question
People whose gender identity differs from the sex they were assigned at birth may identify as: a.hypersexual. d.mixed gender. b.bisexual. e.transgender. c.homosexual.
answer
e.transgender.
question
________ are key cultural institutions through which we learn what it means to be heterosexual. a.Funerals d.Bar mitzvahs b.Weddings e.Graduation ceremonies c.Baptisms
answer
b.Weddings
question
Students at Antioch College developed a sexual offense policy centered on which of the following guidelines? a."safety first" d."yes means yes" b."no means no" e."sex is only for procreation" c."just say no"
answer
d."yes means yes"
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of the attempt to regulate aspects of sexuality by cultural institutions such as the government? a.age of consent d.reproductive rights b.divorce e.marriage c.age of licensed driver
answer
c.age of licensed driver
question
Which of the following is NOT a motivation that cultural anthropologist Denise Brennan lists for young, rural, poor Dominican women to migrate to towns like Sosua? a.to make money d.to provide for their families b.to have a vacation e.to obtain a European visa c.to marry a tourist
answer
b.to have a vacation
question
Until the 1970s, anthropology taught the "Man the Hunter" model. This model ties language acquisition, tool development, bipedalism, and larger brain size in modern humans: a.mainly to men's activities hunting large and dangerous animals to supply meat to their group. b.mainly to women's activities gathering roots, nuts, and fruit, but considers the occasional meat provided by men to be a scarce but necessary component of that evolution.. c.mainly to women's activities gathering roots, nuts, and fruit. d.mainly to men's activities hunting small animals to supply meat to their group. e."Man" in general, in other words both sexes, hunting large and dangerous animals to supply meat to their group.
answer
d.mainly to men's activities hunting small animals to supply meat to their group.
question
Podelefsky describes how his neighborhood changed because of air-conditioning. These changes include: a.everyone got cooler. b.people stayed inside their apartments more. c.people did not spend the cool evening outside with their neighbors. d.people had more parties in the cooled air of their apartments. e.no one went outside, so crime decreased.
answer
a.everyone got cooler. b.people stayed inside their apartments more. c.people did not spend the cool evening outside with their neighbors.
question
Which of the following statements about gender can be found in the article "Thinking with Gender"? a.Margaret Mead's work is considered to be a model of good ethnography. b.Over the last 40 years, we have learned not only to think anthropologically about gender but also to use gender to think about anthropology. c.Some of our most deep-seated, most unquestioned assumptions have to do with what we believe men and women to be like, how we expect ourselves and others to act, think, and feel as men or women. d.We have reviewed our models and analytical tools; we found no evidence of stereotypes and taken-for-granted notions that influence our conclusions. e.What we take to be the norm in the ways men and women behave is in fact just one among many possibilities.
answer
b.Over the last 40 years, we have learned not only to think anthropologically about gender but also to use gender to think about anthropology. c.Some of our most deep-seated, most unquestioned assumptions have to do with what we believe men and women to be like, how we expect ourselves and others to act, think, and feel as men or women. d.We have reviewed our models and analytical tools; we found no evidence of stereotypes and taken-for-granted notions that influence our conclusions.
question
Thinking with gender has required us to rethink our original conclusions in which of the following cases? a.The decision that "Lucy," a famous Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, is female. b.How some cultures "prove" a bride's virginity. c.Narratives describing interactions between human egg and sperm when a child is conceived. d.The capitalist conception of labor as a commodity. e.Spaying and neutering our pets.
answer
a.The decision that "Lucy," a famous Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, is female. b.How some cultures "prove" a bride's virginity. c.Narratives describing interactions between human egg and sperm when a child is conceived. d.The capitalist conception of labor as a commodity.
question
a.basic research d.academic skills b.applied research e.problem c.development f.issue ____28.a condition that everyone agrees is unacceptable ____29.the use of knowledge learned from both basic and applied research to create solutions to practical problems ____30.something that well-informed people will disagree about ____31.examines problems that have a directly practical outcome, to learn fairly specific things ____32.studies conducted to discover kowledge for its own sake, without regard for its practical importance or impact
answer
28- A 29- C 30- F 31- B 32- E
question
Whereas many animals, such as dolphins and great apes, communicate with each other through gestures and sounds, only human language utilizes complex systems of: a.dance. d.chemical information. b.symbols. e.sign language. c.warnings and alerts.
answer
b.symbols.
question
Linguistic anthropologists have discovered that more than 90 percent of ________ information is communicated through body movements and paralanguage. a.digital d.gendered b.creative e.spatial c.emotional
answer
c.emotional
question
Anthropologist Laura Bohannan discovered in her attempt to translate a classic text from English literature that: a.an underlying universal grammar that all humans share facilitated her work. b.the landscape of the Nigerian village shaped the folklore of the inhabitants. c.accurate translation of Shakespeare is best accomplished through sign language. d.the meaning of the story became lost as the original meanings of the English words could not be easily translated. e.it is straightforward to translate stories across different languages.
answer
d.the meaning of the story became lost as the original meanings of the English words could not be easily translated.
question
According to the textbook, which of the following statements about the "N-word" is false? a.It has been used as a derogatory word throughout much of U.S. history. b.In 1962, the U.S. government started using the word "Negro." c.It has been revived among African American youth involved in hip-hop music. d.Most older African Americans advocate the use of the "N-word." e.Many young people carefully say "n*g*ah," taking an edge off the meaning of the word.
answer
d.Most older African Americans advocate the use of the "N-word."
question
The concept of cultural ________ includes linguistic assets or skills that can be converted into better jobs with higher wages and benefit packages. a.materialism d.resonance b.hegemony e.relativism c.capital
answer
c.capital
question
When individuals speak in a manner that does not conform to what is known as "Standard English," according to the author, they are: a.speaking a dialect of English that is linguistically flawed. b.usually seen as speaking a prestige language. c.unaffected by their nonstandard speech. d.often considered to be uneducated or low class. e.thought to be creative and poetic.
answer
d.often considered to be uneducated or low class.
question
Archaeological evidence suggests that hierarchy, violence, and aggression: a.have been key to the evolutionary success of humankind. b.emerged relatively recently in human history, along with intensive agriculture. c.were central to the evolutionary success of early humans. d.have always been most prominent in nonindustrialized hunter-gatherer societies. e.are the natural state of human culture
answer
c.were central to the evolutionary success of early humans.
question
Given the poverty rates reported in the 2009 U.S. Census Bureau report, it is important to recognize that most of the nation's poor are: a.white and live in rural and suburban areas. b.black and live in urban areas. c.Hispanic and are evenly distributed between rural and urban areas. d.Asian and live in urban areas. e.Native American.
answer
a.white and live in rural and suburban areas.
question
Hunting and gathering peoples developed a successful adaptation that promoted generosity, altruism, and sharing while resisting upstarts, aggression, and egoism. This is referred to as: a.compatibility. d.hierarchy. b.consensus. e.parallelism. c.egalitarianism
answer
c.egalitarianism
question
The author points out that people do not come prepackaged to fight, kill, and die. They must be enculturated to fear, hate, and kill in a process that defines particular people as the enemy and a dangerous mortal threat. He refers to this as: a.construction of soldiers. d.life of dangerous things. b.fomenting warfare. e.militarization of life. c.inclination to danger.
answer
a.construction of soldiers.
question
State domination is never complete, and people still contest established power relationships and structures through political, economic, and military means, and the ability to contest these is known as: a.leverage. d.authority. b.influence. e.agency. c.clout.
answer
e.agency.
question
In the United States, good health is tied to the cultural value of: a.community bonds. d.personal responsibility. b.religiosity. e.honesty. c.aggressiveness.
answer
d.personal responsibility.
question
A key to the biomedical model is: a.using scientific means to diagnose a disease. b.asking patients to name their condition. c.seeking underlying cultural bases for illness. d.recognizing that all bacteria are potentially harmful to the human body. e.seeking natural cures for illness.
answer
a.using scientific means to diagnose a disease.
question
Anthropologists who studied the rituals associated with surgery discovered that: a.many surgeons shave their hands to ensure a sterile environment. b.physicians and nurses typically pray together before entering the operating room. c.scrubbing the hands often reduces anxiety among medical personnel. d.female surgeons are more likely than men to eat the same meal before each operation. e.there is little in the process that appears ritualistic.
answer
c.scrubbing the hands often reduces anxiety among medical personnel.
question
In the United States, statistical data for racial disparities in health indicate that: a.there is little difference between maternal mortality of black and white mothers. b.black babies are more than twice as likely to die in infancy as white babies. c.high-quality health care in New York City means lower rates of maternal mortality than national averages. d.there are higher rates of infant mortality among women of any race who live in the Deep South. e.white women die more frequently from complications of pregnancy than women of color.
answer
b.black babies are more than twice as likely to die in infancy as white babies.
question
The case of Lia Lee is significant for medical anthropologists because: a.her parents were able to make a seamless transition from Eastern to Western medical systems. b.Western medicine provided a cure for an illness that herbs and soothing baths did not. c.of the tensions of medical pluralism, as the family's beliefs did not mesh with the physicians'. d.it was a case of successful ethnomedicine, as physicians accepted herbalists' advice. e.the child died when she was given an overdose of antibiotics in the hospital.
answer
c.of the tensions of medical pluralism, as the family's beliefs did not mesh with the physicians'.
question
Which of the following statements about language is true? a.Language can be spoken, written, or conveyed through body movements or gestures. b.Language includes speech and writing only. c.Humans are genetically predisposed to learn any language, not just one specific language that is determined by their genetic code. d.Communication is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. e.All languages share a common syntax, and vary only in the morphemes used to form words.
answer
a.Language can be spoken, written, or conveyed through body movements or gestures.c.Humans are genetically predisposed to learn any language, not just one specific language that is determined by their genetic code. d.Communication is widespread throughout the animal kingdom.
question
The core foci of critical medical anthropology include: a.identifying how economic and political systems perpetuate unequal access to health care. b.understanding ways that systems of power generate disparities in health care. c.exploring how race, class, and gender affect access to and provision of health care. d.focusing on treating individual patients rather than identifying needs of entire groups. e.developing strategies to overcome mechanisms that maintain health inequities.
answer
a.identifying how economic and political systems perpetuate unequal access to health care. b.understanding ways that systems of power generate disparities in health care. c.exploring how race, class, and gender affect access to and provision of health care. e.developing strategies to overcome mechanisms that maintain health inequities.
question
a.Ethnomedicine d.Medical pluralism b.Ethnopharmacology e.Epidemiology c.Disease f.Illness ____19.the individual patient's experience of sickness ____20.a discrete, natural entity that can be clinically identified and treated by a health professional ____21.the intersection of multiple cultural approaches to healing ____22.the documentation and description of the local use of natural substances in healing remedies and practices ____23.the comparative study of local systems of health and healing
answer
19- F 20- C 21- D 22- B 23- A
question
a.paralanguage c.kinesics b.displacement d.phoneme ____24.the linguistic ability to refer to events or objects that are not present, to events that will happen in the future or have happened the past ____25.the study of how gestures, postures, and facial expressions convey messages without words. ____26.how anthropologists refer to sounds that make a critical difference in meaning within a language
answer
24- B 25- D 26- A
question
a.speech community d.prestige language b.dialect e.cultural capital c.code switching ____27.a nonstandard variation of a language ____28.alternating back and forth between two or more linguistic variants (languages or dialects) depending on the social and cultural context ____29.a standard variation of a language, the use of which helps a speaker get access to better educaton and better jobs. ____30.a concept which includes linguistic assets or skills that can be converted into higher wages and other social benefits
answer
27- B 28- C 29- D 30- E
question
a.income e.intersectionality b.wealth f.ascribe d status c.class g.achieved status d.caste ____31.a type of status that is inherited or assigned at birth and is passed down from generation to generation with rigidly enforced boundaries among groups ____32.a system of power based on wealth, income, and achieved status that creates an unequal distribution of a society's resources ____33.wages earned from work or profits from a business, plus dividends and interest on investments along with rents and royalties ____34.a type of status that is established -- and can change -- during a person's lifetime ____35.The total value of what someone owns, including cash, automobiles, stocks, bonds, and real estate -- minus any debt, such as a mortgage, student educational loans, or credit card debt ____36.a closed system of social stratification in which members are organized onto hierarchically ranked groups with unequal access to rewards and priviledges based on ascribed status
answer
31- F 32- D 33- A 34- G 35- B 36- C
question
a.agency d.framing b.vindication e.power c.hegemony ____37.the ability or potential to bring about change through action or influence ____38.the ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a population without the use or threat of force ____39.a communication technique that social movements use to build support and justify collective action through the creation of common understandings of their cause ____40.the potential power of an individual to challenge structures of power in an attempt to change those structures of power
answer
37- E 38- D 39- C 40- A
question
a.band c.chiefdom b.tribe d.state ____41.an independent territory under the control of a centralized government that makes laws and uses political, economic, and military power to maintain order and defend its territory ____42.Multiband groups of indigenous people who live outside the control of a centralized state, and see themselves as one people with their own sets of leaders and loyalties ____43.a small, kinship based group of foragers who move over a particular territory ____44.an autonompus polical unit composed of a number of villages or communities under the permanent control of a paramount chief ____45.a culturally distinct multiband populationthat imagines itself as one people descended from a common ancestor
answer
41- D 42- B 43- A 44- C 45- B
1 of

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers
question
Anthropologists define ________ as the expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to individuals. a.intersex d.gender b.sex e.dimorphism c.reproduction
answer
d.gender
question
Studies of physical differences indicate that: a.chromosomes are the primary determinants of human behavior. b.all individuals fall into the two assumed categories of male and female c.women's bodies are not strong enough for heavy labor. d.biology drives the division of labor. e.human male and female bodies are more similar than different.
answer
e.human male and female bodies are more similar than different.
question
The learned behaviors perceived as masculine or feminine are called: a.sexual dimorphism. d.universal beliefs. b.alternate sexualities. e.gender stratification. c.cultural constructions.
answer
c.cultural constructions.
question
A primary component of the "fag discourse" in US high schools is: a.bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as sufficiently masculine, even if the boys are heterosexual. b.bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as not sufficiently masculine, even if the boys are heterosexual. c.bullying of girls whose behavior is seen as masculine, even if the girls are heterosexual. d.bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as sufficiently masculine, especially if the boys are homosexual. e.bullying of girls whose behavior is seen as masculine, especially if the girls are homosexual.
answer
b.bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as not sufficiently masculine, even if the boys are heterosexual.
question
The discussion of machismo in Latin America in the text indicates that: a.all cultures construct masculinity in the same way. b.conceptions of machismo and masculinity are variable and shifting. c.each culture constructs masculinity differently, but are always internally consistent in that construction. d.machismo really has nothing to do with masculinity at all. e.masculinity is constructed variably across and within cultures, but is always conceived and performed consistently by individuals.
answer
b.conceptions of machismo and masculinity are variable and shifting.
question
The United States requires that individuals identify legally as: a.either male or female. d.male, female, or middle sex. b.male, female, or intersexual. e.heterosexual, homosexual, or intersexual. c.male, female, or transgender.
answer
a.either male or female.
question
Individuals whose culture identifies them as "neither man nor women" in India are called: a.machos. d.transgendered. b.hijras. e.hermaphrodite. c.Two-Spirits.
answer
b.hijras.
question
Early feminist anthropological studies focused on identifying: a.the myth of matriarchy in prehistoric societies. b.the underlying roots of universal male dominance. c.gender equality in industrialized societies. d.sources of female power in nonindustrialized cultures. e.gender stratification in U.S. schools.
answer
b.the underlying roots of universal male dominance.
question
Emily Martin's analysis of the "fairy tale" of the egg and the sperm as presented in U.S. textbooks does NOT indicate that: a.the scientific language of biology promotes gendered stereotypes of male and female behavior. b."female" eggs aggressively pursue more "passive" male sperm until conception occurs. c.cultural constructions are reinforced by imagery that highlights biological differences. d.stereotypes of male and female behavior are portrayed as naturally occurring patterns. e.the anthropomorphizing of egg and sperm coincides with issues in the antiabortion discourse.
answer
b."female" eggs aggressively pursue more "passive" male sperm until conception occurs.
question
Gender stereotypes are defined as: a.culturally based preconceived notions about the attributes of differences between, and proper roles for, men and women. b.the way gender identity is expressed through action. c.the ways humans learn to behave and recognize behaviors as masculine or feminine within cultural context. d.the expectation of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to people of different sexes. e.a set of cultural ideas about the essential character of different genders that functions to promote and justify gender stratification.
answer
a.culturally based preconceived notions about the attributes of differences between, and proper roles for, men and women.
question
More than 80 percent of victims of domestic violence in the United States: a.are female. d.are abused by a stranger. b.are male. e.deserved it. c.are transgender.
answer
a.are female.
question
Gender-based violence commonly occurs: a.in the home. d.both A and C b.during wartime. e.all of the above c.on college campuses.
answer
e.all of the above
question
Studies on women's participation in the industrialized labor force indicate that: a.social inequality decreased once women gained economic power. b.women were unable to resist male dominance once engaged in the global economy. c.household labor became more equitable once women began earning a salary. d.exploitation of women decreased as women became the majority of managers. e.patriarchal relations in the home were repeated in the workplace.
answer
e.patriarchal relations in the home were repeated in the workplace.
question
Sexuality involves: a.both personal choices and cultural ideas. b.personal choices only. c.cultural ideas only. d.biology and personal choices, but not cultural ideas. e.biology and cultural ideas, but not personal choices.
answer
a.both personal choices and cultural ideas.
question
Margaret Mead's work in the islands of the western Pacific contributed which of the following to a greater understanding of human sexuality? a.This work provided evidence that men are naturally sexually promiscuous. b.This work challenged the assumptions that sexual practices should be private rather than public. c.This work provided evidence that women are naturally sexually promiscuous. d.This work explored the commonalities between human sexual practices and the sexual practices of other primates. e.This work challenged the assumptions that U.S. attitudes about sexuality were universal traits fixed in human nature.
answer
b.This work challenged the assumptions that sexual practices should be private rather than public.
question
According to contemporary cultural anthropologists, humans in most cultures engage in sexual activity: a.both for procreation and fun. d.as a form of economic exchange. b.for procreation only. e.very seldom. c.for fun only.
answer
a.both for procreation and fun.
question
Which of the following is described as a lack of attraction to others? a.homosexuality d.heterosexuality b.bisexuality e.sexual violence c.asexuality
answer
c.asexuality
question
Scientists have found that human sexuality: a.fits into several simplistic categories. b.is marked by diversity, flexibility, and fluidity. c.fits into only two categories: normal and deviant. d.always remains the same over an individual's lifetime. e.is impossible to quantify.
answer
b.is marked by diversity, flexibility, and fluidity.
question
People whose gender identity differs from the sex they were assigned at birth may identify as: a.hypersexual. d.mixed gender. b.bisexual. e.transgender. c.homosexual.
answer
e.transgender.
question
________ are key cultural institutions through which we learn what it means to be heterosexual. a.Funerals d.Bar mitzvahs b.Weddings e.Graduation ceremonies c.Baptisms
answer
b.Weddings
question
Students at Antioch College developed a sexual offense policy centered on which of the following guidelines? a."safety first" d."yes means yes" b."no means no" e."sex is only for procreation" c."just say no"
answer
d."yes means yes"
question
Which of the following is NOT an example of the attempt to regulate aspects of sexuality by cultural institutions such as the government? a.age of consent d.reproductive rights b.divorce e.marriage c.age of licensed driver
answer
c.age of licensed driver
question
Which of the following is NOT a motivation that cultural anthropologist Denise Brennan lists for young, rural, poor Dominican women to migrate to towns like Sosua? a.to make money d.to provide for their families b.to have a vacation e.to obtain a European visa c.to marry a tourist
answer
b.to have a vacation
question
Until the 1970s, anthropology taught the "Man the Hunter" model. This model ties language acquisition, tool development, bipedalism, and larger brain size in modern humans: a.mainly to men's activities hunting large and dangerous animals to supply meat to their group. b.mainly to women's activities gathering roots, nuts, and fruit, but considers the occasional meat provided by men to be a scarce but necessary component of that evolution.. c.mainly to women's activities gathering roots, nuts, and fruit. d.mainly to men's activities hunting small animals to supply meat to their group. e."Man" in general, in other words both sexes, hunting large and dangerous animals to supply meat to their group.
answer
d.mainly to men's activities hunting small animals to supply meat to their group.
question
Podelefsky describes how his neighborhood changed because of air-conditioning. These changes include: a.everyone got cooler. b.people stayed inside their apartments more. c.people did not spend the cool evening outside with their neighbors. d.people had more parties in the cooled air of their apartments. e.no one went outside, so crime decreased.
answer
a.everyone got cooler. b.people stayed inside their apartments more. c.people did not spend the cool evening outside with their neighbors.
question
Which of the following statements about gender can be found in the article "Thinking with Gender"? a.Margaret Mead's work is considered to be a model of good ethnography. b.Over the last 40 years, we have learned not only to think anthropologically about gender but also to use gender to think about anthropology. c.Some of our most deep-seated, most unquestioned assumptions have to do with what we believe men and women to be like, how we expect ourselves and others to act, think, and feel as men or women. d.We have reviewed our models and analytical tools; we found no evidence of stereotypes and taken-for-granted notions that influence our conclusions. e.What we take to be the norm in the ways men and women behave is in fact just one among many possibilities.
answer
b.Over the last 40 years, we have learned not only to think anthropologically about gender but also to use gender to think about anthropology. c.Some of our most deep-seated, most unquestioned assumptions have to do with what we believe men and women to be like, how we expect ourselves and others to act, think, and feel as men or women. d.We have reviewed our models and analytical tools; we found no evidence of stereotypes and taken-for-granted notions that influence our conclusions.
question
Thinking with gender has required us to rethink our original conclusions in which of the following cases? a.The decision that "Lucy," a famous Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, is female. b.How some cultures "prove" a bride's virginity. c.Narratives describing interactions between human egg and sperm when a child is conceived. d.The capitalist conception of labor as a commodity. e.Spaying and neutering our pets.
answer
a.The decision that "Lucy," a famous Australopithecus afarensis skeleton, is female. b.How some cultures "prove" a bride's virginity. c.Narratives describing interactions between human egg and sperm when a child is conceived. d.The capitalist conception of labor as a commodity.
question
a.basic research d.academic skills b.applied research e.problem c.development f.issue ____28.a condition that everyone agrees is unacceptable ____29.the use of knowledge learned from both basic and applied research to create solutions to practical problems ____30.something that well-informed people will disagree about ____31.examines problems that have a directly practical outcome, to learn fairly specific things ____32.studies conducted to discover kowledge for its own sake, without regard for its practical importance or impact
answer
28- A 29- C 30- F 31- B 32- E
question
Whereas many animals, such as dolphins and great apes, communicate with each other through gestures and sounds, only human language utilizes complex systems of: a.dance. d.chemical information. b.symbols. e.sign language. c.warnings and alerts.
answer
b.symbols.
question
Linguistic anthropologists have discovered that more than 90 percent of ________ information is communicated through body movements and paralanguage. a.digital d.gendered b.creative e.spatial c.emotional
answer
c.emotional
question
Anthropologist Laura Bohannan discovered in her attempt to translate a classic text from English literature that: a.an underlying universal grammar that all humans share facilitated her work. b.the landscape of the Nigerian village shaped the folklore of the inhabitants. c.accurate translation of Shakespeare is best accomplished through sign language. d.the meaning of the story became lost as the original meanings of the English words could not be easily translated. e.it is straightforward to translate stories across different languages.
answer
d.the meaning of the story became lost as the original meanings of the English words could not be easily translated.
question
According to the textbook, which of the following statements about the "N-word" is false? a.It has been used as a derogatory word throughout much of U.S. history. b.In 1962, the U.S. government started using the word "Negro." c.It has been revived among African American youth involved in hip-hop music. d.Most older African Americans advocate the use of the "N-word." e.Many young people carefully say "n*g*ah," taking an edge off the meaning of the word.
answer
d.Most older African Americans advocate the use of the "N-word."
question
The concept of cultural ________ includes linguistic assets or skills that can be converted into better jobs with higher wages and benefit packages. a.materialism d.resonance b.hegemony e.relativism c.capital
answer
c.capital
question
When individuals speak in a manner that does not conform to what is known as "Standard English," according to the author, they are: a.speaking a dialect of English that is linguistically flawed. b.usually seen as speaking a prestige language. c.unaffected by their nonstandard speech. d.often considered to be uneducated or low class. e.thought to be creative and poetic.
answer
d.often considered to be uneducated or low class.
question
Archaeological evidence suggests that hierarchy, violence, and aggression: a.have been key to the evolutionary success of humankind. b.emerged relatively recently in human history, along with intensive agriculture. c.were central to the evolutionary success of early humans. d.have always been most prominent in nonindustrialized hunter-gatherer societies. e.are the natural state of human culture
answer
c.were central to the evolutionary success of early humans.
question
Given the poverty rates reported in the 2009 U.S. Census Bureau report, it is important to recognize that most of the nation's poor are: a.white and live in rural and suburban areas. b.black and live in urban areas. c.Hispanic and are evenly distributed between rural and urban areas. d.Asian and live in urban areas. e.Native American.
answer
a.white and live in rural and suburban areas.
question
Hunting and gathering peoples developed a successful adaptation that promoted generosity, altruism, and sharing while resisting upstarts, aggression, and egoism. This is referred to as: a.compatibility. d.hierarchy. b.consensus. e.parallelism. c.egalitarianism
answer
c.egalitarianism
question
The author points out that people do not come prepackaged to fight, kill, and die. They must be enculturated to fear, hate, and kill in a process that defines particular people as the enemy and a dangerous mortal threat. He refers to this as: a.construction of soldiers. d.life of dangerous things. b.fomenting warfare. e.militarization of life. c.inclination to danger.
answer
a.construction of soldiers.
question
State domination is never complete, and people still contest established power relationships and structures through political, economic, and military means, and the ability to contest these is known as: a.leverage. d.authority. b.influence. e.agency. c.clout.
answer
e.agency.
question
In the United States, good health is tied to the cultural value of: a.community bonds. d.personal responsibility. b.religiosity. e.honesty. c.aggressiveness.
answer
d.personal responsibility.
question
A key to the biomedical model is: a.using scientific means to diagnose a disease. b.asking patients to name their condition. c.seeking underlying cultural bases for illness. d.recognizing that all bacteria are potentially harmful to the human body. e.seeking natural cures for illness.
answer
a.using scientific means to diagnose a disease.
question
Anthropologists who studied the rituals associated with surgery discovered that: a.many surgeons shave their hands to ensure a sterile environment. b.physicians and nurses typically pray together before entering the operating room. c.scrubbing the hands often reduces anxiety among medical personnel. d.female surgeons are more likely than men to eat the same meal before each operation. e.there is little in the process that appears ritualistic.
answer
c.scrubbing the hands often reduces anxiety among medical personnel.
question
In the United States, statistical data for racial disparities in health indicate that: a.there is little difference between maternal mortality of black and white mothers. b.black babies are more than twice as likely to die in infancy as white babies. c.high-quality health care in New York City means lower rates of maternal mortality than national averages. d.there are higher rates of infant mortality among women of any race who live in the Deep South. e.white women die more frequently from complications of pregnancy than women of color.
answer
b.black babies are more than twice as likely to die in infancy as white babies.
question
The case of Lia Lee is significant for medical anthropologists because: a.her parents were able to make a seamless transition from Eastern to Western medical systems. b.Western medicine provided a cure for an illness that herbs and soothing baths did not. c.of the tensions of medical pluralism, as the family's beliefs did not mesh with the physicians'. d.it was a case of successful ethnomedicine, as physicians accepted herbalists' advice. e.the child died when she was given an overdose of antibiotics in the hospital.
answer
c.of the tensions of medical pluralism, as the family's beliefs did not mesh with the physicians'.
question
Which of the following statements about language is true? a.Language can be spoken, written, or conveyed through body movements or gestures. b.Language includes speech and writing only. c.Humans are genetically predisposed to learn any language, not just one specific language that is determined by their genetic code. d.Communication is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. e.All languages share a common syntax, and vary only in the morphemes used to form words.
answer
a.Language can be spoken, written, or conveyed through body movements or gestures.c.Humans are genetically predisposed to learn any language, not just one specific language that is determined by their genetic code. d.Communication is widespread throughout the animal kingdom.
question
The core foci of critical medical anthropology include: a.identifying how economic and political systems perpetuate unequal access to health care. b.understanding ways that systems of power generate disparities in health care. c.exploring how race, class, and gender affect access to and provision of health care. d.focusing on treating individual patients rather than identifying needs of entire groups. e.developing strategies to overcome mechanisms that maintain health inequities.
answer
a.identifying how economic and political systems perpetuate unequal access to health care. b.understanding ways that systems of power generate disparities in health care. c.exploring how race, class, and gender affect access to and provision of health care. e.developing strategies to overcome mechanisms that maintain health inequities.
question
a.Ethnomedicine d.Medical pluralism b.Ethnopharmacology e.Epidemiology c.Disease f.Illness ____19.the individual patient's experience of sickness ____20.a discrete, natural entity that can be clinically identified and treated by a health professional ____21.the intersection of multiple cultural approaches to healing ____22.the documentation and description of the local use of natural substances in healing remedies and practices ____23.the comparative study of local systems of health and healing
answer
19- F 20- C 21- D 22- B 23- A
question
a.paralanguage c.kinesics b.displacement d.phoneme ____24.the linguistic ability to refer to events or objects that are not present, to events that will happen in the future or have happened the past ____25.the study of how gestures, postures, and facial expressions convey messages without words. ____26.how anthropologists refer to sounds that make a critical difference in meaning within a language
answer
24- B 25- D 26- A
question
a.speech community d.prestige language b.dialect e.cultural capital c.code switching ____27.a nonstandard variation of a language ____28.alternating back and forth between two or more linguistic variants (languages or dialects) depending on the social and cultural context ____29.a standard variation of a language, the use of which helps a speaker get access to better educaton and better jobs. ____30.a concept which includes linguistic assets or skills that can be converted into higher wages and other social benefits
answer
27- B 28- C 29- D 30- E
question
a.income e.intersectionality b.wealth f.ascribe d status c.class g.achieved status d.caste ____31.a type of status that is inherited or assigned at birth and is passed down from generation to generation with rigidly enforced boundaries among groups ____32.a system of power based on wealth, income, and achieved status that creates an unequal distribution of a society's resources ____33.wages earned from work or profits from a business, plus dividends and interest on investments along with rents and royalties ____34.a type of status that is established -- and can change -- during a person's lifetime ____35.The total value of what someone owns, including cash, automobiles, stocks, bonds, and real estate -- minus any debt, such as a mortgage, student educational loans, or credit card debt ____36.a closed system of social stratification in which members are organized onto hierarchically ranked groups with unequal access to rewards and priviledges based on ascribed status
answer
31- F 32- D 33- A 34- G 35- B 36- C
question
a.agency d.framing b.vindication e.power c.hegemony ____37.the ability or potential to bring about change through action or influence ____38.the ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a population without the use or threat of force ____39.a communication technique that social movements use to build support and justify collective action through the creation of common understandings of their cause ____40.the potential power of an individual to challenge structures of power in an attempt to change those structures of power
answer
37- E 38- D 39- C 40- A
question
a.band c.chiefdom b.tribe d.state ____41.an independent territory under the control of a centralized government that makes laws and uses political, economic, and military power to maintain order and defend its territory ____42.Multiband groups of indigenous people who live outside the control of a centralized state, and see themselves as one people with their own sets of leaders and loyalties ____43.a small, kinship based group of foragers who move over a particular territory ____44.an autonompus polical unit composed of a number of villages or communities under the permanent control of a paramount chief ____45.a culturally distinct multiband populationthat imagines itself as one people descended from a common ancestor
answer
41- D 42- B 43- A 44- C 45- B