MCAT: Sociology – Flashcards

question
Informal Control
answer
refers to the socialization process
question
Formal control
answer
accomplished through external sanctions via governments
question
Social Sanctions
answer
Responses people employ to behavior to let the individual know their behavior is unacceptable
question
Artificial Control
answer
term that refers to self control
question
Achieved status
answer
status that you have earned through occupation
question
Ascribed status
answer
refers to a status you are born into
question
Labeling theory
answer
theory that how we are labeled, regarded, or classified impacts our behavior.
question
social constructionism
answer
-refers to the theory that knowledge is socially constructed through shared agreement. -Under this theory, race and gender are not real, but are socially constructed, and thus real in their consequences.
question
Exchange-rational choice
answer
refers to the theory that we are rational actors, who perform a cost-benefit analysis of our decisions
question
Conflict theory
answer
sees conflict for resources at the heart of everything
question
hidden curriculum
answer
refers to the subtext underlying educational curriculum
question
social reproduction
answer
refers to structures that transmit the existing values and social inequality from one generation to another
question
residential segregation
answer
refers to the physical separation into different neighborhoods
question
social exclusion
answer
refers to systematic process of blocking access to rights and opportunities of certain people, effectively isolating them.
question
Isolation
answer
refers to the state of being separated from other people.
question
Reciprocity
answer
term social psychologists use to describe how most people seek an equal exchange within a relationship in order to maintain attraction.
question
peer pressure
answer
indirect pressure to change your behavior or beliefs to match your peer group.
question
Symbolic culture
answer
refers to our way of thinking, doing, and believing
question
Material culture
answer
refers to physical objects we use to define our culturew
question
Multiculturism
answer
view that other cultures should be respected or even encouraged
question
Popular culture
answer
refers to cultural products, like music, and art used by the non-elite.
question
relative poverty
answer
refers to the perception of poverty due to not having resources to match those of your peers and neighbors
question
Absolute poverty
answer
refers to a lack of basic necessities
question
Urban Poverty
answer
refers to poverty in an urban area
question
Rural poverty
answer
refers to poverty in rural settings
question
Front stage
answer
refers to behaviors which are visible to the 'audience' or what you show to the public
question
back stage
answer
refers to activities we do in private to prepare for our performance of our roles.
question
Impression management
answer
your attempt to influence other peoples perception of you as an individual thru controlling info communicated during social interactions.
question
Social capital
answer
refers to the collective value of the people you know.
question
class consciousness
answer
refers to a state of mind that prevents you from perceiving the injusticse of your own situation.
question
False consciousness
answer
refers to a state of mind that prevents you from perceiving the injustice of your own situation
question
Cultural capital
answer
refers to non-material assets that help promote your social mobility
question
Kinship is:
answer
Socially recognized system of associations among people who are biologoically related, adopted, married, or bound by other rituals. -The relationships include both rights and responsibilities.
question
Binuclear family
answer
refers to families where members live in separate households
question
Nuclear family
answer
refers to the individual, their spouse, and children.
question
Post modern family
answer
refers to mothers who are single by choice, LGBT families, and other departures from models.
question
Blended family
answer
refers to step-families
question
Institutional discrimination
answer
refers to discrimination against an individual by an institution
question
Individual discrimination
answer
when one person discriminated against another
question
Scapegoat
answer
practice of singling out a group to take the blame for a social ill
question
Bureaucracy
answer
hierarchical organization with written rules, and organizational rules determining promotion rather than individuals
question
Cultural transmission
answer
refers to the way we learn and pass info within a culture
question
Cultural diffusion
answer
refers to the spreading out of a culture from one central point
question
Religiosity
answer
refers to the aspects of religious activity of a group
question
`Mass media
answer
refers to large scale organizations which use technology to communicate ideas to the masses.
question
social exchange theory
answer
argues that all behavior is the result of a kind of cost-benefit analysis
question
Assimilation
answer
refers to process by which an individuals behavior, language, and culture begin to resemble another culture's/
question
Culture shock
answer
refers to the disorientation an individual may feel when visiting a strange place
question
Cultural lag
answer
refers to the fact that sometimes culture take time to catch up with technological innovations and sometimes social problems result
question
Microsociology
answer
looks at small scale social, face-to-face interaction
question
Macrosociology
answer
is concerned with the analysis of social systems and large scale populations.
question
Meritocracy
answer
system of promoting individuals based upon their merit and ability, not their social connections of socioeconomic backround.
question
Mediocrity
answer
refers to the state of being mediocre
question
Aristocracy
answer
refers to a govt run by nobility
question
oligarchy
answer
refers to a situation where a small number of elites control the country
question
Social exclusion
answer
Systematic process of blocking access to rights and opportunities of certain people, effectively isolating them/
question
Social reproduction
answer
structures that transmit the existing values and social inequality from one generation to another.
question
Residential segregation
answer
the physical separation of groups into different neighborhoods
question
Ethnocentrism
answer
tendency to believe your own culture to be superior to others and to filter info through that lens
question
Cultural relativism
answer
desire to understand another culture by its own terms rather than your own cultures
question
Bias
answer
preference to one thing over another
question
Innovator
answer
social type IDied by Merton as the person who would embrace the social goals of success, but reach them through alternate pathways.
question
Rebel
answer
rejects society's definition of success
question
retreatist
answer
rejects both the means and the goals
question
Ritualist
answer
rejects the goals, but embraces the pathways and obeys the rules
question
What is the difference between sex and gender?
answer
Sex is biological; gender is socially constructed and learned.
question
Social Support
answer
perception that you are cared for and part of a supportive social network.
question
Emotion work
answer
the work women do for their loved ones in terms of managing emotional health.
question
Network theory
answer
refers to theories regarding social networks
question
Social Structures
answer
social institutions such as school, govts, ect
question
Generalized other
answer
your awareness of the expectations of society as a whole
question
Meads theory about me and I
answer
states that 'me' is who we learn to be through social interaction. And 'I' is our response to the attitude of our community.
question
Push factors
answer
negative traits that cause people to immigrate to a new place
question
Pull factors
answer
refer to positive traits of a place that draw immigrants to it
question
Emigration rate
answer
the # of people per thousand who are leaving
question
Gentrification
answer
refers to updating a neighborhood and in the process converting it to a middle class enclave.
question
racial formation
answer
process by which racial categories are formed and destroyed
question
Racialization
answer
practice of ascribing racial or ethnic idenity to a group, social practice, or relationship that doesnt exist
question
Ethnicities
answer
refers to ethnic groups
question
Intersections of race with ethnicity
answer
refers to intersectionality, which looks at the systems of oppression and domination in overlapping marginalized identities
question
dyad
answer
social group composed of two people, so if one leaves, there is no more group
question
Triad
answer
social group composed of three people. A 2 versus one dynamic often occurs
question
Subcultures
answer
cultures that exist within larger cultures, despite their interests being at odds with the dominant culture
question
Counterculture
answer
culture that exists alongside dominant cultures, but whose beliefs oppose the mainstream
question
reference group
answer
group to which an individual is compared to
question
Ego
answer
refers to an aspect of personality
question
outgroup
answer
group to which you do not feel you belong
question
Social networking group
answer
refers to a group of people connected by a social network
question
Functionalist theory
answer
sees education as a means to socialize citizens into their proper roles in society
question
conflict theory
answer
sees education as a tool of the bourgeoise
question
feminist theory
answer
is concerned with the ways education is a tool of gender socialization
question
symbolic interactionism
answer
concerned with the shared meaning of the experience
question
Environmental justice
answer
social movement centered upon the inequality of environmental burdens in our society
question
Social stratification
answer
the ranking of people in a categorical hierarchy
question
cultural captital
answer
non material assets that help promote your social mobility
question
identification
answer
is conforming to someone who you respect and like. It is a deeper form of conformity, and also self motivated
question
McDonaldization
answer
is the standardization of businesses globally
question
Role taking
answer
assuming the perspective of another person to enable yourself to respond as they would
question
Play stage
answer
refers to children playing roles in their imaginative play, such as doctor, teacher, or mommy.
question
Urban decline
answer
the process whereby sections of a previously functioning city fall into disrepair. Ex Detroit
question
Suburbanization
answer
Refers to the growth of areas on the fringe of big cities
question
Urban growth
answer
refers to the increase in size of an urban area
question
Class consciousness
answer
an awareness of your class standing
question
Social sanctions
answer
responses people employ to behavior to let the individual know their behavior is unacceptable
question
Prestige
answer
how favorably something is regarded
question
Power
answer
our ability to get someone else to do something, in spite of obstacles or opposition
question
Class
answer
levels of wealth, influence, and status
question
Status
answer
the position one occupies in society
question
Connection between social expectations and altruism?
answer
Members of society internalize the idea that it is a good thing to help others
question
Situational couple violence
answer
Most common form of intimate partner violence. It is violence that erupts when a disagreement turns angry
question
Intimate terrorism
answer
Situation where the batterer takes control of his partner.
question
Violence resistance
answer
Situation where a intimate partner victim fights backk
question
Privilege
answer
rights or benefits granted to you as a result of your social position
question
gender segregation
answer
the separation of the sexes in schools or occupation, which sometimes occurs 'naturally' and other times purposeful. E.g. nurses and teaches being mostly female and construction workers being mostly male
question
Altruistic behavior
answer
implies there will be no sort of benefit on the part of the person engaging in the sacrificing behavior.
question
The cinderella effect
answer
Describes the direct relationship between step-relationships and abuse
question
Consanguines
answer
are biological or blood relatives
question
Affinal relationships
answer
relationships established through marriage
question
Fictive relationse
answer
refer to those individuals we take into our family and who take on obligations in the absence of blood or marriage ties.
question
Role strain
answer
the difficulty an individual can experience in attempting to meet the expectations of their social role
question
Role conflict
answer
the conflict which can occur when we occupy multiple statuses, and the expectations conflict with one another
question
Role exit
answer
the process of becoming an 'ex'
question
A status set
answer
is the collection of social statues an individual occupies
question
Anticipatory socialization
answer
process where we rehearse for future events and situations
question
The life course
answer
a culturally defined sequence of age categories through which you are expected to pass.
question
Sexual orientation
answer
refers to sexual desires, fantasy, and behavior
question
Iron law of oligarchy
answer
states that in any democracy a small group of elites will end up ruling
question
Self fulfilling prophecy
answer
prediction that indirectly or directly causes itself to come true
question
Authority
answer
power to enforce rules.
question
Obedience can be considered
answer
moral, immoral, or amoral
question
Vertical mobility
answer
movement up or down in socioeconomic status
question
Horizontal mobility
answer
moving from one position to another, but the move doesnt result in change of socioeco status
question
Intergenerational Poverty
answer
the experience of poverty being transmitted from one generation to another
question
Homogamy
answer
practice of encouraging individuals to select a mate with similar social background characteristics, and may be based on socioeco status, gender, ethnicity, or religion
question
Age cohorts
answer
people who share the common characteristic of age
question
spatial inequality
answer
the pattern and structure of inequality in resources and services available to residents of an area
question
Resocialization
answer
process through which the individuals personality is radically changed by force. Example: military or prison
question
Master Status
answer
is the core status of your identity. Its often tied to your occupation.
question
Primary Socialization
answer
occurs when we are developing our personality, beliefs, and values.
question
Secondary socialization
answer
occurs as we learn what is acceptable and not, typically during adolescence and in small groups.
question
Tertiary socialization
answer
occurs when we are integrated into society and ready for new ideas and values
question
Stereotype threat
answer
the phenomenon of poor performance by members of a stigmatized group because of their worry that they will confirm others poor perception of them.
question
Rites of passage
answer
rituals and ceremonies meant to mark and validate significant changes in our lives
question
Secondary groups
answer
groups that are less close and more temporary. They tend to be goal oriented.
question
Social construction of gender
answer
recognizes that society creates gender roles, which are prescribed to us as ideal behavior.
question
The culture industry includes
answer
Celebrities, television, film, magazines and books.
question
Intersectionality
answer
intersection of oppressed identities
question
Polyamory
answer
having multiple lovers, where everyone consents and the relatioships are meant to endure.
question
Polygyny
answer
Having multiple wives to one husband
question
Polyandry
answer
having multiple wives to one husband
question
pantagamy
answer
having everyone married to everyone
question
The mere exposure effect
answer
proposes that the more we are exposed to someone, the more likely we will become familiar with them and come to like them.
question
The looking glass self
answer
Cooley's theory that our sense of self grows out of our social interactions and perceptions of others view of us
question
Social construction of race
answer
the discussion that race is not real. It is contingent upon our collective agreement that a certain set of physical characteristics denote a certain race.
question
Endogamy
answer
the social role that one must marry within ones group; exogamy refers to the social rules that one must marry outside one's group
question
Teacher expectancy
answer
essentially says that whatever a teacher expects is what she will likely get from her students.
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question
Informal Control
answer
refers to the socialization process
question
Formal control
answer
accomplished through external sanctions via governments
question
Social Sanctions
answer
Responses people employ to behavior to let the individual know their behavior is unacceptable
question
Artificial Control
answer
term that refers to self control
question
Achieved status
answer
status that you have earned through occupation
question
Ascribed status
answer
refers to a status you are born into
question
Labeling theory
answer
theory that how we are labeled, regarded, or classified impacts our behavior.
question
social constructionism
answer
-refers to the theory that knowledge is socially constructed through shared agreement. -Under this theory, race and gender are not real, but are socially constructed, and thus real in their consequences.
question
Exchange-rational choice
answer
refers to the theory that we are rational actors, who perform a cost-benefit analysis of our decisions
question
Conflict theory
answer
sees conflict for resources at the heart of everything
question
hidden curriculum
answer
refers to the subtext underlying educational curriculum
question
social reproduction
answer
refers to structures that transmit the existing values and social inequality from one generation to another
question
residential segregation
answer
refers to the physical separation into different neighborhoods
question
social exclusion
answer
refers to systematic process of blocking access to rights and opportunities of certain people, effectively isolating them.
question
Isolation
answer
refers to the state of being separated from other people.
question
Reciprocity
answer
term social psychologists use to describe how most people seek an equal exchange within a relationship in order to maintain attraction.
question
peer pressure
answer
indirect pressure to change your behavior or beliefs to match your peer group.
question
Symbolic culture
answer
refers to our way of thinking, doing, and believing
question
Material culture
answer
refers to physical objects we use to define our culturew
question
Multiculturism
answer
view that other cultures should be respected or even encouraged
question
Popular culture
answer
refers to cultural products, like music, and art used by the non-elite.
question
relative poverty
answer
refers to the perception of poverty due to not having resources to match those of your peers and neighbors
question
Absolute poverty
answer
refers to a lack of basic necessities
question
Urban Poverty
answer
refers to poverty in an urban area
question
Rural poverty
answer
refers to poverty in rural settings
question
Front stage
answer
refers to behaviors which are visible to the 'audience' or what you show to the public
question
back stage
answer
refers to activities we do in private to prepare for our performance of our roles.
question
Impression management
answer
your attempt to influence other peoples perception of you as an individual thru controlling info communicated during social interactions.
question
Social capital
answer
refers to the collective value of the people you know.
question
class consciousness
answer
refers to a state of mind that prevents you from perceiving the injusticse of your own situation.
question
False consciousness
answer
refers to a state of mind that prevents you from perceiving the injustice of your own situation
question
Cultural capital
answer
refers to non-material assets that help promote your social mobility
question
Kinship is:
answer
Socially recognized system of associations among people who are biologoically related, adopted, married, or bound by other rituals. -The relationships include both rights and responsibilities.
question
Binuclear family
answer
refers to families where members live in separate households
question
Nuclear family
answer
refers to the individual, their spouse, and children.
question
Post modern family
answer
refers to mothers who are single by choice, LGBT families, and other departures from models.
question
Blended family
answer
refers to step-families
question
Institutional discrimination
answer
refers to discrimination against an individual by an institution
question
Individual discrimination
answer
when one person discriminated against another
question
Scapegoat
answer
practice of singling out a group to take the blame for a social ill
question
Bureaucracy
answer
hierarchical organization with written rules, and organizational rules determining promotion rather than individuals
question
Cultural transmission
answer
refers to the way we learn and pass info within a culture
question
Cultural diffusion
answer
refers to the spreading out of a culture from one central point
question
Religiosity
answer
refers to the aspects of religious activity of a group
question
`Mass media
answer
refers to large scale organizations which use technology to communicate ideas to the masses.
question
social exchange theory
answer
argues that all behavior is the result of a kind of cost-benefit analysis
question
Assimilation
answer
refers to process by which an individuals behavior, language, and culture begin to resemble another culture's/
question
Culture shock
answer
refers to the disorientation an individual may feel when visiting a strange place
question
Cultural lag
answer
refers to the fact that sometimes culture take time to catch up with technological innovations and sometimes social problems result
question
Microsociology
answer
looks at small scale social, face-to-face interaction
question
Macrosociology
answer
is concerned with the analysis of social systems and large scale populations.
question
Meritocracy
answer
system of promoting individuals based upon their merit and ability, not their social connections of socioeconomic backround.
question
Mediocrity
answer
refers to the state of being mediocre
question
Aristocracy
answer
refers to a govt run by nobility
question
oligarchy
answer
refers to a situation where a small number of elites control the country
question
Social exclusion
answer
Systematic process of blocking access to rights and opportunities of certain people, effectively isolating them/
question
Social reproduction
answer
structures that transmit the existing values and social inequality from one generation to another.
question
Residential segregation
answer
the physical separation of groups into different neighborhoods
question
Ethnocentrism
answer
tendency to believe your own culture to be superior to others and to filter info through that lens
question
Cultural relativism
answer
desire to understand another culture by its own terms rather than your own cultures
question
Bias
answer
preference to one thing over another
question
Innovator
answer
social type IDied by Merton as the person who would embrace the social goals of success, but reach them through alternate pathways.
question
Rebel
answer
rejects society's definition of success
question
retreatist
answer
rejects both the means and the goals
question
Ritualist
answer
rejects the goals, but embraces the pathways and obeys the rules
question
What is the difference between sex and gender?
answer
Sex is biological; gender is socially constructed and learned.
question
Social Support
answer
perception that you are cared for and part of a supportive social network.
question
Emotion work
answer
the work women do for their loved ones in terms of managing emotional health.
question
Network theory
answer
refers to theories regarding social networks
question
Social Structures
answer
social institutions such as school, govts, ect
question
Generalized other
answer
your awareness of the expectations of society as a whole
question
Meads theory about me and I
answer
states that 'me' is who we learn to be through social interaction. And 'I' is our response to the attitude of our community.
question
Push factors
answer
negative traits that cause people to immigrate to a new place
question
Pull factors
answer
refer to positive traits of a place that draw immigrants to it
question
Emigration rate
answer
the # of people per thousand who are leaving
question
Gentrification
answer
refers to updating a neighborhood and in the process converting it to a middle class enclave.
question
racial formation
answer
process by which racial categories are formed and destroyed
question
Racialization
answer
practice of ascribing racial or ethnic idenity to a group, social practice, or relationship that doesnt exist
question
Ethnicities
answer
refers to ethnic groups
question
Intersections of race with ethnicity
answer
refers to intersectionality, which looks at the systems of oppression and domination in overlapping marginalized identities
question
dyad
answer
social group composed of two people, so if one leaves, there is no more group
question
Triad
answer
social group composed of three people. A 2 versus one dynamic often occurs
question
Subcultures
answer
cultures that exist within larger cultures, despite their interests being at odds with the dominant culture
question
Counterculture
answer
culture that exists alongside dominant cultures, but whose beliefs oppose the mainstream
question
reference group
answer
group to which an individual is compared to
question
Ego
answer
refers to an aspect of personality
question
outgroup
answer
group to which you do not feel you belong
question
Social networking group
answer
refers to a group of people connected by a social network
question
Functionalist theory
answer
sees education as a means to socialize citizens into their proper roles in society
question
conflict theory
answer
sees education as a tool of the bourgeoise
question
feminist theory
answer
is concerned with the ways education is a tool of gender socialization
question
symbolic interactionism
answer
concerned with the shared meaning of the experience
question
Environmental justice
answer
social movement centered upon the inequality of environmental burdens in our society
question
Social stratification
answer
the ranking of people in a categorical hierarchy
question
cultural captital
answer
non material assets that help promote your social mobility
question
identification
answer
is conforming to someone who you respect and like. It is a deeper form of conformity, and also self motivated
question
McDonaldization
answer
is the standardization of businesses globally
question
Role taking
answer
assuming the perspective of another person to enable yourself to respond as they would
question
Play stage
answer
refers to children playing roles in their imaginative play, such as doctor, teacher, or mommy.
question
Urban decline
answer
the process whereby sections of a previously functioning city fall into disrepair. Ex Detroit
question
Suburbanization
answer
Refers to the growth of areas on the fringe of big cities
question
Urban growth
answer
refers to the increase in size of an urban area
question
Class consciousness
answer
an awareness of your class standing
question
Social sanctions
answer
responses people employ to behavior to let the individual know their behavior is unacceptable
question
Prestige
answer
how favorably something is regarded
question
Power
answer
our ability to get someone else to do something, in spite of obstacles or opposition
question
Class
answer
levels of wealth, influence, and status
question
Status
answer
the position one occupies in society
question
Connection between social expectations and altruism?
answer
Members of society internalize the idea that it is a good thing to help others
question
Situational couple violence
answer
Most common form of intimate partner violence. It is violence that erupts when a disagreement turns angry
question
Intimate terrorism
answer
Situation where the batterer takes control of his partner.
question
Violence resistance
answer
Situation where a intimate partner victim fights backk
question
Privilege
answer
rights or benefits granted to you as a result of your social position
question
gender segregation
answer
the separation of the sexes in schools or occupation, which sometimes occurs 'naturally' and other times purposeful. E.g. nurses and teaches being mostly female and construction workers being mostly male
question
Altruistic behavior
answer
implies there will be no sort of benefit on the part of the person engaging in the sacrificing behavior.
question
The cinderella effect
answer
Describes the direct relationship between step-relationships and abuse
question
Consanguines
answer
are biological or blood relatives
question
Affinal relationships
answer
relationships established through marriage
question
Fictive relationse
answer
refer to those individuals we take into our family and who take on obligations in the absence of blood or marriage ties.
question
Role strain
answer
the difficulty an individual can experience in attempting to meet the expectations of their social role
question
Role conflict
answer
the conflict which can occur when we occupy multiple statuses, and the expectations conflict with one another
question
Role exit
answer
the process of becoming an 'ex'
question
A status set
answer
is the collection of social statues an individual occupies
question
Anticipatory socialization
answer
process where we rehearse for future events and situations
question
The life course
answer
a culturally defined sequence of age categories through which you are expected to pass.
question
Sexual orientation
answer
refers to sexual desires, fantasy, and behavior
question
Iron law of oligarchy
answer
states that in any democracy a small group of elites will end up ruling
question
Self fulfilling prophecy
answer
prediction that indirectly or directly causes itself to come true
question
Authority
answer
power to enforce rules.
question
Obedience can be considered
answer
moral, immoral, or amoral
question
Vertical mobility
answer
movement up or down in socioeconomic status
question
Horizontal mobility
answer
moving from one position to another, but the move doesnt result in change of socioeco status
question
Intergenerational Poverty
answer
the experience of poverty being transmitted from one generation to another
question
Homogamy
answer
practice of encouraging individuals to select a mate with similar social background characteristics, and may be based on socioeco status, gender, ethnicity, or religion
question
Age cohorts
answer
people who share the common characteristic of age
question
spatial inequality
answer
the pattern and structure of inequality in resources and services available to residents of an area
question
Resocialization
answer
process through which the individuals personality is radically changed by force. Example: military or prison
question
Master Status
answer
is the core status of your identity. Its often tied to your occupation.
question
Primary Socialization
answer
occurs when we are developing our personality, beliefs, and values.
question
Secondary socialization
answer
occurs as we learn what is acceptable and not, typically during adolescence and in small groups.
question
Tertiary socialization
answer
occurs when we are integrated into society and ready for new ideas and values
question
Stereotype threat
answer
the phenomenon of poor performance by members of a stigmatized group because of their worry that they will confirm others poor perception of them.
question
Rites of passage
answer
rituals and ceremonies meant to mark and validate significant changes in our lives
question
Secondary groups
answer
groups that are less close and more temporary. They tend to be goal oriented.
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Social construction of gender
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recognizes that society creates gender roles, which are prescribed to us as ideal behavior.
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The culture industry includes
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Celebrities, television, film, magazines and books.
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Intersectionality
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intersection of oppressed identities
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Polyamory
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having multiple lovers, where everyone consents and the relatioships are meant to endure.
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Polygyny
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Having multiple wives to one husband
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Polyandry
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having multiple wives to one husband
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pantagamy
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having everyone married to everyone
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The mere exposure effect
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proposes that the more we are exposed to someone, the more likely we will become familiar with them and come to like them.
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The looking glass self
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Cooley's theory that our sense of self grows out of our social interactions and perceptions of others view of us
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Social construction of race
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the discussion that race is not real. It is contingent upon our collective agreement that a certain set of physical characteristics denote a certain race.
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Endogamy
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the social role that one must marry within ones group; exogamy refers to the social rules that one must marry outside one's group
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Teacher expectancy
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essentially says that whatever a teacher expects is what she will likely get from her students.