Ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian Cultures
Ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian Cultures

Ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian Cultures

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  • Pages: 2 (663 words)
  • Published: November 23, 2021
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Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. I am glad to be standing in front of you this afternoon. Today, I am going to talk about ancient cultures, more specifically, the ancient Egyptian culture and the ancient Mesopotamian culture.

The ancient Egyptian culture began with the rise of technology in c. 5500 BCE and with the death of the last Ptolemaic Egyptian ruler, Cleopatra VII, in 30 BCE. The culture is best known for its great monuments which represent celebrations of the rulers’ triumphs and honors to the gods of the land. Some have misunderstood the culture as being obsessed with death while others regard it as a life affirming culture.

Mesopotamia is a Greek word meaning “between two rivers”. The two rivers referred to river Tigris and Euphrates while the land was known by the Arabs as Al-Jazirah or the Island. It was later remained as the Fertile Crescent by an Egyptologist J.H. breasted. This place is where civilization in Mesopotamian began. Mesopotamia is recognized as the cradle of civilization because it lead to two main developments; the rise of a city and the invention of writing. This place also had a collection of various cultures unlike other areas.

One major similarity between these two ancient Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia is in their basic social stratification. Both had a noble class of people who owned most of the land, held top posit


ions in the society while peasants and slaves occupied bottom slots. Both Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures were deeply rooted in religions. Both cultures had an array of gods and goddesses. The Egyptians had supreme gods such as the Amon and the god Ra and the Osiris. Each male god had a female goddess companion. The Mesopotamian culture had similar gods and goddesses. They had gods and wars goddesses, female and male divinities and Ishtar who represented a major divinity in their religion. In both cultures, these gods and goddesses would take various forms including animals, human or both.

Both cultural had significant differences in their art and architectural designs. Architectural structures in Mesopotamia grew out of soil unlike in Egypt where their land was rich of stones that could be quarried and used in construction. Mesopotamians constructed simple homes from bundles of reeds tied together while more complex ones where constructed with sun-dried clay bricks. Their famous ziggurats, temples and cities were constructed using clay bricks which had been oven baked and painted.

Both cultures were similar because they developed along rivers which helped them to cope in the harsh desert climate, had strong beliefs in their leaders, had elaborate religious beliefs and had well written languages and impressive architectural designs. The differences between these two cultures are as a result of differences in geography, differences in their prior beliefs and different degree of exposure to external invasion and influences.

These two cultures have influences the world in different ways. The ancient Egyptians culture has led to advancement in architectural designs. There is increased use of steel, power glue and concrete. The 24 hour system, 12 month

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year and four week month calculated by astronomers continue to be used in several parts of the world. Circumcision which was practiced in ancient Egypt as a hygienic process is practices various parts of the world. Irrigation works similar to those used in ancient Mesopotamia are used in agricultural practices. Other practices such as use of geometry are widely used across the globe.

Differences between Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt


  • Located between rivers Tigris and Euphrates
  • Located along river Nile

Architectural designs:

  • Used soil and reeds
  • Made use of stones

Comparison between Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt


  • Artificial irrigation along rivers Tigris and Euphrates
  • Artificial irrigation along river Nile

Social hierarchy:

  • Noble class
  • Patriarchal slaves specialization
  • Pottery, leather making, brick-making, stone cutting, textile, wood work


  • Gods and goddesses including Ishtar
  • Gods and goddesses including the Amon and the god Ra and the Osiris.
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