The linguistic analysis of each catalog makes it interesting as each potential buyer has different interests and expectations. Buyers look for holidays that cater to their specific interests, such as beaches for sun worshippers and views for sightseers. Therefore, different brochures target different markets, leading to differences in graphology, lexis, and pragmatics. Each target audience exhibits unique preferences and ideals for their holidays. I am particularly interested in brochures aimed at different age groups.
The brochures offer holidays to the same towns in Grand Canadian, Costa Blanch in Spain, and Cyprus. To ensure consistency and control, I will focus on hotels with the same star ratings (2-3 stars) in the same resort. Ideally, I will compare descriptions of the exact same hotels. Surprisingly, some travel companies use the same hotels despite targeting different clientele. In my analysis, I...
will explore the descriptions of the same towns and hotels (possibly even identical ones) that target different age groups.
When a hotel appears in multiple brochures, I will linguistically analyze the unique selling points used by the travel agents. By comparing the detailed descriptions in the brochures, I can examine how the same location is linguistically and chronologically targeted towards different audiences.
Glossy magazines and brochures provide ample material for the study of graphology, so my research will focus on investigating this area. I anticipate that different types of brochures will use different linguistic approaches. For instance, a family brochure would not include sexually explicit photographs, whereas Club 18-30 might find them appropriate. Vocabulary also plays a significant role in holiday brochures targeting different groups. Brochures for older tourists may use more complex words, along with pre
and post modifications and similes, contrasting with the phonetically youthful and slang inclusive approach of Club 18-30's brochure. Grammar and sentence structures may also vary. Family holiday brochures may adopt a safety-conscious tone, unlike the alcohol-fueled, party-oriented approach of Club 18-30. Investigating pragmatics will be fascinating as it involves examining purpose, culture, values, and implicit/explicit messages. These ideological features can be conveyed through words or pictures to different social groups. Detailed analysis will be conducted on semantic fields, which encompass subject-specific vocabulary, facts, and opinions. I will explore the implications of the vocabulary used.
I am investigating the language used in holiday brochures for different age groups. I hypothesize that the brochures for Club 18-30, Summer Sun, and Forever Young will differ pragmatically, but their discourse structures will be somewhat similar. The graphology of the brochures should be similar since they target individuals interested in purchasing vacations. It is expected that Forever Young, aimed at a mature audience, will be the most sophisticated in terms of lexis and pragmatics. Summer Sun, targeting families, may be less sophisticated, while Club 18-30, aimed at a younger audience, may be the least sophisticated. However, attention may be drawn to different services and attractions for each target audience. These ideas provide a good starting point for my investigation as I explore the distinctions between writing styles in holiday brochures and their effects from a frameworks perspective.
Methodology: I gathered holiday brochures from travel agents in Nottingham, selecting ones for different age groups but with the same destinations. I examined them to identify brochures with the same rated or even the same hotels.
I chose three brochures, namely Club 18-30, First Choice
Summer Sun, and Thomas Cook Forever Young. These brochures are in a similar price category, for the same month and destinations, but cater to different age groups. The selected frameworks will be useful for my hypothesis, as they provide enough literature and comparisons.
Chronologically, pragmatically, and semantically, the investigation will be interesting as there are various reasons why the brochures could differ. However, their discourse structure may be similar as they describe the holiday locations.
Analysis: Forever Young and Summer Sun brochures have a similar tone. Both aim to attract holidaymakers with descriptions of picturesque places, warm weather, delicious food, breathtaking scenery, and excellent service.
Club 18-30 differs in tone from the other two brochures as it appeals to vacationers by offering the allure of sex, alcohol, and nightclubs, in addition to great weather and beaches. The specific locations are not as important. Forever Young, Summer Sun, and Club 18-30 target different demographics. Forever Young caters to an older population who still want to maintain an active lifestyle, as implied by its title. Summer Sun primarily focuses on families with children of any age.
Club 18-30 is aimed at the age group specified in its name but without the responsibility of children, providing a lively atmosphere and opportunities to socialize with like-minded individuals, often of the opposite sex. All brochures aim to persuade people to purchase a vacation while also providing information. Graphology, particularly in the case of Club 18-30, plays a significant role in the advertising of all chosen brochures. The overall layout of Forever Young and Summer Sun differs from that of Club 18-30. Forever Young and Summer Sun use dense text, whereas
Club 18-30 utilizes broken up text.
All three brochures incorporate boxed sections, colored subheadings, and photographs to capture the reader's attention. Club 18-30 employs an informal font to reflect the casual nature of the holiday experience. Forever Young and Summer Sun use capital letters for proper nouns, while Club 18-30 uses lowercase letters for its list of locations. Each brochure features its own logo on every page.Forever Young and Summer Sun both display their respective logos, the Thomas Cook logo for Forever Young and the First Choice and Club 18-30 logos for Summer Sun. These two holiday options also use maps and colorful climate graphs to provide information on road routes and weather conditions at the specified locations. Club 18-30, on the other hand, stands out with its use of excessive exclamation marks, punctuation marks, and modified photographs that incorporate scribbles and graffiti for a comedic effect. For instance, a picture of a man in swimming trunks has had a drawn image of a penis added to it. This particular image spans an entire page. Additionally, Club 18-30 employs juxtaposition by placing provocative words alongside provocative pictures. A prime example of this is the word "rise" superimposed over a picture of a man daydreaming and "bulging" in his trousers. The text layout in Club 18-30 follows the conventions of a recipe, featuring numerous lists with headings like Lust, Rise, Hunt, Want, etc., separated by one-line gaps. The typeface used for Forever Young and Summer Sun is clear and easily readable, while the subheadings for facilities and activities are presented in a bolder font for quick reference. Interestingly, Club 18-30's subheadings are roughly five
times larger than the actual informational text. Despite their size, these subheadings offer little additional information about topics such as "bars, clubs & music" and "on the beach." It is worth noting that "On the Beach" is the title of a popular dance track, suggesting that it may be used as a lure to entice readers to choose this holiday option.
The three brochures share similarities in their use of a table format to display prices and flight times. They also employ bullet points, asterisks, and arrows to provide general information on various subjects. For instance, "Fun for all the family" is highlighted in Summer Sun, "commitment to the highest standards of safety" is emphasized in Forever Young, and Club 18-30 offers a "free birthday cocktail". To conduct a fair comparison among Forever Young, Summer Sun, and Club 18-30, I have selected introductory paragraphs from each brochure as appropriate examples for discourse analysis.
Forever Young organizes its text in a logical and chronological manner. It starts by providing information about packing luggage and pre-booking seats, then proceeds to cover details about short-haul flights. The brochure then focuses on dietary requirements for passengers, pre-booking champagne on the flight, and requesting assistance. Clear instructions are provided on how to avail services, along with a designated phone number. The text also includes information about Thomas Coke's representatives and their training. The introductory section concludes by mentioning the excursions available upon reaching the destination.
In contrast, the introduction to Summer Sun begins with a description of a holiday complex.
The introductory page of Club 18-30 has a playful and uninformative discourse structure. It mentions the presence of holiday preventatives to
assist in holiday entertainment and emphasizes reasons why the reader should choose this holiday village. Different types of hotels available are described, and the conclusion provides details on what is included in the price.
The page lacks location information and is divided into four brief paragraphs. The text is presented with graphology, dividing minimal content across two pages. The editors expect readers to interpret their language in a specific manner, aiming for comprehension.
In contrast, Summer Sun and Forever Young brochures use cohesive language where pronouns consistently refer to the same entities throughout the paragraph, making it easy to understand.The use of the pronoun "it" in Club 18-30 refers to partying, sex, and excursions. The phrase "show us your birthday suit" implies nudity without explicitly instructing someone to undress. The implications of the different holiday brochure readers is that Forever Young readers prioritize practical aspects of their vacation, Summer Sun readers value knowledge of their location, and Club 18-30 readers are primarily interested in entertainment. To analyze the language used in the introductory paragraphs of holiday brochures, I created a pie chart displaying the semantic field of "Holiday" and the number of associated words. This was done by calculating the average number of words in this semantic field across three paragraphs. The data was collected by counting words like "luggage" and "hotels" for each destination. Examples of words used in my pie chart include complex, peaceful, bustling, beautiful, great, comfortable, easy, picturesque, facilities, accommodation for Summer Sun; stunning, excellent, lively, welcoming, accommodation, hire-car, lush, tropical for Forever Young; and golden, well-equipped, volcanic, attractive, delights for Club 18-30.In analyzing the introduction of Cyprus as a holiday resort in
all three brochures, it is apparent that each brochure aims to create an idealistic image for the target audience. Forever Young portrays Cyprus as a place of warmth, light, and health, using phrases like "Golden evenings, invigorated countryside...Which is a riot of color." The goal is to evoke an idyllic atmosphere. Other descriptive words used in Forever Young include "picturesque," "scenic," "warm," "rich," "unique," and "friendly." The use of the word "warm" is interesting as it can refer to both temperature and cordiality. The word "rich" conveys the fertile countryside but also implies wealth, contributing to the desirable connotations of warmth and richness.
Summer Sun presents Cyprus as the birthplace of the legendary goddess of love and an island of immense natural beauty with clear blue seas. The connotations here surprisingly lean towards a romantic nature, evident through the semantic field of romance present in phrases like "love" and "beauty." This could be appealing to couples seeking to recapture the romantic mood of the past, even with families.
In contrast, Club 18-30 brochure focuses on nightlife rather than providing a description of the location. Phrases such as "Massive dance scene...Sums of golden sands and crystal clear waters" showcase the vibrant nightlife experience without emphasizing the location itself."This could be because the target audience is more concerned with the nightlife than the surroundings of the accommodation. In their introductions to Cyprus, Forever Young and Summer Sun aim to describe the island's features and ambiance in order to attract customers. The connotations of peace and tranquility are evident in phrases such as "Gently shelving safe sands" and "the cool pine clad Troops Mountains" in Summer Sun, and "Picturesque coastal
resorts" and "Superb beaches that offer tranquility" in Forever Young. However, Club 18-30 conveys connotations of fun and sex, using phrases like "gagging with excitement" to entice readers. Although "gagging" literally means choking, it is used here as modern slang, expecting readers to interpret it as eagerly anticipating something uncontrollably.
Below, I have created a table showing the average paragraph length and the number of adjectives per sentence in each brochure. This can indicate which one relies more on descriptions and mental imagery to promote the holidays. The mean length sentence to adjective ratio for Club 18-30 is 7 adjectives in 4 sentences, for Summer Sun it is 9 adjectives in 1 sentence, and for Forever Young it is 13 adjectives in 7 sentences. Adding these numbers together, the mean average sentences are 4 for Club 18-30, 7 for Summer Sun, and 36 for Forever Young. The lexis used in Forever Young and Summer Sun is associated with climate, views, and holiday activities."The lexis comparison between the two brochures, Forever Young and Summer Sun, with Club 18-30, reveals that the vocabulary used in Club 18-30 is not specifically related to holidays. To ensure fairness, I specifically analyzed the pages advertising Costa Blanch in each brochure and focused on the descriptive paragraphs. As already established, the semantic fields of the lexis used in both brochures are very different. The table below presents the nouns and proper nouns used by each brochure.
Forever Young: beaches, scenery, city, scenery, holiday, weather, sun, families, markets, resort, water sports, shops, facilities, couples, disco, region, area, bar, dunes, promenade, night shops
Summer Sun: beach, festival, restaurants, marina, noise
Forever Young: Grand Canadian Magnolias, Playa Del Ingle Lass Palms
Summer Sun: Grand Canadian Magnolias, Magnolias Canary Islands
Club 18-30: Puerco Rice Columbus Puerco Rice Nellie Bar Lawrence of Arabia Gig-Gags Hippodrome Harley Rock Titanic Bar Sport Legends Supernova Booze Cruise
The nouns category in Club 18-30's table suggests a broader reference to city centers globally rather than solely focusing on a holiday context. Both Forever Young and Summer Sun clearly pertain to holiday resorts in their nouns and proper nouns. Additionally, the list of proper nouns in Club 18-30 includes three locations and eight bars, indicating that the target audience is expected to be interested in nightlife activities.The brochures utilize literary devices to capture readers' attention. The use of calming sounds creates a serene mental atmosphere for the readers. This is evident in Summer Sun's description of "Shelving safe sands," where the alliteration of the "S" consonant evokes tranquility. Club 18-30 also employs alliteration, as seen in their phrase "Hardened, happy and hotter," which describes the experience of their holidays. The use of superlatives differs between Summer Sun, Forever Young, and Club 18-30. Summer Sun and Forever Young often feature words such as "stylish," "superb," and "decorative," whereas Club 18-30 describes their nearby apartments more modestly as "good," "standard," and "traditional".
The introduction in the Club 18-30 brochure for Cyprus differs significantly in pragmatics compared to the other brochures. Club 18-30 aims to entice their target audience with an emphasis on sex, partying, and alcohol as unique selling points. This is evident through the
graphology, featuring an illustration of a drunk person, and the use of words with dual meanings that cater to intellectuality. For instance, the phrase "Come again? We'd like to keep you coming again and again!" suggests both repeat visits and sexual innuendo.This excerpt highlights the presence of implicit and explicit messages in relation to holiday activities, specifically referring to repeating experiences on the holiday and engaging in sexual activities. Both meanings of the phrase are considered explicit. These themes align with the cultural associations presented in the holiday brochure, which promote binge drinking and sex.
On the other hand, the introduction for Summer Sun holidays in Cyprus takes a different approach. The goal is to sell the holiday to potential buyers by showcasing captivating views, various forms of entertainment, and family activities like swimming and scuba diving. The brochure aims to entice holidaymakers through their travel agent, emphasizing that Summer Sun offers family-oriented vacations. The perspective portrayed in the brochure prioritizes safety and caters to a family-friendly atmosphere.
In contrast, Forever Young targets an older audience, particularly mature couples. The brochure is designed around their potential interests, employing descriptions of landscapes, sunsets, and detailed depictions of old towns on the island of Cyprus. Descriptors such as "picturesque" and "pleasantly" are abundantly used in Forever Young, reflecting references to unique European cultures.The brochure also mentions that the locals in Cyprus can speak English and that prices in shops are displayed in British pounds. This indicates that the intended audience will not feel intimidated by a foreign language and will not have to go through the hassle of converting currency into pounds sterling.
The purpose of this introductory
brochure about Cyprus, like others, is to highlight the appealing aspects of Cyprus that the reader would appreciate, in order to sell the holiday. This makes the analysis interesting as each brochure provides a different perspective on the description of Cyprus, despite all referring to the same resort. For example, Club 18-30 emphasizes alcohol, Summer Sun promotes activities, and Forever Young focuses on scenic views, good food, and "quaint villages". All of them aim to offer mass-marketed holidays to a large audience.
However, Forever Young attempts to differentiate its holidays as unique experiences rather than packaged tours, targeting an exclusive audience. They claim that "The friendly management at this hotel ensure that their guests enjoy their stay and will want to return year after year." However, the presence of tower blocks depicted above somehow contradicts this claim.The Summer Sun catalogue and Forever Young both have temperature graphs showing average daily temperatures from April to October. The Summer Sun graph uses degrees centigrade while Forever Young uses degrees Fahrenheit. This difference in measurement units reflects the different age demographics targeted by the two catalogs, as older generations may not be familiar with centigrade. The descriptions of the same place are also different, with Summer Sun using the term "vibrant" while Forever Young describes it as "quaint."
When it comes to hotel descriptions, Club 18-30 is straightforward and pragmatic. The semantics and pragmatics convey this, and the graphology supports the statements. One hotel is described as well situated with all amenities conveniently accessible. The pool is ideal for serious swimming sessions, and there is a great bar that serves food, along with a large TV. All rooms
are simply furnished and have private facilities and a balcony.
It is interesting to note that the description mentions a great bar serving food, rather than a bar serving great food. The language used in the hotel and apartment descriptions in Allay Nap includes a significant amount of slang.According to research by Egan Paul, slang is primarily used to reduce seriousness, create a close connection with the audience, and exclude others using "private talk" (E.G. "Slap-bang in the centre of all the action - Muff said." and "Wicked location for the nightlife."). This brings readers closer to the information as stated by Egan Paul. While some holidaymakers may find the pictures of nudity and alcohol disgusting, this is acceptable to the intended audience of Club 18-30, as younger readers expect it and consider it acceptable graphology for this brochure's reputation. This graphology aligns with the lexis, semantics, and expectations of the brochure.
Club 18-30 is the most truthful in its advertising, as there are very few differences between what is shown to the audience and what is communicated through the text. However, Forever Young is supposed to target older holidaymakers seeking individuality. The graphology in their catalog is not truthful to the descriptions provided for the hotels. The descriptions offered by Forever Young travel agents are not completely honest. For example, they describe Cyprus as an island with picturesque coastal resorts and quaint mountain villages.Although it may be true that the paragraph is surrounded by visuals of high-rise towers, beer advertisements around swimming pools, and crowds of people, these elements actually highlight the differences in graphology, pragmatics, and brochure expectations. The clientele differs from what the
graphology suggests as the target audience. For instance, within the Costa Blanch resort, the Hotel Poseidon Playa is featured in both the First Choice Summer Sun brochure and the Forever Young brochure. This demonstrates how the hotel's clientele seem to change depending on the travel agents, resulting in variations in pragmatics, semantics, and graphology to cater to different target audiences. In the Summer Sun brochure, the hotel is described as "cosmopolitan" instead of "comfortable, relaxing, and quiet" as it is described in Forever Young. The pragmatics and semantics of the word "cosmopolitan" have similarities in both brochures.
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