Abnormal Psych Test 4

Sara notices a lump on her side. She goes to her physician because she is worried that it is cancer. The physician sends her for a biopsy. During the three weeks between first noticing the lump and getting her results that it is not cancer, Sara was almost unable to function. She felt constant anxiety and thought constantly about having cancer. After she found out that she did not have cancer, Sara felt much better. Sara
Has no mental disorder
Felicia has been diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, purging type. We should expect that she
experiences electrolyte imbalances and mineral deficiencies.
Which of the following is characteristic of the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia?
The use of laxatives
Studies of the brains of individuals with DID
Support the assertion that DID is a real disorder.
When it comes to comparing one’s actual body image with the ideal body,
d. young women are more likely to be dissatisfied than young men.
Catastrophizing about minor bodily sensations is characteristic of individuals with both
a. hypochondriasis and somatization disorder.
Comfort food
b. may help reduce activation in the stress response system.
The most effective treatment to date for somatization disorder
c. decreases healthcare expenditures.
After bariatric surgery,
d. some patients regain their weight, but most lose a great deal of weight.
Which of the following was once viewed as form of “hysteria”?
a. Conversion disorder
Somatization disorder and hypochondriasis differ because
d. in somatization disorder, people are concerned about multiple different physical symptoms, in hypochondriasis, people are concerned about having an organic disease.
Gerard became amnesic, wandered away from home and assumed a completely new identity as a shoe salesman. He suffers from
a. dissociative fugue.
What cyclical pathway can develop that eventually leads to obesity?
c. A child eats because of feelings of depression and low self-esteem, gains weight, is rejected by peers, binges, and continues to gain weight.
Which of the following is the strongest predictor of a person developing bulimic symptoms?
d. The amount of critical comments family members made about the person’s appearance
Response prevention has been used in the treatment of both
d. hypochondriasis and obsessive compulsive disorder.
Why are family attitudes about obesity important?
c. Because the consequences are likely to remain with us
Binge-eating disorder
b. has not yet been formally recognized as a distinct clinical syndrome.
Leptin
a. is a hormone that usually leads to decreased food intake.
Which of the following do those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have in common?
a. Fear of being or becoming fat
Which of the following disorders was once the most frequently diagnosed disorder among soldiers in World War I?
b. Conversion disorder
What is one reason why the prevalence of DID has been increasing?
d. It may be that the prevalence of DID has not changed at all, but that clinicians may unknowingly encourage the emergence of new identities.
What is the link between dieting and eating disorders?
a. Dieting is a risk factor for both anorexia and bulimia.
Which of the following is most commonly found in families of girls with anorexia?
b. Parents who emphasize rules, control, and good physical appearance.
Recent estimates suggest that about 50 percent of those with DID have
c. over ten identities.
Which of the following best explains why conversion disorder is a less common diagnosis today than it was historically?
d. Advances in the medical field have made patients more sophisticated about medical and psychological disorders.
Which of the following complicates the study of personality traits and eating disorders?
b. Personality may be altered by malnourishment.
What is the prognosis for anorexia nervosa?
a. Relapse rates are high, but recovery can often happen in the long run.
Rates of eating disorders tend to be much lower in black women than in white women. However, one factor that can increase risk in black women is
b. assimilation into white culture and middle class values.
Jeremy suffers from psychogenic amnesia. He probably
d. seems quite normal other than for his amnesia.
Consciously faking symptoms is characteristic of
a. malingering.
Following the rejection of his latest novel, Jim experienced an inability to make some movements with his right hand. While he was unable to write, he could scratch and make other simple motions with his affected hand. Two weeks later he was able to write again. What is unique about Jim’s case of conversion disorder?
b. Jim is male, and most people with this disorder are women.
After learning of her father’s death, Sophia felt dazed and confused but still retained her sense of self. When speaking of her response to the news, she said she felt like she was in a movie watching the events happening to her. Despite this strange feeling, she understood what was happening and did the things that she needed to do. What can be said of Sophia’s response to her father’s death?
b. She experienced an instance of derealization.
The influence of television on the attitudes toward eating in Fiji demonstrate that
b. environmental factors can alter societal attitudes such that the risk of developing eating disorders is increased.
Which of the following best explains why cognitive-behavioral therapy is a logical approach to the treatment of eating disorders?
d. Both thoughts and behaviors need to be altered to achieve a lasting outcome.
Family therapy for anorexia appears to be most effective when it is used to treat
a. adolescents.
Which of the following is true of opposite sex alters in DID?
b. They are quite common.
An example of dissociative trance disorder is
d. a person who believes he or she is at times possessed by a spirit and is extremely upset because of this.
All of the following are associated with DID except
c. psychosis.
Which of the following best explains why conversion disorder is a less common diagnosis today than it was historically?
d. Advances in the medical field have made patients more sophisticated about medical and psychological disorders.
The text presented the case of Mary Kendall, who suffered from dissociative identity disorder. She is typical of individuals with this disorder in that
a. she has periods of “lost time.”
The German man, in the study mentioned in the text, who had dissociative fugue, denied that he could speak German. However, he learned German-English word pairs much faster than control words. This supports that
a. mainly episodic memory is lost, implicit memory stays intact.
People with body dysmorphic disorder are similar to people with hypochondriasis in that
a. both ask for reassurance about their symptoms but don’t feel relief when they get it.
People with hypochondriasis, like people with obsessive-compulsive disorder, have intrusive thoughts that cause them anxiety. The major difference is
c. in hypochondriasis, the thoughts are seen as appropriate and reasonable, in obsessive-compulsive disorder the intrusive thoughts are seen as inappropriate and alien.
The disorder involving the experience of sudden loss of the sense of self is
a. depersonalization disorder.
Which of the following is most commonly true of the host identity in DID?
d. It is not the original identity.
Experimental studies of DID find that interpersonality amnesia exists for
b. explicit memories.
Assuming a new identity in a new place is characteristic of
c. dissociative fugue.
Why has the term “multiple personality disorder” been replaced with “dissociative identity disorder”?
c. Fully developed personalities are not present in DID, just varying expressions of different aspects of the patient’s personality.
Dysfunctional assumptions about symptoms and diseases are a component of a cognitive-behavioral explanation of
a. hypochondriasis.
Sociocognitive theory
a. explains why symptoms of DID are often not seen until after treatment is initiated.
A lack of concern about a physical disability is characteristic of individuals with
a. conversion disorder.
In soap operas, characters often forget their past experience following some trauma. They don’t merely forget the traumatic event, they forget who they are, where they came from – they lose almost all memory of their lives. They then move to a new place and start a new identity. This would best be described as an instance of
b. dissociative fugue.
When it comes to the effectiveness of treatment for dissociative disorders, we know
a. very little.
Which of the following statements about the role of genetics as a risk factor for eating disorders is true?
d. Although the findings to date are mixed, the evidence does indicate that a susceptibility to eating disorders may be inherited along with a diathesis for other psychological conditions.
What is unique about binge-eating disorder (BED) as compared to the eating disorders currently found in the DSM?
b. The gender difference in its prevalence is minimal.
After bariatric surgery,
d. some patients regain their weight, but most lose a great deal of weight.
Which statement best describes trends in actual and ideal weight in American young women?
b. While the weight of the average woman is increasing, the average weight of the ideal woman is decreasing.
In her mid-thirties, Cheryl became preoccupied with her weight and began dieting and exercising. After losing a substantial amount of weight, she was still not happy with how she looked and continued to restrict her food intake. After several fainting spells resulting from her low calorie intake, her employer referred her to a clinician who recognized the signs of anorexia nervosa. Which of the following is unique about Cheryl’s case?
a. Eating disorders rarely start during the mid-thirties.
Which of the following statements about obesity and health is true?
a. The heavier the person, the greater the health risks.
Grehlin
d. is a hormone that is an appetite stimulator.
What neurotransmitter seems to be involved in both eating disorders and depression?
b. Serotonin
A lack of body distortions among the Amish
d. suggests that there should be a low prevalence of eating disorders among these peoples.
Raquel has occasions when she eats enormous amounts of food in a short time. Afterwards, she will refuse to eat anything solid for a couple of days. Her weight fluctuates but is normal. Her most likely diagnosis is
d. bulimia nervosa, nonpurging type.
Which of the following appears to be an enduring personality trait of people who are susceptible to developing an eating disorder?
b. Perfectionism
Which of the following complicates the study of personality traits and eating disorders?
b. Personality may be altered by malnourishment.
The mindset of people with bulimia and people with anorexia
d. is very different – people with anorexia don’t seem bothered by other people’s opinion (usually distress) about them and people with bulimia are very concerned and will do their best to hide their disorder.
In which of the following countries are at least one-third of adults obese?
d. United States
All of the following are reasons for the effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of bulimia nervosa EXCEPT
b. decreased appetite.
Families of people with anorexia
c. exhibit tendencies towards perfectionism.
Which of the following accounts for more morbidity and mortality than all eating disorders combined?
d. obesity
What is the most serious challenge in treating eating disorders?
d. Overcoming the patient’s ambivalence toward treatment
Andrea has anorexia nervosa, restricting type. Which of the following behaviors would you expect her to have?
b. Cutting up her food into little pieces when she eats
Lanugo
a. is a soft hair that grows on the body of people with anorexia.
Which of the following best explains the lack of well-controlled studies on the effectiveness of treatment for anorexia nervosa?
d. Few people with anorexia are willing to seek treatment, and they are likely to drop out prematurely from treatment.
The mindset of people with bulimia and people with anorexia
d. is very different – people with anorexia don’t seem bothered by other people’s opinion (usually distress) about them and people with bulimia are very concerned and will do their best to hide their disorder.
Which of the following statements about the prevalence of eating disorders in the 20th century is true?
a. While the incidence of anorexia has been increasing, the incidence of bulimia seems to be declining.
Our current knowledge of the efficacy of treating eating disorders
d. suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy is the treatment of choice.
Binge-eating disorder
d. involves binges comparable to those in bulimia but without any inappropriate “compensatory” behavior to limit weight gain.
If Ronald is typical of people with hypochondriasis, he will
a. avoid accepting a psychological explanation for his problems.
Which of the following was once viewed as form of “hysteria”?
a. Conversion disorder
Behavior activation treatment
d. emphasizes activity and involvement in interpersonal relationships.
Ryan has diabetes but has no trouble functioning. One day, his wife informs him that she is leaving him. Ryan suddenly develops terrible pain in his back, to the point he is unable to get out of bed. His wife agrees to stay for “a while” to take care of him. Ryan probably has
b. pain disorder associated with psychological factors.
The most common kind of speech-related conversion reaction is
b. aphonia
Dissociative identity disorder was formerly known as
b. multiple personality disorder.
Somatization disorder
a. involves multiple symptoms of at least four different types.
If Ronald is typical of people with hypochondriasis, he will
a. avoid accepting a psychological explanation for his problems.
Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for eating disorders in men?
d. Painting
Gastric bypass surgery makes it
d. impossible to binge eat but still possible to regain weight.
Which of the following best explains the current trend in the prevalence of obesity?
c. The adoption of unhealthy life styles
One of the reasons it is difficult to know if a disruption in the serotonin system causes eating disorders is
b. people with eating disorders often have depression as well.
Dan’s various medical complaints and hospital stays finally led him to a psychiatrist. After a thorough medical and psychological evaluation, the twenty-eight-year-old teacher and father of two was diagnosed with both depression and somatization disorder. What is atypical about this case summary?
b. Somatization disorder is seen much more commonly in women.
Why has there been little systematic research conducted on dissociative amnesia and fugue?
d. These conditions are too rare to permit more extensive study.
A recent in-depth study by Lewis and colleagues of 12 convicted murderers diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder looked into their backgrounds. The study found strong evidence that
c. each was severely abused, both physically and sexually.
The inability to learn new information is known as
a. anterograde amnesia.
Which of the following has been demonstrated about the effects of psychogenic amnesias on memory?
a. Implicit memory is generally intact.
Recent estimates suggest that about 50 percent of those with DID have
c. over ten identities.
Which of the following is true of opposite sex alters in DID?
b. They are quite common.
Octavia has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID). She has seventeen different “alters,” which are strikingly different from her host personality. Some of her alters are not full personalities, but fragments and memories. Some of the alters are children. What aspect of this case is unusual?
d. No aspect of this case is unusual.
After her dentist commented on the damage her practice of vomiting had caused to her teeth, Hilda realized that she had a problem. After seeing a psychiatrist, Hilda was diagnosed with anorexia, binge-eating/purging sub-type. Due to the severity of her condition, her doctor suggested that she be hospitalized. Hilda immediately entered an inpatient treatment program and embraced all aspects of the treatment regimen. What is unique about Hilda’s case?
c. Hilda’s lack of ambivalence about treatment.
Internalizing the “thin ideal” is strongly associated with
b. negative affect.
Research suggests that ________ provides the best immediate and long-term outcomes in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.
d. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
The text presented the case of Nicole, a college student with bulimia nervosa. She is typical of such individuals because she
c. experienced shame, guilt, and self-deprecation.
Which of the following is likely to put whites at higher risk of developing an eating disorder than non-whites?
a. Body dissatisfaction
Which of the following factors is associated with an increased risk for obesity?
d. Low parental education
Which of the following is a controversial aspect of the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa?
c. Amenorrhea
Why is family therapy currently being investigated as a treatment for anorexia?
b. Healthier family relationships have been found to affect treatment outcome.
Catastrophizing about minor bodily sensations is characteristic of individuals with both
a. hypochondriasis and somatization disorder.
What would be most helpful to a person with pain disorder?
a. Staying physically active despite the pain.
Sociocognitive theory
a. explains why symptoms of DID are often not seen until after treatment is initiated.
The disorder involving the experience of sudden loss of the sense of self is
a. depersonalization disorder.
Compulsive checking behaviors are characteristic of individuals with
a. body dysmorphic disorder.
Studies of the brains of individuals with DID
b. support the assertion that DID is a real disorder.
Binge-eating disorder
b. has not yet been formally recognized as a distinct clinical syndrome.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be addressed in the treatment of binge-eating disorder?
d. Idealization of low body weight
Somatization disorder and hypochondriasis are similar in that
c. both pay more attention to bodily sensations and see them as symptoms.
Which of the following accounts for more morbidity and mortality than all eating disorders combined?
d. obesity
John and Ira eat dinner together after work. Several hours later, each starts to feel nausea and stomach pains. John is a hypochondriac, Ira is not. Most likely:
b. John will think that he has stomach cancer and Ira will think the food he ate made him sick.
The treatment goal for most therapists who treat dissociative identity disorder is
c. integration of the alter personalities.
Research on hypochondriasis has shown that people with the disorder tend to
b. overestimate the dangerousness of diseases.
Which of the following best explains why cognitive-behavioral therapy is a logical approach to the treatment of eating disorders?
d. Both thoughts and behaviors need to be altered to achieve a lasting outcome.
Which of the following statements about the role of genetics as a risk factor for eating disorders is true?
d. Although the findings to date are mixed, the evidence does indicate that a susceptibility to eating disorders may be inherited along with a diathesis for other psychological conditions.
Why has there been little systematic research conducted on dissociative amnesia and fugue?
d. These conditions are too rare to permit more extensive study.
What would be most helpful to a person with pain disorder?
a. Staying physically active despite the pain.
Octavia has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID). She has seventeen different “alters,” which are strikingly different from her host personality. Some of her alters are not full personalities, but fragments and memories. Some of the alters are children. What aspect of this case is unusual?
d. No aspect of this case is unusual.
The text presented the case of Mary Kendall, who suffered from dissociative identity disorder. She is typical of individuals with this disorder in that
a. she has periods of “lost time.”
Catastrophizing about minor bodily sensations is characteristic of individuals with both
a. hypochondriasis and somatization disorder.
Which of the following is true of opposite sex alters in DID?
b. They are quite common.
Which of the following appears to be an enduring personality trait of people who are susceptible to developing an eating disorder?
b. Perfectionism
The inability to learn new information is known as
a. anterograde amnesia.
An example of dissociative trance disorder is
d. a person who believes he or she is at times possessed by a spirit and is extremely upset because of this.
In soap operas, characters often forget their past experience following some trauma. They don’t merely forget the traumatic event, they forget who they are, where they came from – they lose almost all memory of their lives. They then move to a new place and start a new identity. This would best be described as an instance of
b. dissociative fugue.
Research suggests that ________ provides the best immediate and long-term outcomes in the treatment of bulimia nervosa.
d. Cognitive-behavioral therapy
John and Ira eat dinner together after work. Several hours later, each starts to feel nausea and stomach pains. John is a hypochondriac, Ira is not. Most likely:
b. John will think that he has stomach cancer and Ira will think the food he ate made him sick.
The text presented the case of Nicole, a college student with bulimia nervosa. She is typical of such individuals because she
c. experienced shame, guilt, and self-deprecation.
Which of the following best explains why cognitive-behavioral therapy is a logical approach to the treatment of eating disorders?
d. Both thoughts and behaviors need to be altered to achieve a lasting outcome.
In which of the following countries are at least one-third of adults obese?
d. United States
Our current knowledge of the efficacy of treating eating disorders
d. suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy is the treatment of choice.
Binge-eating disorder
b. has not yet been formally recognized as a distinct clinical syndrome.
Why is the timeframe of 6 months important in diagnosing pain disorder?
a. It determines whether the symptoms are acute or chronic
In what way was Freud’s view of conversion disorder consistent with behavioral theories?
c. He believed that the symptoms of conversion disorder were maintained by the relief from anxiety they provided.
Orlistat, which works by interfering with the absorption of fat,
c. works modestly well for obesity.
Cindy is 5 ‘ 6″ tall and weighs 92 pounds. She is very concerned about her weight. However, at times she finds herself eating large amounts of food – several boxes of cookies, gallons of ice cream, entire cakes – all in an evening. Afterwards, she makes herself throw up. Cindy’s most likely diagnosis is
b. anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type.
Someone who binges and purges and is severely underweight is diagnosed as anorexic, not bulimic. This is because
c. anorexia has a much higher death rate than bulimia.
In order to make a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa, the client must
b. not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa.
How do you distinguish between the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, purging type?
d. People with the bulimic type are normal weight, people with the anorexic type are underweight.
Which of the following is a potential consequence of anorexia nervosa?
d. Death of a spouse
People with body dysmorphic disorder are similar to people with hypochondriasis in that
a. both ask for reassurance about their symptoms but don’t feel relief when they get it.
Individuals with somatoform disorders
c. believe that their symptoms are real and serious.
Ghrelin
d. is a hormone that is an appetite stimulator.
When a person experiences psychogenic amnesia, only one portion of memory is usually affected. Which?
d. Episodic memory (the events we have experienced)
Ginger suffers from anorexia. She is often angry and irritable. These feelings
a. may be the result of her starving herself.
According to set-point theory
b. hunger serves to maintain the body at its established set-point.
Which of the following complicates the study of personality traits and eating disorders?
b. Personality may be altered by malnourishment.
Evan is terrified because he is convinced that he has a terminal heart condition. He has consulted with several physicians about it who have found no evidence of any heart disease. Interestingly, Evan continues to feel terrified even when the doctors find no physical problem. His diagnosis is probably
c. hypochondriasis.
Why are family attitudes about obesity important?
c. Because the consequences are likely to remain with us
A person with two or more well-developed identities has the disorder called
c. dissociative identity disorder.
Which of the following summarizes the post-traumatic theory for the origin of DID?
c. Children deal with severe abuse by creating alters who provide an “escape.”