US History Midterm Study Guide

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jamestown
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first successful english settlement in north america; 1607; had trouble due to the fact that settlers didn’t make camps right away, and rather searched for gold; saved by the powhatan natives and john smith’s leadership
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indentured servitude
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type of labor in which a person agrees to work for a period of 4-7 years in exchange for passage to North America, food, and shelter
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puritans
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a denomonination of christianity that felt the need to reform the church from within; some from this group decide to break away from the church completely
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pilgrims
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a puritan subgroup that fled to holland; took the mayflower to plymouth rock, massachusetts, and create the second settlement in north america
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separatists
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group of puritans that chose to break away completely; a more famous and more specific category of this group would be the pilgrims
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predestination
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the religious concept that one’s fate is already determined by God and that nothing can be done to change one’s fate
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peter stuyvesant
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duke of new netherlands (later becomes new york)
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new jersey
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new colony formed after the duke of york gives a piece of the newly won new netherlands colony to the duke of jersey
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quakers
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this denomination of separatist was persecuted in england; as a result William Penn forms the colony of Pennsylvania
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philadelphia
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first capital city of the united states before the capital moved to new york
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mercantilism
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a strategy in which nations can increase power through two ways: obtain as much gold and silver as possible from from the colonies a country owned, or establish a favorable balance of trade
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middle passage
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part of the triangular trade in which African slaves were brought from their homeland to the Americas
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enlightenment
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an intellectual movement that points back to the renaissance; stresses the use of logic and reason; prime example of great enlightenment thinker would be ben franklin
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great awakening
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an intellectual movement that called for a return to religion; seeks to revive the intensity and dedication of the original puritan vision
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french and indian war
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war between the between the british and france; the native americans aided the french cause; from 1754-1763; involved disputes over the ohio river valley
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george washington
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this man was the leader of a militia group from virginia involved in the french and indian war; leader of the US army during the revolutionary war; first president of the united states
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treaty of paris 1763
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treaty that ends the french and indian war; all of france’s land including Canada and all land east of the mississippi river was given to britain; france and native americans lose
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proclamation of 1763
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a decree that warned colonists not to cross line west of the Appalachian mountains, so as to avoid conflicts with the native americans
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stamp act
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first direct tax given by parliament on the colonies; requires a special stamp be placed on goods
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sons of liberty
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a famous secret resistance group led by samuel adams ; pre-revolutionary war; oganized demonstrations, protests, harrassment, etc.
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sam adams
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leader of the sons of liberty
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committees of correspondance
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in response to great britain’s taxes on the colonists, these were formed as a communication link for all thirteen colonies
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dorothea dix
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woman who instituted prison and mental health reforms
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paul revere
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most famous of the men who alerted colonists of the british soldiers’ coming to lexington and concord
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john adams
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man who at the second continental congress suggested that each colony set up its own government and that the colonies should declare themselves independent; second president of the united states
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declaration of independence
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a document drawn up to declare the colonies as independent; adopted on july 4, 1776
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patriots
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supporters of colonial independence
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torries
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loyalists; those in the colonies who remained loyal to britain
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battle of trenton
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battle of the revolutionary war in which george washington crosses the delaware river and suprises the hessians on december 25, 1776
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hessians
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german mercenaries paid by great britain; hired and paid soldiers
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battle of saratoga
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battle of the revolutionary war in which the continental army takes on General John Burgoyne’s british army in the wilderness of new york; Burgoyne was forced to surrender; crucial battle that convinces France to help the colonies with the war
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battle of yorktown
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the final battle of the revolutionary war in which british general cornwallis surrenders and the united states wins the war
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treaty of paris 1783
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treaty that granted independence to the united states and set the country’s borders; ends the revolutionary war
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republicanism
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the idea that governments should be based on the consent of the people
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articles of confederation
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new type of government proposed by congress; the first government system of the united states; within this government there were two levels of government (state and federal) that share fundamental powers; this government system ultimately fails
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james madison
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one of two men that calls for the annapolis convention; proposes the virginia plan (involving population representation); fourth president of the united states
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alexander hamilton
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one of the two men to call for the annapolis convention; secretary of treasury in george washington’s cabinet; advocated a strong central government led by a prosperous upper class; establishes Bank of United States; leader of the federalist party; dies in a duel
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delegated powers
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powers granted to the national government according to the constitution
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reserved powers
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powers kept by the states
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federalism
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a type of government that shares power between the states and central government
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northwest ordinance of 1787
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a decree that split land into territories and set requirements for them to become states; must appoint governor and judges, have 5,000 residents and write constitution, could apply to congress for statehood once population reaches 60,000
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checks and balances
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a system created to prevent one branch of government from seizing too much power; three different types of this include vetoing, 2/3 vote, and declaring something to be unconstitutional
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legislative; judicial; executive
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the three branches of government are:
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james madison
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father of the constitution
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electoral college
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way to elect president so that the people don’t hold too much power in elections
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federalists
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supporters of the constitution
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antifederalists
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people who opposed the constitution
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bill of rights
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a document that contains the first ten amendments to the united states constitution
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first amendment
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amendment that granted the freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, and freedom to place petitions
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second amendment
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amendment in the bill of rights that grants the right to bear arms
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fourth amendment
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amendment that grants protection from unreasonable search and seizure
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fifth amendment
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amendment that grants the right of due process- the right to know what one is being charged with
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sixth amendment
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amendment that grants the right to a trial by jury in public and in the same city or town the crime was committed in
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seventh amendment
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amendment that grants the right to a trial by jury
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eighth amendment
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amendment that grants protection from excessive bail, excessive fines, or other cruel punishment.
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thomas jefferson
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key player in creation of the declaration of independence; george washington’s secretary of state; advocated a strong state and local government with regular people in control; head of the democratic republican party; third president of the united states
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bank of the united states
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financial institution where the federal government could put its money; prints and handles taxes and other government funds; instituted by alexander hamilton
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federalist party
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one of the first political parties whose members shared alexander hamilton’s views; advocated business and commerce and upper class government rule
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democratic republican party
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one of the first political parties whose members shared the views of thomas jefferson; advocated agriculture; mainly in the south and west
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tariff
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a tax on imported goods
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pinckney’s treaty
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treaty involving a negotiation with spain; spain gives up all land east of the mississippi and agrees to open the mississipppi river to the US for trade
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genet affair
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scandal in which a french diplomat to america was the houseguest of thomas jefferson as he actively recruited americans to fight in france
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jay’s treaty
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treaty in which john jay goes to london to negotiate with british over occupied forts; britain agrees to abandon its forts
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sectionalism
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the idea of putting one’s region ahead of one’s country
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XYZ affair
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affair in which john marshall is to negotiate with the french foreign minister to avoid war; instead is met by three unknown men who say he is not allowed to meet with the minister unless he pays $250,000
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nullification
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a concept in which the states have the right not to follow an unfair law passed by government
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judiciary act of 1801
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the last act of john adams’ presidency; addition of midnight judges and appointment of john marshall as chief justice
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marbury vs madison
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argument that leads to the institution of judicial review
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judicial review
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the ability of supreme court to declare an act of congress to be unconstitutional; a cornerstone of US law
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louisiana purchase
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the purchase of land from france that doubles the size of the united states; 1803; bought for $15 million
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lewis and clark
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two of the most famous explorers who went and explored the land of the louisiana purchase; led by Sacajawea
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james monroe
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one of the men involved in the dealing of the louisiana purchase; fifth president of the united states
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john calhoun
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a warhawk; one of the big three who contributed numerous compromises in US history; one of the leaders of the Whig party; andrew jackson’s vice president
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treaty of ghent
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treaty that declares an armistice for the war of 1812; does not address impressment or other controversial matters
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battle of new orleans
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battle in war of 1812, american side led by andrew jackson; victory that protects this vital port city
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industrial revolution
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a massive change in social and economic organization resulting from the replacement of hand tools by machines and the development of large-scale production
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new england
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area of the US where the industrial revolution was most prevalent; grew into a manufacturing head for the country
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eli whitney
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invented the cotton gin which makes cotton easier to grow
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henry clay
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a warhawk who proposes the American System; also proposes the Missouri Compromise of 1820; a leader of the Whig party
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American System
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a proposition by henry clay that 1) establishes a protective tariff; 2) renews the Bank of the US; 3) supports development of transportation systems
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era of good feelings
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a name for the time period during James Monroe’s presidency
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monroe doctrine
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a speech given to congress and directed to the world warning europe not to interfere with the affairs of the western hemisphere, and at the same time the US would not get involved in European affairs
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adams onis treaty
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agreement in which spain gives up florida
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john quincy adams
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secretary of state under james monroe; believed in rising above sectionalism; sixth president of the US
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Missouri Compromise of 1820
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a compromise proposed by henry clay in which 1) missouri enters the union as a slave state; 2) maine enters the union as a free state; 3) the compromise line is established (36, 30)
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spoils system
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the replacement of government officials with friends and supporters; established by andrew jackson
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andrew jackson
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war hero of 1812 at battle of new orleans; seventh president of the united states; orders indian removal act; gets rid of the bank of the united states
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market revolution
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a trend in which people began to buy and sell goods rather than making them for themselves; changes the US economy and people’s daily lives
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capitalism
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an economic system in which private businesses and individuals control the means of production
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manifest destiny
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the belief that it was the US’s destiny to expand to the Pacific Ocean; ordained by God; coined by John O’ Sullivan
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fort laramie treaty
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treaty after the Black Hawk War that provided various native american groups with a 400 mile peace of land east of the Rocky Mts to live in peace in exchange for ceasing attacks on civilians
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mormons
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religious group that traveled west to escape persecution; founded by joseph smith, but the movement west was led by brigham young
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zachary taylor
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war hero of the Mexican-American War; sent to Rio Grande to enforce texas’ borders; also invades mexico in 3-prong attack; 12th president of the US
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james polk
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11th president of the US; expansionist who calls for the annexation of Oregon Territory; president during Texas Revolution
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Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
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treaty that ends the Mexican-American War; establishes Texas’ borders; New-Mexico and California territories are ceded to the Union; US pays $15 million for what today is CA, NM, TX, NV, AZ, UT, and WY
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California
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this territory provides a deal of controversy when it is ready for statehood; lies on both sides of the Compromise line and wishes to enter as a free state
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Compromise of 1850
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compromise that admits CA as a free state but also enforces stricter fugitive slave act; also establishes the concept of popular sovereignty
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popular sovereignty
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a new method for future states in which the people in that territory vote for whether they wish to be a free state or a slave state
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Dred Scot
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a slave who lived with his master for 5 years in IL and WI territory; sues for his freedom; ruled not to be a citizen and thus is private property; ruling eliminates 36 30
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John Brown
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crazy man who invades Harpers Ferry and calls for slaves to rise up; attacks the arsenal
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Abraham Lincoln
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sixteenth president of the US; his election causes a chain reaction of secessions from states in the south
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harriet beecher stowe; uncle tom’s cabin
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this woman wrote this book which caused much controversy over the topic of slavery (2 answers)
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james oglethorpe
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founder of Georgia
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washington d.c.
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the capital of the US moved here from New York
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Thomas Paine
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man who wrote the pamphlet “Common Sense” before the revolutionary war
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Roger Williams
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He founded Rhode Island; called for a break from the Church of England and believed colonists should pay Natives for their land; put on trial for heresy and banished back to England, but escapes banishment
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Mayflower Compact
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document written by the pilgrims to set up a self-governing system when they arrived in Plymouth; one of the first documents of self-government in the region
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harriet tubman
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an abolitionist who helped free slaves through the Underground Railroad
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Republican Party
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a new party that forms for the 1856 elections; anti-slavery feelings
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Anne Hutchinson
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an outspoken woman who rejects the concept of predestination; was put on trial and banished from colony; considered one of the first feminists?

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