psychology test three

Operant conditioning is important because it is adaptive to:
a. be able to learn about consequences of behavior without direct experience b. learn to ignore events that are of little long-term significance c. learn about the consequences of behavioral responses d. learn what events in the environment signal
C

The law of effect was formulated by which of the following individuals?
a. Edward Thorndike b. Robert Rescorla c. John Watson d. Ivan Pavlov
A

Kylee has a desk right next to her manager’s office. Whenever her manager is in his office, Kylee makes sure that she works hard at her computer. However, if her manager is away from his office, she often works much more slowly and takes more breaks. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that the manager being in his office is acting as:
a. a negative reinforcer for working hard b. an unconditioned stimulus for working hard c. a discriminative stimulus for working hard d. a positive reinforcer for working hard
C

According to the theory of operant conditioning, when the presentation of a stimulus, after a response has occurred, increases the likelihood of the response’s occurring again, the process that is at work is referred to as:
a. punishment b. negative reinforcement c. classical conditioning d. positive reinforcement
D

Luigi really likes to wash the family car, but his mom will only let him wash the car if all the dishes are done. Consequently, every Saturday Luigi has the table cleared and the dishes washed as soon as everyone has finished breakfast. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that for Luigi, washing the car acted as:
a. a positive reinforcer for doing the dishes b. a negative punisher for doing the dishes c. a negative reinforcer for doing the dishes d. a positive punisher for doing the dishes
A

For parents of a teenager who would like the teenager to get better grades in school, which of the following would be an example of negative reinforcement?
a. The next time the teenager does well on a assignment, the parents reduce his or her chores around the house b. the next time the teenager does poorly on an assignment, the parents take away his or her video games. c. the next time the teenager does well on an assignment, the parents give him or her a reward (e.g., $20). d. All of these choices
A

Every time Erwin cried, his father would immediately pick him up and he would stop crying. Now almost as soon as Erwin’s dad gets home from work, he picks Erwin up. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that for Erwin’s father, when the crying stopped it acted as:
a. a positive reinforcer for picking Erwin up b. an unconditioned stimulus for picking Erwin up c. a negative reinforcer for picking Erwin up d. a conditioned stimulus for picking Erwin up
C

With operant conditioning, a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through prior learning is referred to as a:
a. conditioned reinforcer b. contingent reinforcer c. primary reinforcer d. conditioned stimulus
A

With operant conditioning, any event or stimulus that decreases the frequency of the behavior it follows is referred to as:
a. a punishment b. a conditioned stimulus c. a reinforcement d. an unconditioned stimulus
A

When Simon was fixing his doorbell last month, he received an electric shock. Now he is reluctant to do any more electrical work around the house. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that for Simon, the electric shock acted as a:
a. negative reinforcer b. positive punisher c. negative punisher d. conditioned stimulus
B

Alaya used to speed on her way to work, but last month she went through a speed trap and was given a $120 speeding ticket. She hasn’t driven over the speed limit since she received the ticket. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that for Alaya, the $120 speeding ticket acted as a:
a. positive punisher b. negative punisher c. conditioned stimulus d. negative reinforcer
A

According to the theory of operant conditioning, when the removal of a stimulus, after a response has occurred, decreases the likelihood of the response occurring again, the process is referred to as:
a. positive reinforcement b. negative reinforcement c. negative punishment d. positive punishment
C

Kim used to arrive late for work nearly every day, and finally her boss fired her. She has since gotten a new job and she makes sure she arrives at work on time. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that for Kim, losing her job acted as a:
a. negative reinforcer for coming to work late b. negative punisher for coming to work late c. conditioned stimulus for coming to work late d. positive punisher for coming to work late
B

Nora has started withholding physical affection from her boyfriend when he behaves badly on their dates. Nora has starting using which of the following as a way to reduce the likelihood that her boyfriend will behave badly.
a. negative punishment b. positive reinforcement c. negative reinforcement d. positive punishment
A

Felix the cat used to jump on the Anderson’s old couch every chance he got. Last week the Andersons bought a new couch, and every time Felix jumped up on the couch, he got hit with a newspaper. Felix quickly stopped jumping on the couch. Based on what is known about operant conditioning, you should conclude that for Felix, being hit with the newspaper acted as a:
a. a negative punisher for jumping on the couch b. a negative reinforcer for jumping on the couch c. conditioned stimulus for jumping on the couch d. positive punisher for jumping on the couch
D

If you wanted your best friend to spend less time talking about her boyfriend, you might try frowning every time she started talking about him. In the framework of operant conditioning, your frowning would be:
a. positive reinforcement b. positive punishment c. negative reinforcement d. negative punishment
B

For parents of a teenager who would like the teenager to get better grades in school, which of the following would be an example of negative punishment?
a. the next time the teenager does well on an assignment, the parents give him or her a reward (e.g., $20). b. the next time the teenager does poorly on an assignment, the parents take away his or her video games. c. The next time the teenager does well on a assignment, the parents reduce his or her chores around the house d. All of these choices
B

For parents of a teenager who would like the teenager to get better grades in school, which of the following would be an example of positive punishment?
a. the next time the teenager does poorly on an assignment, the parents give him or her a stern scolding. b. the next time the teenager does poorly on an assignment, the parents take away his or her video games. c. The next time the teenager does well on a assignment, the parents reduce his or her chores around the house d. All of these choices
A

A relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior that results from experience is called:
a. development b. learning c. maturation d. cognition
B

Learning has occurred:
a. even if a change in behavior is due to maturation b. when a change in behavior is relatively permanent c. even if a change in behavior is temporary d. when a change in behavior is due to development
B

Classical conditioning can be thought of as learning:
a. to notice or ignore events b. about the consequences of our behavior c. what events signal d. by example
C

Habituation and sensitization can be thought of as learning:
a. to notice or ignore events b. about the consequences of our behavior c. what events signal d. from others
A

Classical conditioning involves learning:
a. to ignore those things that are repeated but are of no significant consequence b. that one event predicts another c. to conserve our limited resources d. novel behaviors we have never performed before
B

A psychology professor has just purchased a collection of papers by Ivan Pavlov. In the papers, Pavlov discusses his research on learning. The papers are probably about:
a. observational learning b. operant conditioning c. trial-and-error learning d. classical conditioning
D

If a stimulus produces a response before training begins, that stimulus is:
a. a conditioned stimulus b. an unconditioned stimulus c. a discriminative stimulus d. an associative stimulus
B

In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus is:
a. an observable reaction to an environmental event that is elicited without any prior training b. an observable reaction to an environmental event that is elicited only after training or experience c. an environmental event that elicits an observable reaction without any prior training d. an environmental event that only elicits an observable reaction after training or experience
C

Matthew used to like strawberries and tried some frozen strawberry daiquiris one night. After the sixth daiquiri, Matthew became extremely ill. Now Matthew finds that even the smell of strawberries can make him feel nauseated. In this example of classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus is:
a. the illness that followed the sixth strawberry daiquiri b. the strawberry daiquiris that Matthew consumed c. the smell of strawberries d. the nausea that Matthew feels when he smells strawberries
B

When Selma was five years old she, was terrified and became hysterical when her older brother dropped a spider down her shirt. Today, even the sight of a rubber spider is enough to make her agitated and uneasy. In this example of classical conditioning, having the spider dropped down her shirt by her older brother is:
a. an unconditioned response b. a conditioned stimulus c. an unconditioned stimulus d. a conditioned response
C

In classical conditioning, the unconditioned response is:
a. an observable reaction to an environmental event that is elicited without any prior training b. an observable reaction to an environmental event that is elicited only after training or experience c. an environmental event that elicits an observable reaction without any prior training d. an environmental event that only elicits an observable reaction after training or experience
A

Anton was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing “Can’t Help Falling in Love With You,” his girlfriend gave him a long, passionate kiss, which Anton found very enjoyable. Now Anton finds that every time he hears “Can’t Help Falling in Love With You” on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example of classical conditioning, the unconditioned response is:
a. the song “Can’t Help Falling in Love With You” b. the enjoyment Anton experienced when his girlfriend kissed him c. the long, passionate kiss d. the excitement Anton experiences when he hears the song on the radio
B

In classical conditioning, an environmental event that only elicits an observable reaction after training or experience is referred to as:
a. an unconditioned stimulus b. an unconditioned response c. a conditioned stimulus d. a conditioned response
C

In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiments, the dog’s salivating following the sounding of a the bell was:
a. the unconditioned stimulus b. the unconditioned response c. the conditioned stimulus d. the conditioned response
D

In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiments, before the dog learned the association, the food functioned as which of the following?
a. the unconditioned stimulus b. the unconditioned response c. the conditioned stimulus d. the conditioned response
A

One Saturday, Adolf was sitting at home when the telephone rang. A local company was making promotional calls and told Adolf he had just won a $1,000 gift certificate. He felt a rush of excitement at the thought of what he could do with $1,000. Now Adolf finds that whenever he hears a telephone ring, he feels a small surge of excitement. In this example of classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is:
a. the ringing of a telephone b. the rush of excitement that Adolf felt when he won the gift certificate c. the news that he had won a $1,000 gift certificate d. the rush of excitement that Adolf feels whenever he hears a ringing telephone
A

Nicole was having dinner at Appleby’s with her boyfriend last year. When their food arrived, he and she began to argue. The argument was serious and continued the entire evening. Now Nicole finds that every time she is in Appleby’s, she begins to feel tense and upset. In this example of classical conditioning, being in Appleby’s is:
a. a conditioned stimulus b. an unconditioned stimulus c. an unconditioned response d. a conditioned response
A

In classical conditioning, an observable reaction to an environmental event that is elicited only after training or experience is referred to as:
a. an unconditioned stimulus b. an unconditioned response c. a conditioned response d. a conditioned stimulus
C

In classical conditioning, the conditioned response is:
a. an observable reaction to an environmental event that is elicited without any prior training b. an observable reaction to an environmental event that is elicited only after training or experience c. an environmental event that elicits an observable reaction without any prior training d. an environmental event that only elicits an observable reaction after training or experience
B

When Natasha was five years old she was terrified and became hysterical when her older brother dropped a spider down her shirt. Today, even the sight of a rubber spider is enough to make her agitated and uneasy. In this example of classical conditioning, the conditioned response is:
a. having the spider dropped down her shirt by her older brother b. the agitation Natasha experiences when she sees a rubber spider c. the hysterical reaction Natasha had when she was five years old d. the sight of a rubber spider
B

Troy is trying to study, and his sister is in the next room, playing with some balloons. She counts “one, two, three,” and just as she says “three” she pops one of the balloons with a pin. Each time a balloon pops Troy is startled and jumps. By the time his sister has popped six balloons Troy begins to cringe when he hears the counting start, before he actually hears the balloon pop. In this example of classical conditioning, the cringing that Troy experiences when he hears his sister start counting is:
a. a conditioned response b. an unconditioned stimulus c. an unconditioned response d. a conditioned stimulus
A

Sarah used to like strawberries and tried some frozen strawberry daiquiris one night. After the sixth daiquiri, Sarah became extremely ill. Now Sarah finds that even the smell of strawberries can make her feel nauseated. In this example of classical conditioning, the conditioned response is:
a. the illness that followed the sixth strawberry daiquiri b. the smell of strawberries c. the strawberry daiquiris that Sarah consumed d. the nausea that Sarah feels when she smells strawberries
D

Research has shown that the most effective classical conditioning association will form when the unconditioned stimulus occurs:
a. just before the conditioned stimulus b. soon after the unconditioned response c. soon after the conditioned stimulus d. just before the conditioned response
C

Elizabeth wants to train her cat to drool at the sound of the telephone, so she plans to pair the sound of the ringing telephone with a tasty piece of tuna. To use classical conditioning most effectively, Elizabeth should present the tuna:
a. approximately five minutes after the telephone rings b. a few seconds before the telephone rings c. at the same time as the telephone is ringing d. a few seconds after the telephone rings
D

Research has shown that classical conditioning will be most effective when the conditioned stimulus:
a. is paired with another stimulus that is already an effective signal for the unconditioned stimulus b. occurs with a wide variety of other stimuli c. provides new information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus d. is presented on its own, with no unconditioned stimulus
C

Behaviorists considered the study of consciousness inappropriate for a scientific psychology.
True

Classical conditioning refers to behavioral responding that occurs without conscious effort.
True

It takes many months for an infant to learn how to blink, but eventually they do.
False

A person’s wave is an observable stimulus.
True

A person’s wave is an observable response.
True

A green cowboy hat is a good example of a neutral stimulus for dog salivating.
True

Spontaneous recovery is usually temporary.
True

Ivan Pavlov did research on dog salivating.
True

A “conditioned response” follows the presentation of an “unconditioned stimulus.”
False

All “conditioned stimuli” began life as a “neutral stimulus.”
True

The term operant is derived from the word operate.
True

The term negative means removed.
True

The term positive means added.
True

Classical conditioning primarily works with the skeletal muscles.
False

Operant conditioning uses a “schedule of reinforcement” to train animals and people.
True

Positive reinforcement refers to adding something desirable to an organism’s environment.
True

Variable interval is a “time” based schedule of reinforcement.
True

Operant conditioning uses a “schedule of reinforcement” to train animals and people.
True

Fixed ratio is a “count” based schedule of reinforcement.
True

Positive punishment refers to adding something undesirable to an organism’s environment.
True

Detecting electric fields on the head is a way to detect and measure brain activity.
True

To experience smell, our brain detects molecules.
True

The brain is an electronic device.
True

A person is considered conscious if they are aware of themselves and their surroundings.
True

The ears are most like a radio antenna.
False

One explanation as to why animals sleep is to save energy.
True

SCN stands for suprachiasmatic nucleus.
True

Sleep progresses through a series of stages.
True

In the context of the brain, a “nucleus” refers to a group of neuron cell bodies.
True

Re-synchronizing the circadian rhythm is easier after flying west, the same direction as the sun seems to rise.
True

Unpleasant dreams are called nightmares.
True

Most dreams do not include visual content.
False

Sleep spindles tend to occur during stage 2 sleep.
True

A less synchronized bran is a “more” active brain.
True

A lucid dream refers to a dream someone forgets.
False

Behaviorism began, in part, as a protest against psychologists who tried to study
mental experiences.

A tone is followed by a puff of air to the eyes. After several repetitions, subjects blink their eyes when they hear the tone. In this experiment blinking is
both the conditioned response and the unconditioned response.

Your clock makes a clicking sound just before the alarm goes off. Even though you didn’t wake up to the clicking sound initially, now you do, due to classical conditioning. What is the unconditioned response?
waking up to your alarm

A tone is followed by a puff of air to the eyes. After several repetitions, subjects blink their eyes when they hear the tone. The tone is the __________ and blinking is the __________.
conditioned stimulus…conditioned response

Pavlov paired the presentation of food with a sound and measured salivation to each. In this experiment the sound was the
conditioned stimulus.

A tone is followed by a puff of air to the eyes. After several repetitions, subjects blink their eyes when they hear the tone. The tone is the
conditioned stimulus.

After classically conditioning some response, how might one produce extinction of the response?
Repeatedly present the CS alone, without the UCS.

A tone is followed by a puff of air to the eyes. After several repetitions, subjects blink their eyes when they hear the tone. What is the unconditioned stimulus?
the puff of air

Your clock makes a clicking sound just before the alarm goes off. Even though you didn’t wake up to the clicking sound initially, now you do, due to classical conditioning. The clicking is the
conditioned stimulus.

Your clock makes a clicking sound just before the alarm goes off. Even though you didn’t wake up to the clicking sound initially, now you do, due to classical conditioning. Waking up is
both the conditioned response and the unconditioned response.

In a classical conditioning experiment, what (if anything) occurs on the first trial?
an unconditioned response

Which of the following would a behaviorist be least likely to study?
b. human thought processes

When the drill sergeant shouts, “fire,” the artillery shoots, making a loud sound that makes you flinch. After a few repetitions, you flinch at the word “fire.” What is the conditioned response?
flinching

When the drill sergeant shouts, “fire,” the artillery shoots, making a loud sound that makes you flinch. After a few repetitions, you flinch at the word “fire.” What is the unconditioned stimulus?
the loud sound

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of behaviorism?
interest in the difference between conscious and unconscious thought

In Pavlov’s experiment on classically conditioning salivation to a sound, what procedure produces spontaneous recovery?
Present the sound without food, and then wait a long time before testing again.

A tone is followed by a puff of air to the eyes. After several repetitions, subjects blink their eyes when they hear the tone. The tone is the __________ and the puff of air is the __________.
conditioned stimulus…unconditioned stimulus

A behaviorist would state that your thoughts and feelings do not cause your behavior, because
events in the past and present environment cause your thoughts and feelings.

How can one extinguish a classically conditioned response?
Repeatedly present the conditioned stimulus by itself.

In general, behaviorists accept the assumption that
all behavior follows cause-and-effect relationships.

When the drill sergeant shouts, “fire,” the artillery shoots, making a loud sound that makes you flinch. After a few repetitions, you flinch at the word “fire.” What is the conditioned stimulus?
the word “fire”

What is a conditioned response?
a learned response to the conditioned stimulus

Under what circumstances do we see spontaneous recovery of a learned response?
After a response is extinguished, the subject is given a delay and then tested again.

A professor gives unannounced quizzes at unpredictable times. Therefore students must study equally every night. Which type of schedule of reinforcement is this?
variable interval

In the presence of a light, an animal makes a response that is followed by food. The food is given only when the animal makes the response. Which type of learning is this?
operant conditioning

If you like to go fishing, and the fish are biting on some days and not others, you are reinforced on which schedule?
variable-interval

If you want to determine whether some example of learning qualifies as classical conditioning or operant conditioning, which question should you ask?
Did the individual’s responses control the outcomes?

Suppose we want to find an event that will serve as an effective reinforcer for a given person. According to the disequilibrium principle, we should begin by determining
which behaviors the person has recently not had an opportunity to do.

The ability of a stimulus to encourage some responses and discourage others is known as
stimulus control.

If you learn to turn off a dripping faucet to end the “drip, drip, drip” sound, your behavior was changed through
negative reinforcement.

An individual receives a reinforcement for the first response after some period of time, but the amount of time changes. Sometimes the individual has to wait as much as 3 minutes, sometimes as little as 10 seconds. This is an example of which type of schedule of reinforcement?
variable interval

Responses that are followed by satisfaction to the animal will be more firmly connected with the situation so that they will be more likely to recur in the future. This is a brief statement of the
law of effect.

Which of the following is an example of discrimination in operant conditioning?
You have learned to buy Ida brand potato chips, which are always fresh, and to avoid Hoe brand, which are usually stale.

Thorndike’s cats improved their ability to escape his puzzle boxes gradually, not suddenly. What conclusion did he draw from this observation?
Learning is based on strengthening responses, not on insights.

Shaping (in the context of operant conditioning) means
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior.

Under a continuous schedule of reinforcement, when is the animal reinforced?
after every response.

The more lottery tickets you buy, the greater your chances of winning. However, you have no way of knowing how many tickets you will have to buy before you win. It might be fewer than ten; it might be more than a million. This is an example of which type of schedule of reinforcement?
variable ratio

A little boy has learned to get candy by crying. What procedure would lead to extinction of this response?
Listen to the crying without responding.

The main difference between classical and operant conditioning is that in classical conditioning
the animal’s responses do not control the reinforcements.

Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
money

A rat learns to climb a ladder to a platform where it can pull a string to raise the ladder and then climb the ladder again. The reinforcement for each response is the opportunity to perform the next response. This procedure is known as
chaining.

Children who are frequently spanked tend to be ill-behaved. What conclusion (if any) can we draw from this result?
We can draw none of these conclusions.

The threat of cancer is not always effective in discouraging people from smoking. Why not?
The punishment is slow and unpredictable.

In operant conditioning, a continuous reinforcement schedule is one in which
every correct response is reinforced.

When an animal hears a bell, it sits up on its hind legs and drools. Then it receives food. What kind of conditioning is this?
We don’t have enough information to answer the question. It depends on whether the food always occurs after the bell, or only if the animal sits up.

When Thorndike found that cats gradually improved their performance in a puzzle box, without any point of sudden improvement, what did he conclude?
Cats don’t solve the problem by understanding.

An operant conditioner such as B. F. Skinner might provide you with a reinforcer after you make a sound, then after a louder sound, then after a more pleasant sound, and so forth until you are singing. This procedure would be an example of
shaping.

You enjoy getting e-mail messages, so you occasionally check your e-mail to find out if you have any new messages. Which schedule of reinforcement is present in this case?
variable interval

Which of the following is an example of a primary reinforcer?
food

The main difference between classical and operant conditioning is that in operant conditioning
the animal’s behavior controls the outcomes (including reinforcers).

You attend every new movie that appears at your local theater. You find that most of them are dull (not reinforcing) but really enjoy about one-fourth of them. This is an example of a __________ schedule of reinforcement.
variable-ratio

What procedure produces extinction in operant conditioning?
Stop providing positive reinforcements.

You scan the night sky looking for meteors. Sometimes there is a brief time period between meteors, but sometimes you have to wait for a long time after seeing a meteor until another one appears. This is an example of which type of schedule of reinforcement?
variable interval

What do positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement have in common with each other?
They both strengthen a behavior.

What was Edward Thorndike’s research goal?
to find a simple behavioristic explanation of learning

An individual receives a reinforcement for the first response after a 1-minute interval, but not again until the next 1-minute interval has passed. This is an example of which type of schedule of reinforcement?
fixed interval

To use shaping to train a rat to press a lever, what will the experimenter do first?
Reinforce the rat for something simple, like sitting up.

What did B.F. Skinner mean by “shaping”?
reinforcing successive approximations to a behavior.

What is a secondary reinforcer?
an event that became reinforcing as a result of previous experience

Which of these states the disequilibrium principle?
You can be reinforced by a chance to do something that you have not been able to do recently.

Skinner trained a rat to raise a flag and salute during the playing of the “Star-Spangled Banner.” The training involved a combination of __________ and __________.
shaping…chaining

Your boss provides free coffee and donuts daily at 10:30 am. Showing up at the right time and place is reinforced on which schedule?
fixed interval

Negative reinforcement is also known as
escape or avoidance learning.

Reinforcement on which schedule produces a slow but steady rate of responding?
variable interval

What evidence suggested that some people in a vegetative state are conscious?
Instructions to imagine something activated the same brain areas as in intact people.

In which of these does a person have the LEAST amount of brain activity and responsiveness?
brain death

Someone with right-hemisphere damage ordinarily neglects the left side of objects. What happens if the person closes his/her eyes and tries to describe a scene form memory?
The description neglects the left side.

In binocular rivalry, you see one image in the left eye and an incompatible image in the right eye. What do you perceive?
an alternation between one image and the other

What happens to the brain’s representation of a sensory stimulus on occasions when people are conscious of it, that does not happen when they are unconscious of it?
The activity spreads through much more of the brain.

In which condition does the brain show a low, steady rate of activity and no response to any stimulus?
coma

Which of the following is characteristic of a “minimally conscious state”?
brief periods of purposeful action and speech comprehension

Researchers wanted to present a stimulus that would become conscious on some trials and not on others, while keeping the stimulus itself the same. Which of these methods did they use to make the stimulus unconscious?
They presented interfering stimuli before and after the stimulus.

What evidence suggests that we sometimes consciously perceive a stimulus afterward, instead of simultaneously with it?
We don’t perceive a brief masked stimulus, but a slightly longer one seems to last the whole duration.

Which of the following often produces spatial neglect for half of the body?
damage in the right hemisphere of the brain

Damage to the right hemisphere of the brain often leads to which of the following?
tendency to be unconscious of the left side of the body and the world

When researchers measured brain activity during a binocular rivalry task, what did they find?
A consciously perceived image activated large portions of the brain.

What evidence indicated that a woman in a vegetative state may be conscious?
Her brain activity responded to commands such as “imagine playing tennis.”

Our tendency to feel wakeful and sleepy on a 24-hour basis depends mainly on
a cycle generated by a mechanism in the brain.

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of REM sleep?
Most of the body’s muscles are tense and active.

The terms “light sleep” and “deep sleep” are not very useful because
REM sleep is deep in some ways and light in others.

Someone who stays in a cave with no light alternates between sleepiness and wakefulness on about a 24 hour cycle. Why?
a rhythm generated within the person’s own brain

When a normal, healthy person falls asleep, REM sleep is least likely when
the person has been asleep less than an hour.

During which stage of sleep is the brain most active?
REM

What does it mean if you wake up and find yourself temporarily unable to move?
Part of your brain is awake and another part is asleep.

Why is it impossible for sleepwalking to occur during REM sleep?
The postural muscles are so relaxed that they would not support a person.

Why do cats sleep more than sheep?
Cats are in less danger while they sleep.

If you were on a submarine with constant artificial light and no sunlight, what would happen to your sleep-wake cycle?
You would alternate between sleep and wakefulness on a 24-hour cycle.

A worker at International Amalgamated, Inc., is currently working from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. The company wants to shift her to a different work time. For the sake of her physical and mental health, which of the following would be best?
Move her to the 4 p.m. to midnight shift, then to midnight to 8 a.m. shift.

If a person goes without sleep for several days, what happens?
Sleepiness decreases at the end of each sleepless night, as morning arrives.

Narcolepsy may be caused by
a deficiency of the brain chemical orexin.

What is one important function of sleep?
conserving energy

The brain activity associated with REM sleep is most similar to that associated with
stage 1 sleep.

Which of the following is true of brain activity during sleep?
Increased inhibitory messages prevent excitation from spreading in the brain.

What problem do people with sleep apnea experience?
They often stop breathing while they are asleep.

For most people, REM sleep occurs
mostly toward the end of the night’s sleep.

During REM sleep,
dreaming is likely to occur.

After staying awake late many nights, Gloria has become accustomed to going to sleep late and awakening late. Now she tries to shift to going to bed earlier and waking up earlier. This shift is similar to the difficulties people face when they travel
east.

After a prolonged period of sleep deprivation, what happens to the brain?
Some neurons are active but others are as inactive as in sleep.

How would the activation-synthesis theory explain why people dream of an inability to move?
It really is difficult to move the muscles during REM sleep.

Research examining the content of dreams in American and Japanese college students found that
dream content was similar in both cultures.

How does dreaming differ from other thinking?
It has less sensory input and less voluntary control.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between light-dark cycles (from the rising and setting sun) and circadian rhythms?
Circadian rhythms are generated by the body, but reset by light-dark cycles.

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