Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Riders/"Big Stick" diplomacy

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Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Riders
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the first U.S. volunteer cavalry. got good recognition. during the Spanish-American War.
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Commodore George Dewey
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Followed Roosevelt’s order to attack Spanish forces in the Philippines when war was declared; completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898; was immediately promoted to admiral, becoming the first her of the war; his victory shed light on the adjusted purpose of war with Spain from just freeing Cuba to stripping Spain of all of its colonies
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Battle of Manila Bay
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Marked the end of the wooden navy, when the more powerful American Steel Navy destroys the entire Spanish Wooden Navy in one single battle. Fought in the Philippines. George Dewey and US were victorious.
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Battle of San Juan Hill
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One of the most important battles of the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt and Rough Riders defeated Spain. Placed America at an advantage. Two days later, American ships destroyed the Spanish fleet in Cuba. In August, the US and Spain agreed to a treaty ending the war.
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Annexation of Hawaii
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U.S. wanted Hawaii for business and so Hawaiian sugar could be sold in the U.S. duty free, Queen Liliuokalani opposed so Sanford B. Dole overthrew her in 1893, William McKinley convinced Congress to annex Hawaii in 1898
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Treaty of Paris (1898)
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(WMc) , The treaty that concluded the Spanish American War, Commissioners from the U.S. were sent to Paris on October 1, 1898 to produce a treaty that would bring an end to the war with Spain after six months of hostilitiy. From the treaty America got Guam, Puerto Rico and they paid 20 million dollars for the Philipines. Cuba was freed from Spain.
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Platt Amendment
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Platt Amendment: This amendment gave the U.S the right to take over the Island of Cuba if that country entered into a treaty or debt that might place its freedom in danger. This amendment also gave the U.S. the right to put a naval base in Cuba to protect it and the U.S holdings in the Caribbean. This amendment was resented very much by the Cubans.
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Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico
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Territories the US gained as a result of the Spanish-American War
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Guantanamo Bay
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Military base granted to the US in Cuba
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“The American Lake”
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Jingoism
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So loyal to your own country/culture that you are mean or aggressiveness to others (extreme chauvinism or nationalism)
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Insular Cases (1901)
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set up to determine whether or not the newly-acquired lands would be afforded the same rights as Americans; decided that the Constitution and Bill of Rights did not necessarily extend to include the islands
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Emilio Aguinaldo
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Philippine leader of a rebellion against Spanish rule (1896-1898) and an uprising against American authority (1899-1901) that ended with his capture and subsequent oath of allegiance to the United States.
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Anti-Imperialist League
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group of antiimperialists that advocated for isolationism
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Philippine insurrection
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Even before the Philippines was annexed by the U.S. there existed tension between U.S. troops and Filippinos. One U.S. sentry shot a Filippino who was crossing a bridge. The situation deteriorated and eventually we entered into a war with the Philippines. It would take two years to settle this dispute, as compared to the four months needed to defeat the once powerful Spain. Though the U.S. had better arms, the guerilla warfare employed by the Filippinos left the Americans outmatched. Between 200,000 and 600,000 Filippinos died in the war, most from sickness and disease caused by the war. Less than 5,000 Americans were killed in the combat. Emilio Aguinaldo helped Americans fight Spain only to turn on them once free. In 1901, Aguinaldo surrendered which greatly hurt the Filippino cause. The war formally ended in 1902, though the fighting would continue until 1903. The Philippines was not an independent nation until July 4, 1946.
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Panama revolution
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The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
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Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
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A negotiation after Panama’s independence over the terms of sale for the building of a Panama Canal and for a Panama Canal Zone surrounding the canal.
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Roosevelt Corollary
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Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
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Panama Canal Zone
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Area in Latin America where the Panama Canal was formed. Owned by Columbia, but taken for the canal building by America.
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Venezuela Crisis (1902)
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Boundary dispute between U.S. and Germany
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“spheres of influence”
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areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
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Open Door Policy
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Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan carved spheres of influence in China. American leaders freared that the Eroupeans and Japanese would try to bar the US from trading in China. 1899 Secretary of State, John Hay, sent a letter to all the nations with spheres around China. He urged them to follow Open Door Policy, under this policy any nation could trade in the spheres of others.
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Boxer Rebellion
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an uprising in china in 1900, spurred by angry chinese militants, or boxers, over foreign control; several hundred Europeans, christians, and chinese died.
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Russo-Japanese War
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a war between the Russian empire and Japan in 1904-05, caused by territorial disputes in Manchuria and Korea. Russia suffered a series of humiliating defeats, and the peace settlement gave Japan the ascendancy in the disputed region.
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Treaty of Portsmouth
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gave japan captured territories. forced russia to withdraw from manchuria and stay out of korea . signed on a ship off of the coast of portsmouth new hampshire
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Gentlemen’s Agreement
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Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
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“Great White Fleet”
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1907-1909 – Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the “Gentlemen’s Agreement.”
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“Big Stick” diplomacy
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Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the “big stick” symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary.tIt is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.

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