Psych Ch. 1 – Flashcards

question
behavioral perspective
answer
Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner emphasizes observable behavior that can be objectively measured all human behavior is learned and can be controlled with rewards and punishments (reinforcement)
question
humanistic perspective
answer
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow emphasizes the importance of self-esteem, free will, and choice in human behavior
question
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective
answer
Sigmund Freud emphasizes the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality less emphasis on sexual instincts emphasizes repressed memories, free association, dream interpretation, and transference
question
cognitive perspective
answer
computer revolution - encodes, processes and stores sensory information emphasizes thinking, perceiving, and information processing influenced by computer revolution
question
biological perspective
answer
emphasizes genetics, the role of various parts of the brain, and the structure and function of individual nerve cells
question
evolutionary perspective
answer
Charles Darwin emphasizes the role played by natural selection and adaptation in the evolution of behavior and mental processes
question
Charles Darwin
answer
British naturalist theory of evolution had a significant influence on early psychology theory of natural selection continues to influence modern evolutionary perspective
question
Wilhelm Wundt
answer
German psychologist 1st psychology research lab introspection - reported detailed descriptions of their own conscious mental experiences studied elements of consciousness - sensation, perception, emotion
question
William James
answer
Harvard professor established psychology in US emphasized studying the purpose of behavior and mental experiences James-Lange theory of emotion - emotion follows a 3 part sequence beginning with the perception of the stimulus which triggers physiological arousal and is interpreted as a specific emotion
question
G. Stanley Hall
answer
studied under William James established 1st psych lab in US 1st president of APA
question
Mary Whiton Calkins
answer
studied under William James denied her Ph.D at Harvard established psych lab at Wellesley College 1st female president of APA
question
Margaret Flow Washburn
answer
1st American woman to get Ph.D in psych experiments on animal behavior
question
Sigmund Freud
answer
most influential thinkers of 20th century founded psychoanalytic school of psych theory of personality - role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and psychological disorders emphasized how childhood experiences affect adult personality believed that dreams provided insight into unconscious motives
question
John B. Watson
answer
emphasized study of observable behavior rather than the subjective mental process one of the founders of behaviorism
question
psychology
answer
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
question
behavior
answer
any action or reaction of a living organism that can be directly observed
question
goals of psychology
answer
describe particular behaviors by naming, classifying, and measuring them explain why a behavior or mental process occurred predict the conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur apply psychological knowledge to promote desired goals and precent unwanted behaviors
question
structuralism
answer
Edward Titchner established psych lab at Cornell used introspection to identify basic components of conscious experiences unreliable method of investigation - different subjects reported different findings about same stimulus introspection couldn't be used toe tidy children, animals, mental disorders
question
functionalism
answer
william James emphasized studying the purpose of behavior and mental experiences rejected introspective method of gathering info broadened scope of psychological research to include direct observation of human and nonhuman animals
question
psychoanalysis
answer
Sigmund Frued emphasized role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality conflict between accepted norms of behavior and unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses freudian slips
question
gestalt
answer
how we construct perceptual wholes explain perceptual organization
question
social-cultural perspective
answer
focuses on how culture and social situations affect the way people think, feel, and behave
question
diverse specialty areas
answer
embraces a wide range of speciality areas clinical and counseling attract largest number of doctoral students
question
clinical psychology
answer
evolution, diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders
question
forensic psychology
answer
applies principles of psychology to legal profession, jury selection, and psychological profiling
question
educational psychology
answer
uses how people learn to develop in structural methods and materials
question
industrial-organizational psychology
answer
applies principles of psychology to workplace, including employee motivation, job satisfaction, and personnel selection
question
Max Wertheimer
answer
gestalt psychologist
question
Ivan Pavlov
answer
classical conditioning behaviorism Pavlov's dogs
question
B. F. Skinner
answer
reinforcement behaviorism
question
behaviorism
answer
psychologists should only look at behavior and causes of behavior
question
biopsychological perspective
answer
explain human thought and behavior in terms of biological processes
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question
behavioral perspective
answer
Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner emphasizes observable behavior that can be objectively measured all human behavior is learned and can be controlled with rewards and punishments (reinforcement)
question
humanistic perspective
answer
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow emphasizes the importance of self-esteem, free will, and choice in human behavior
question
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective
answer
Sigmund Freud emphasizes the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality less emphasis on sexual instincts emphasizes repressed memories, free association, dream interpretation, and transference
question
cognitive perspective
answer
computer revolution - encodes, processes and stores sensory information emphasizes thinking, perceiving, and information processing influenced by computer revolution
question
biological perspective
answer
emphasizes genetics, the role of various parts of the brain, and the structure and function of individual nerve cells
question
evolutionary perspective
answer
Charles Darwin emphasizes the role played by natural selection and adaptation in the evolution of behavior and mental processes
question
Charles Darwin
answer
British naturalist theory of evolution had a significant influence on early psychology theory of natural selection continues to influence modern evolutionary perspective
question
Wilhelm Wundt
answer
German psychologist 1st psychology research lab introspection - reported detailed descriptions of their own conscious mental experiences studied elements of consciousness - sensation, perception, emotion
question
William James
answer
Harvard professor established psychology in US emphasized studying the purpose of behavior and mental experiences James-Lange theory of emotion - emotion follows a 3 part sequence beginning with the perception of the stimulus which triggers physiological arousal and is interpreted as a specific emotion
question
G. Stanley Hall
answer
studied under William James established 1st psych lab in US 1st president of APA
question
Mary Whiton Calkins
answer
studied under William James denied her Ph.D at Harvard established psych lab at Wellesley College 1st female president of APA
question
Margaret Flow Washburn
answer
1st American woman to get Ph.D in psych experiments on animal behavior
question
Sigmund Freud
answer
most influential thinkers of 20th century founded psychoanalytic school of psych theory of personality - role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and psychological disorders emphasized how childhood experiences affect adult personality believed that dreams provided insight into unconscious motives
question
John B. Watson
answer
emphasized study of observable behavior rather than the subjective mental process one of the founders of behaviorism
question
psychology
answer
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
question
behavior
answer
any action or reaction of a living organism that can be directly observed
question
goals of psychology
answer
describe particular behaviors by naming, classifying, and measuring them explain why a behavior or mental process occurred predict the conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur apply psychological knowledge to promote desired goals and precent unwanted behaviors
question
structuralism
answer
Edward Titchner established psych lab at Cornell used introspection to identify basic components of conscious experiences unreliable method of investigation - different subjects reported different findings about same stimulus introspection couldn't be used toe tidy children, animals, mental disorders
question
functionalism
answer
william James emphasized studying the purpose of behavior and mental experiences rejected introspective method of gathering info broadened scope of psychological research to include direct observation of human and nonhuman animals
question
psychoanalysis
answer
Sigmund Frued emphasized role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality conflict between accepted norms of behavior and unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses freudian slips
question
gestalt
answer
how we construct perceptual wholes explain perceptual organization
question
social-cultural perspective
answer
focuses on how culture and social situations affect the way people think, feel, and behave
question
diverse specialty areas
answer
embraces a wide range of speciality areas clinical and counseling attract largest number of doctoral students
question
clinical psychology
answer
evolution, diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders
question
forensic psychology
answer
applies principles of psychology to legal profession, jury selection, and psychological profiling
question
educational psychology
answer
uses how people learn to develop in structural methods and materials
question
industrial-organizational psychology
answer
applies principles of psychology to workplace, including employee motivation, job satisfaction, and personnel selection
question
Max Wertheimer
answer
gestalt psychologist
question
Ivan Pavlov
answer
classical conditioning behaviorism Pavlov's dogs
question
B. F. Skinner
answer
reinforcement behaviorism
question
behaviorism
answer
psychologists should only look at behavior and causes of behavior
question
biopsychological perspective
answer
explain human thought and behavior in terms of biological processes