The traditional and critical sociological theories
Notes from appraisal conducted sing Alan B. 13 twelvemonth old male and his female parent Mary B. Alan was referred for services due to his behaviour and current life conditions. He has lived with his female parent ; the male parent has non been in the place since birth. The topic has hapless eating wonts as evidenced by the deficiency of proper nutrient storage i.e. Mary B. reported that there is non a working icebox in the place ; though she does try to maintain some nutrient points in the place Alan must travel to his neighbour or grandparent ‘s place for milk etc. Alan has been hospitalized on several occasions due to asthma and pneumonia. This is non the first clip that Mary and Alan B. are seeking support and services. The first clip that Alan was assessed it is reported that he could non follow the schoolroom modus operandis and seldom completed category assignments. It was to boot reported that Alan had hapless hygiene this appraisal was at the age of five.
At eight old ages old, Alan and Mary B. returned for farther services ; Issues that Alan B. displayed at the clip of appraisal included: go forthing his place without permission, remaining out tardily, declining to eat repasts made by his female parent, physical and verbal maltreatment towards his female parent. In add-on, Alan B. was experiences dark panics picturing force and occasional bed-wetting, anxiousness around sexual issues, hapless hygiene and training, and he was reported to be easy distractible. Attendance in the plan increased, nevertheless Mary B. was still holding issues with being on clip. Mary B. besides showed similar features to those displayed by Alan B. i.e. anxiousness, extremely disorganized, inability to concentrate. Mary B. is unable to maintain and keep clear boundaries with Alan, and it was reported that for a figure of old ages Mary and Alan slept in the same bed, even after Mary had been told that Alan needed his ain private infinite. Mary ‘s attending would better in times of crises or unusual emphasiss. Mary B. besides requires extra services including budget direction, place direction and bettering her communicating accomplishments.
Howe ( 1994 ) , wrote that societal work ‘s indispensable character formed, under modernness ‘s designation of cosmopolitan criterions of truth, goodness and beauty as applied to the ego and society. The criterions implied thoughts of betterment and advancement every bit good as those of order and control. Social work pursued these in coincident Acts of the Apostless of surveillance and ordinance, intervention and reform. Kondrat ( 1995 ) explains that historically the societal work literature has made repeated attempts to accommodate differences between theoretical cognition for the profession and the pragmatics of pattern. One of the most cardinal issues has been epistemic: the relationship between cognition and human action. Attempts to turn to this issue have resulted in a figure of theoretical accounts for structuring instruction in a profession that is both a subject and a pattern. Although the basic inquiry is an epistemic one, there has been small effort to specify the premises about cognition that underlie these educational models.
Payne ( 2005 ) , discusses that theories are a basic tool in societal work pattern. They help us form our ideas, evaluate and construe the universe around us, and explain and predict human behaviour. In Chapter 2 Payne discusses that the experiences that we have as societal workers connect with answerability. Workers use theory within the political relations of their day-to-day patterns to offer answerability to troughs, politicians, clients etc. Theory does this by depicting acceptable patterns sufficiently to enable societal work activities to be checked to see that they are appropriate.
Leight ( 2001 ) , recants that transpersonal interruptions down as “ beyond/through ” plus persona, significance, “ mask. ” Transpersonal, so, means beyond the individual or beyond the self-importance. Trans-personal ( doctrine ) is based on the premise that there is a “ higher or inner self distinct from the personal self-importance. ” Transpersonal psychological science is based on a developmental position that acknowledges entree to “ higher ” degrees of being, to the existent ego, beyond the personal. Personal or personality development, in a psychotherapeutic context, is explained in footings of three “ forces ” of theory:
First Force ( psychoanalytic ) , 2nd Force ( behavioural ) , and Third Force ( humanistic ) . The First Force trades with unconscious thrusts and urges chiefly from a pathological point of view. The Second Force, with its empirical focal point, speaks to the procedure of socialisation and larning theory. The Third Force is associated with humanistic, experiential and experiential theory. Third Force self-actualization, forms the philosophical footing for the Fourth Force of psychological science which is “ transpersonal, trans-human, centered in the universe instead than in human demands and involvements, traveling beyond humanity, Identity, self-actualization and the similar ” Transpersonal psychological science consists of a theoretical base and a practical base ( 66 ) .
Kondrat ( 1995 ) discussed in his research that the most indispensable and most interesting jobs of pattern has to make with viing claims to material or symbolic resources and differential capacities to press one ‘s claim in decision-making spheres. Problems of pattern are besides concerned with how persons and groups explain their sensed power ( or deficiency of it ) to themselves and to others. These inquiries about power and engagement may happen in the context of a household, an organisation, or society at large-in any scene or relationship in which power is distributed unevenly. Troubles arise when state of affairss that are basically about the exercising of power are treated as though they were merely proficient jobs or jobs in communicating.
Psychological development, harmonizing to a transpersonal position, is viewed as a procedure in which “ the whole of any degree becomes a portion of the whole of the following degree ” as consciousness evolves. Transpersonal theoreticians speak of three major developmental stages: pre-personal, personal, and transpersonal or pre-conventional, conventional, and trans-conventional. The first two degrees are recognized, taught, nurtured, and expected by the society. The transpersonal or trans-conventional, on the other manus, is frequently seen as scaring and/or endangering to the single and/or the society. Traveling beyond the conventional requires a willingness to “ release fond regards to societal blessing and the consensual universe position. ” As such, transpersonal development is frequently suppressed by a society that sees designation with an alternate belief system as a danger to the position quo. Transpersonalism provides a context for allowing spell, for exceeding this egocentric province of consciousness, for traveling beyond preoccupation with ego, and traveling toward a connexion with the whole. Oppressed and devalued clients are frequently most vulnerable to self-alienation ( Leight, 2001 ) .
Kondrat ( 1995 ) , reports that literature emphasizes the strong followers behind the impression of “ empowerment ” as a pattern model. There has been virtually no attending to the epistemic and educational deductions of an empowerment position. That is to state, there has been small note of its possible significance for the ways they have historically structured and taught cognition for pattern.
Leight ( 2001 ) reported that transpersonal patterns trade with “ client systems at every degree on the Full Spectrum of Consciousness. ” This comprehensive attack includes work on six different dimensions: physical, emotional, cognitive, psychosocial, moral, and religious. Assessment and intervention of the client ‘s hurt across all dimensions creates a mind-body-spirit attack. Contextual variables include household and relationships, societal establishments, physical environment, cultural factors, gender issues, economic state of affairss, historical factors, and macro systems. A transpersonal context requires a paradigm displacement to acknowledge and understand that some non-rational experiences are transpersonal phenomena and non needfully pathologic in nature. Transpersonal context can ease the geographic expedition of transpersonal content, and, as such, the worker to ease growing and alteration can utilize the client ‘s trans-rational experience.
In concurrence with the dimensions discussed by Kondrat ( 1995 ) , explains that there are three chief ways in which human existences effort to pull off or change their stuff and societal conditions: through work, through interaction, and through power. Each of these spheres presupposes the influence of cardinal human involvements. Through the activity of work, persons and societies attempt to pull off the physical and societal universe to run into their demands and desires. Hence, the basic, human involvement involved is an instrumental one, doing alterations in some facet of the human environment in order to run into an identified demand. In societal work pattern, this involvement is operationalized in the proficient model. Through interaction ( or symbolic activity ) , persons and communities of persons try to give significance and order to their corporate being. The involvement here is communicating, that is, shared significance and consensus in the broadest sense of the term. In professional pattern, the communicative involvement is identified most closely with the “ practical model. ” Finally, through the exercising of power, persons negotiate and legitimate their claim to stuff, societal, and symbolic resources in the service of their ain identified precedences. The involvement is an emancipatory one ; that is, it is oriented toward maximising the freedom of persons and groups to prosecute a hereafter they choose for themselves.
Leight ( 2001 ) , the transpersonal theoretical account of pattern tantrums good within the parametric quantities of the societal work position. The client ‘s social context and its consequence on the person ‘s perceptual experience of ego is built-in to both transpersonal psychotherapeutics and societal work. Supplying a loving infinite and being unfastened to the client ‘s position are cardinal to both schools of pattern. A transpersonal experience, traveling toward higher degrees of consciousness, awakens both a sense of integrity and connection indispensable to the societal reactivity that is at the bosom of societal work ‘s mission.
The ends for work outing an issue that a client is holding using the transpersonal position, is really a small clearer than it may look at first. Through this theoretical model, the clients are in a sense left to come to their ain resoluteness. This theory looks at all aspects of the person, leting him or her to turn and go empowered through self-awareness and realization. There is no blasted topographic point, no psychosis prescribed. The client is able to work through all of these issues in a mode that does non do them experience ashamed for what is go oning to them ; nor do they have to experience anomic. It is a method that afford for self-actualization. As saying in some of the category, readings ( Payne, 2005, p. 14 ) Theories can inform us about societal policies that are necessary to alter the conditions of mark groups or vulnerable populations. In the instance survey with Alan and Mary B, this theory would be utile it appears for several different grounds. First, it is obvious that Mary B. acknowledges that there is an issue and that she and her boy are in demand of aid. Mary besides appears to understand that “ acquiring to a better topographic point ” will necessitate extra aid.
As explained earlier by Leight ( 2001 ) , an appraisal across all dimensions creates a head organic structure attack. The variables include household and relationships i.e. Alan, her siblings, Alan ‘s male parent. Social establishments, there do non look to be any in this instance survey, non sing the behaviour classes that Alan was in as a societal mercantile establishment. Culture factors, i.e. Mary appears to be from an mean household, all siblings have moved on to hold households of their ain and have non presented any issues akin to those reported by Alan and Mary B. Economic state of affairss ; Alan and Mary B ‘s current life state of affairs is non and has non been of the best agencies or resources. There are times that they have slept on the floor, the icebox does non work, and all of this is farther supported by studies of hapless hygiene and nutrition. Last, historical factors include the fact that this is non the first clip that Mary is seeking services. She excessively has had some of the same issues presented in Alan when she was younger and presently still has some of these outstanding issues i.e. seasonableness and hapless organisational accomplishments.
Connidis & A ; McMullin ( 2002 ) , conducted research sing Sociological Ambivalence and Family Ties. They explained that this was a long-standing concern in household research, and about intergenerational ties in peculiar, is the limited development of theoretical constructs and positions. Appraisals of research and theory related to household ties and aging have emphasized several cardinal subjects: the demand for multilevel analysis that connects interactions within households to societal construction and civilization, the importance of sing struggle as a cardinal characteristic of societal life, the demand to concentrate on relationships and households instead than on persons entirely, and the necessity to see diverseness in household life. These concerns combine in a call for bridging constructs that link societal construction and single action. A 2nd common attack that focuses on the jobs households face besides falls short because it emphasizes the interpersonal struggle that consequences from household jobs, instead than structural issues or links between societal construction and the actions of household members. A construct with the possible to turn to the failings of these positions and several other spreads in household and aging theory is ambivalence.
( Payne, 2005, fellow. 10 ) Discusses that a fillip to theoretical positions is that of being anti-discriminatory and anti-oppressive, It is of import non merely to be able to look at the moral force of the household, but besides to be able to make so without befoging one ‘s observations with one ‘s personal perceptual experiences. In ( Payne, fellow. 13 ) , it is explained that there are two of import countries of anti-discrimination and sensitive pattern. One derives from sociological and psychological survey of how differences lead to societal division. This division creates societal individualities that generate subjugation ( p.270 ) . These have to be addressed in order to see that a state of affairs is being perceived in a impersonal mode.
The struggle position ( 2000 ) , is defined as one of the major theoretical attacks to sociological thought and analysis. Although it traces its roots to the work of Karl Marx and his review of capitalist economy, the struggle position has since developed along a figure of lines embracing everything from universe political relations to interpersonal dealingss and interaction. In general, the struggle position assumes that societal life is shaped by groups and persons who struggle or compete with one another over assorted resources and wagess, ensuing in peculiar distributions of wealth, power, and prestigiousness in societies and other societal systems. These form non merely the forms of mundane life and interaction, but besides larger forms such as racial, cultural, and category inequality, and dealingss among states and parts of the universe. Social struggle is based on many different facets of societal life.
A cardinal focal point of critical theory is how structured sets of societal dealingss are produced and reproduced. This construct of societal life high spots an indispensable paradox and contradiction: The reproduction of the current societal construction creates digesting, orderly, and patterned societal systems that are built upon struggle and the comparative disadvantage of significant Numberss and groups in society. Analyzing the structural production ( alteration ) and reproduction ( continuity ) of the societal order through interaction necessitates associating societal construction with single action. Sociological ambivalency must include both societal construction and single bureau so that the nexus between viing structural demands is non treated, even if merely implicitly, as an abstraction at the structural degree ( Connidis & A ; McMullin,2002 ) .
( Kondrat, 1999, p. 453 ) suggests a consistent theory of how human bureau is involved in the development, continuity, and transmutation of human establishments and constructions has been good developed. Critical theory would turn out good because non merely with this allow for a better apprehension of the relationship between Alan and Mary B. , it would besides let us to see the kineticss of the relationship of Mary ‘s parents, and siblings, every bit good as what impact there communicating or deficiency thereof may hold had on the current fortunes. In add-on, the effects of the hierarchy in the household would go clearer. It is apparent that Mary B. does non keep the traditional function of the important female parent in this state of affairs with Alan, it is besides obvious that the fact that there is no male figure in the house with Alan may excessively impact this state of affairs in a positive or negative mode.
The ends for work outing the current job using Critical theory are to see the household moral force and the function that this plays in the behaviour of both Alan and his female parent Mary. In add-on, we would besides be able to measure the impact and significance of the life styles of the siblings of Mary and the impact negative or positive that this may hold. This could turn out to be a instead important piece of information. In add-on, ( Kondrat, 1999, p. 459 ) discusses the impact of critical coefficient of reflection by describing that in the model of self-awareness 1 must understand that this means to be able to stand back and observe, so reflect on the observation. They must understand the history of the individual. The ego is understood as the simple perceiving topic, the unthinking venue for esthesiss, perceptual experiences, knowledges, and feelings.
There are a figure of failings in utilizing struggle theory, nevertheless the sum of impactful information that could be gained through a closer expression into the household construction and societal system could turn out to be invaluable. It was mention several times in the instance survey that Alan was opprobrious both verbally and physically to his female parent. He would decline to eat any repasts that she prepared and he was noncompliant most of the clip. However, there is no information sing the moral force between Alan and his grandparents except to province that he would travel their house for milk and juice. As a societal worker I would wish to cognize a little more about what is traveling on at the grandparents house, what is Alan sing, are they stating anything to him about his female parent etc. This could besides give a important sum of penetration into some of the behaviour that Alan is exposing in school and at place. In add-on, it would be effectual to look into the category for emotionally disturbed kids that Alan attended to see what was taking topographic point at that place every bit good.
One of the inquiries asked in our assignments is “ why should we carry on societal research? ” This is a great inquiry answered by the instance survey refering Alan and Mary B. We should carry on research to be able to larn more about how people and their interactions affect other people and events etc. For illustration what if upon farther research it was found out that the grandparents of Alan were stating him negative things about his female parent, what if Alan was seeing maltreatment in the place of his grandparents or sing this at school? This could give some penetration into why he was exposing this behaviour at place. Through research, we can happen out what kind of things cause dark panics and bed wagering in older kids, we have learned why it is so of import to admit a kid that is uncomfortable around certain capable countries etc. this all gives insight into the universe, and the manner that it works.
One thing is certain the instance of Alan and Mary B. give us insight non merely into the theoretical models that are in topographic point, it excessively gives insight into the attention that must be taken into our ain perceptual experiences. Based on the theoretical perceptual experiences discussed in this assignment focal point would be placed on self-awareness non merely of the societal worker, but besides of the client. In add-on, household and social moral force would besides play a important function in this appraisal. One of the most of import aims would be to see that my personal ideas and perceptual experiences are non considered into my observation, to see that things are being viewed in a impersonal manner, leting me to understand the state of affairs of the client every bit good as his or her milieus.
The usage of the current theoretical positions would take me to believe that there is more in this household dynamic than meets the oculus. There needs to be a household history done in more item than the 1 that has been originally taken, in add-on at that place needs to be an appraisal of the category settings that Alan was in, every bit good as the people that he interacted with. The grandparent ‘s family would besides necessitate appraisal since Alan would hold to travel at that place on a regular basis for milk and juice. An appraisal of the grandparents and their place would let us to see what sort of environment it is every bit good as perchance give penetration into some of the behaviours Alan has displayed. Sing that both Alan and his female parent show similar features some kind of mental wellness appraisals may necessitate to take topographic point, every bit good as observations in the place. Mary needs to be given categories on parenting and communicating with her kid, every bit good as puting boundaries. There is besides a possible demand for some type of reding associating to Alan ‘s incubuss, bedwetting, and fire starting ; Mary ‘s hapless boundaries, and communicating issues with household. Overall, farther appraisal is recommended to garner more information. Placement in a new environment may be necessary for the wellbeing of both Alan and his female parent.