This portion presents a synopsis of the current employment situation, including objectives, scope, and limitations.
The importance of the survey which includes the definition of footings and conceptual model is discussed in this text. Additionally, the background of the survey is provided, indicating that students in various areas of Dasmarinas are facing difficulties in obtaining suitable and cost-effective equipment for their scientific experiments and lessons, particularly in Chemistry and Biology.
Examples of equipment used to measure the acidity and basicity of substances include acid-base indicators, such as Litmus papers. These substances are utilized to indicate and measure the acidity and basicity of a substance being investigated. For instance, in the field of Biology, Litmus paper is employed to discover or determine the pH of urine.
Blood and other bo...
dily fluids are used to detect diseases and diagnose conditions. Additionally, the term "Litmus test" is commonly defined as a determining factor in outcomes. An acid-base indicator refers to a weak acid or base.
The undissociated signifier of the index has a different colour compared to the iogenic signifier of the index. The colour alteration interval of an index is not limited to a specific H ion concentration range, but rather occurs over a range of H ion concentrations. This range is referred to as the colour alteration interval, and is expressed as a pH range.
The color of acid-base indicators changes depending on their contact with acidic or basic substances. Acidic substances have a pH ranking between one and six, while neutral substances have a ranking of seven, and basic substances have a ranking between eight and 14. Therefore, a substance with a pH value of one is extremely acidic,
whereas a substance with a pH value of 14 is highly basic. Numerous plants and flowers contain compounds that can alter their color to indicate the pH level in a tested sample (Helmenstine, 2009; Johnsons).
In 2009, Rhodium and Sonawane et al. conducted works that showed color change in the presence of acids and bases. This is due to the fact that these works are acidic or basic themselves. Anthocyanins, which are purple-red pigments found in fruits and vegetables like blueberries and Beta vulgaris, are examples of such compounds.
The pigments in ruddy chou and aubergines are water-soluble and will become pink in acidic solutions due to the transfer of negatrons. (Lynn Bry)
1997) In contrast, anthocyanins change to green in mildly alkaline substances and change to yellow in highly alkaline solutions. (Sonawane L. V.
. 2007 ) Eggplant (Solanum melongena) belongs to the Solanaceae family, also known as nightshades, and the genus Solanum. It yields a fruit of the same name that is commonly utilized in culinary practices. The plant's stem frequently possesses thorns, while its flowers exhibit a variety of colors ranging from white to purple.
Wild plants have small fruits, measuring less than 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) in diameter, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. These fruits are weighty and have a meaty texture. In contrast, cultivated varieties have considerably larger fruits.
The fruit is categorized as a botanical berry and consists of many tiny, eatable seeds.
Even though cigarettes contain nicotinoid alkaloids, their taste is bitter due to their association with tobacco. Conversely, distilled water refers to purified water obtained through distillation, which effectively eliminates numerous impurities. Distilled water is commonly utilized for filling lead acid batteries
in vehicles as it helps prolong their lifespan by preventing the presence of ions typically found in tap water. Similarly, individuals opt for distilled water for home aquariums to avoid the chemicals present in tap water. However, when using distilled water for fish tanks, it is crucial to supplement it since its purity impedes the necessary chemistry required for an aquarium ecosystem.
Ethanol, which is also referred to as ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol.
Alcohol, an unstable and combustible clear liquid, has been utilized for leisure activities for many years and is referred to as a mind-altering substance. Although it is frequently present in alcoholic drinks, it also serves purposes in thermometers.
Researchers conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in producing liquid acid-base indicator using eggplant (Solanum melongena) peelings and camote (Ipomoea batatas) tops. The study was titled "THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DISTILLED WATER AND ETHANOL SOLUTION AS SOLVENTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF LIQUID ACID-BASE INDICATOR USING EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena) PEELINGS AND CAMOTE (Ipomoea batatas) TOPS."
The main problem addressed in the study was...
The purpose of the survey is to examine how effective distilled water and ethanol solution are as solvents in creating liquid acid-base indicators using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops. Specifically, the survey seeks to address the following inquiries:
1. Will the acid-base indicator be affected in terms of color change and intensity of color when distilled water and ethanol solution are used as solvents?
2. Is there a notable difference between using distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in terms of color change and intensity of color for producing liquid acid-base indicators?
The hypothesis aims
to determine whether there is a significant difference between using distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in producing liquid acid-base indicators using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops.
The null hypothesis states that there is no significant difference in the use of distilled H2O and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of liquid acid-base index using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops in terms of color alteration and intensity of color.
- Color alteration? Intensity of colour?
Significance of the Survey:
This survey aims to benefit chemists, students, and future researchers. Chemists can use a high-quality and affordable acid-base index. Students can save money by not buying expensive acid-base indexes for their experiments. Future researchers can build upon this survey as a foundation for their own experiments in the field of chemistry.
It can serve as a guide for future research as they explore additional indigenous plants for conducting experiments on.
Scope and Limitations:
The study titled "THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DISTILLED WATER AND ETHANOL SOLUTION AS SOLVENTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF LIQUID ACID-BASE INDICATOR USING EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena) PEELINGS AND CAMOTE (Ipomoea batatas) TOPS" was carried out at JICA Laboratory in Dasmarinas National High School, Burol I Congressional Road, City of Dasmarinas.
Various trials were conducted using different acids and bases to validate the acid-base index of Eggplant desquamations and Camote tops. The acids and bases used in the experiments included weak acid (Vinegar - Acetic acid), weak base (Ammonia), and strong acid.
Muriatic Acid (Hydrochloric acid) is a strong base. Liquid bleach (Sodium hypochlorite). Glass containers were chosen
over plastic containers to prevent misleading chemical reactions. To ensure unbiased evaluation of the reactions, the researchers selected 30 chemistry students currently studying, as respondents.
The researchers required respondents to assess the Eggplant desquamations and Camote tops acid-base index using a central rating sheet. The visual sensory pathway will serve as the basis for evaluation. The survey only focuses on determining the effectiveness of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the creation of liquid acid-base index using Eggplant desquamations and Camote tops. The researchers only compared the different treatments. The researchers did not compare the products with commercial acid-base index.
Definition of Footings:
Distilled H2O. Water that has undergone distillation to remove impurities. Ethanol solution. A clear, volatile, flammable liquid that acts as the intoxicating agent in spirits and is also utilized as a solvent and fuel. Solvent. A substance that dissolves another substance, creating a solution.
Acid-base indicator. Is a dye that changes into a different colour depending on whether it is in acid or in base.
- Preparation of stuffs and equipment
- Weighing and rinsing of the leaves/peelings
- Choping and boiling of leaves/peelings in 100 milliliter of the two different dissolvers
- Transferring of the decocotions in separate trial tubings
- Testing the interventions by subjecting them into the acid and base
- Evaluation of the merchandise through centripetal rating trial
- Input signal Eggplant desquamations and Camote tops contains Anthocyanins
- Anthocyanins are the pigments from foliages which change colour when subjected to different pH criterions.
Since the Eggplant desquamations and Camote tops contain Anthocyanin or a pigment from foliages which change colour when subjected to different pH criterions. it was utilized by the research workers which are assumed to be effectual in bring forthing liquid acid-base index. The colour alteration and strength of colour are the parametric quantities to be measured.
Review of Related Literature and Surveies
This chapter provides a review of relevant literature and studies that are directly related to the research, in order to support and guide the researchers towards obtaining accurate and reliable results. It also discusses the potential, effectiveness, and relevance of using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops for producing liquid pH indicators.
According to Elsevier (2008), a study was conducted to extract anthocyanins from eggplant Peel using tartaric and malic acerb solutions. The aim was to obtain a natural ruddy colorant through a discontinuous procedure. The experiment involved optimization of the extraction process using various dissolvers, acid concentrations, and temperatures.
Investigations were conducted to determine the impact of extraction method and solvent-to-solid ratio on extracting anthocyanins from eggplant peel. The efficacy of tartaric acid was compared to malic acid in terms of both extraction yield and rate. Acidified ethyl alcohol was used as the dissolver for comparative trials. The primary anthocyanin in eggplant peel, delphinidin-3-rutinoside, was identified. Concentration analysis of different infusions from eggplant peel was carried out using a methacrylic nutrient class rosin, which proved to be the most effective rosin
for obtaining concentrated infusions. (source: World Wide Web)
sciencedirect. com) Eggplant desquamations, scientifically known as Solanum melongena, are considered one of the most easily cultivated plants in our country. They have the added benefit of preventing the production of free radicals and being a good source of folic acid and potassium.
The sweet potato, scientifically known as Ipomoea batatas, belongs to the Convolvulaceae family and contains a considerable amount of anthocyanin. Anthocyanin is essential for pH index production (Cimino, Francesco, 2008).
The vegetable's tuberous roots are extraordinary because they are big, have a high starch content, and taste delicious.
Some plants in the Convolvulaceae family have edible young leaves and shoots that are occasionally consumed as leafy vegetables. Although there are over 1,000 species and approximately 50 genera within this family, I. batatas is the sole significant crop plant, while a few others have limited use in specific regions.
Although many leaves are toxic, they also have high levels of polyphenolics including anthocyanins and phenolic acids. These compounds consist of at least 15 beneficial anthocyanins with medicinal properties. Polyphenols are important for the body as they help eliminate free radicals and prevent mutations.
A study discovered that four compounds were isolated, which are citrusin C, caffeic acid, and 3. These compounds demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo activity against cancer, diabetes, and bacteria.
Two chemical compounds mentioned are 4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 18.104.22.168-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboylic acid (source: World Wide Web. stuartxchange).
According to David (2010), PH indexs are widely used tools in experiments and lessons conducted by students and scientists in various fields of Science, such as Biology and Chemistry. These indexs are employed to indicate, if not measure, the acidity and basicity
of a substance under investigation. The non-dissociated form of the index has a different color than the ionic form. It is important to note that an index does not change color from pure acid to pure alkaline at a specific hydrogen ion concentration.
Color alteration does not occur at a specific H ion concentration, but rather within a pH range. The pH index is a halochromic compound that is added in small quantities to visually determine the acidity or alkalinity (pH) of a solution.
The Arrhenius model states that a pH indicator acts as a chemical sensor for hydronium ions (H3O+) or hydrogen ions (H+), leading to a color change in the solution depending on its pH. At the standard temperature of 25 °C, a pH of 7 signifies neutrality.
Acidic solutions have a pH value less than 7.0, while non-acidic solutions have a pH value greater than 7.0.
The basic nature of organic compounds is demonstrated by their weak protolytes, such as carboxylic acids and aminoalkanes. pH indices are utilized in various applications within the fields of biological science and analytical chemistry. Additionally, pH indices are one of the three primary types of index compounds employed in chemical analysis.
When it comes to analyzing metal cations, complexometric indexes are the preferred method. On the other hand, redox indexes, which fall under the category of compound 3, are used in titrations where a redox reaction is involved and serve as the basis for the analysis. (World Wide Web)
elmhurst. edu. com
Anthocyanin pigments are responsible for the ruddy, purple color.
The various shades of blue can be found in many fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, and flowers.
Phytologists and works physiologists have extensively investigated these
compounds due to their roles as pollenation attractants and phytoprotective agents. They have also proved valuable in systematic studies. Linus Pauling, in a 1939 paper, even explored related compounds called anthocyanidins and used their chemical structure as an illustration of the application of resonance in comprehending structural issues. Food scientists and plantsmans are still exploring these compounds today, recognizing their significant impact on the color quality of both fresh and processed fruits and vegetables.
Today, the focus on anthocyanin pigments has increased due to their potential health benefits as dietary antioxidants. Nature has provided us with over 300 distinct anthocyanins, which belong to the flavonoid compound family.
These are various polyphenols that are commonly distributed: flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavones, and flavanones.
Flavanones and flavanonols are two additional types of flavonoids that have a different oxidation state compared to anthocyanins. These compounds appear colorless or pale yellow in solution. Other phenolic compounds found in our diet include phenolic acids, such as chlorogenic acid, and esters like polymeric tannic acids. There are at least five of these substances.
Over 2,000 flavonoids have been identified as part of the 000 polyphenolics that are progressively being referred to as phenolic-based compounds with similar solubility properties analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fruit juices are likely to have a polyphenolic profile that includes flavonols, as well as free and esterified phenolic acids.
Polyphenolics, such as procyanidins and condensed tannic acids, contribute to the color and taste of certain foods and beverages. These substances act as substrates for an enzyme that produces brown pigments, while also providing astringency and bitterness in tea and wine. Additionally, anthocyanins, which are purple-red pigments, can be found in various fruits and
vegetables like blueberries. Beta vulgaris.
The pigments that contribute to the color change in acidic solutions are ruddy chou and similar substances. These pigments are soluble in water and become pink when exposed to acidic conditions due to the exchange of electrons. (Lynn Bry)
In 1997, it was observed that anthocyanins change to green in mildly alkaline substances and change to yellow in highly alkaline solutions (Sonawane L. V., 2007). Many plants or plant parts contain chemicals from the naturally-colored anthocyanin group of compounds.
Anthocyanins can be extracted using H2O or other solvents from various colored plant parts. These compounds cause plants to appear reddish in acidic solutions and blue in basic solutions. Examples of plant parts where anthocyanins can be found include leaves (such as red cabbage), flowers (like geraniums, poppies, or rose petals), and berries (such as blueberries).
The extraction of anthocyanins from various plants, such as blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), is a common experiment in introductory chemistry. This process is often used to create a basic pH indicator.
To have an effective pH index, a substance must contain anthocyanin. Various plants and flowers possess substances that change color to indicate pH levels in a tested sample (Helmenstine, 2009; Johnsons).
2009 ; Rhodium. 2009 ; Sonawane et Al. 2009) The color of these works changes when they interact with other acids and bases due to their own acidic or basic nature. R. M. conducted an experiment.
Before the eruption of World War I, Wilsatter demonstrated that the blue and red pigments found in flowers consist of molecules derived from cyanidin. Examples of pH indicators based on cyanidin include Alizarin, Cochineal, Curcumin, and
Anthocyanin, litmus, and logwood are mentioned by Magdum C.S.
2007 ; Sonawane L. V. . 2007 ) The thesis study focused on investigating the viability of using eggplant (Solanum melongena) peelings extract as a pH indicator. The process involved extracting the anthocyanin from the eggplant peels by boiling them in distilled water, and then testing the resulting extract on various test chemicals at different pH levels.
Success in this survey will greatly help determine pH levels due to the simplicity and accessibility of aubergines. (Chu. Go. Pena.)
Although acid-base indicators are typically made from natural ingredients, many scientists overlook the potential natural resources available within the country. As a result of this oversight, scientists and educators spend a significant amount of money on purchasing and setting up equipment. These issues, among others, led researchers to conduct a study on the potential of using eggplant peels and camote tops for liquid acid-base indicators.
In this chapter, we provided detailed specifications, measures, and initial preparations for all materials used. We also described the specifically reinforced equipment used in the survey. Furthermore, we provided a detailed description of the sequence of experiments or set of observations.
Method of research used
The survey utilized the experimental method as its research approach. According to Zulueta and Costales Jr. ( 2003 ) , the experimental method involves manipulating or controlling variables under controlled conditions to explore the causes and mechanisms behind a specific event. Given that the study aims to assess the potential of Eggplant desquamations and Camote tops as liquid acid-base index, conducting an experimental research is deemed to be the most suitable approach.
This survey focuses on investigating and identifying the
various devices that are influenced by specific variables. Observation is crucial in resolving its issues, serving as the basis for experimental research. It requires keen observation and accurate data collection for interpreting and analyzing outcomes. The study examines reaction time and the duration of the reaction, measuring and observing these factors.
This trial involves connecting and analyzing the researchers' ability to explain the results using research skills while utilizing the experimental method.
Materials and Equipment
The following materials and equipment were used to create the liquid acid-base indicator: 200g of Eggplant peels, 200g of Camote tops, 200ml distilled water, 200ml of 70% ethanol solution, 60ml of Vinegar (Acetic acid), and Liquid bleach (Sodium hydroxide). A small weighing scale (in grams) was used to measure the leaves and peels. A small basin was required for rinsing the leaves and peels.
The foliage was chopped into small pieces using a knife and chopping board. In boiling, a beaker with a capacity of 150 milliliters and a Bunsen burner were required. Six empty glass containers were used to store the different interventions, as well as the vinegar and liquid bleach. Eight test tubes were used, each containing 20 milliliters of acid and base. A dropper was necessary for testing the product.
The survey began with the preparation of equipment and materials. A small weighing scale was used to measure out 100 gms of leaves/peelings. These leaves/peelings were then placed and washed in a small basin, and after rinsing...
Using a knife and chopping board, the leaves/peelings were finely chopped. Then, the chopped foliages were boiled in a 150mL-beaker with a mixture of 100mL distilled water and 100mL of 70% ethanol solution
over a Bunsen burner. The resulting decoction was then transferred into separate test tubes for further testing.
Each trial tubing containing 20 milliliters of acid and base had 5 milliliters of each intervention dropped in. A total of 30 respondents, who were 3rd-year pupils, were asked to evaluate the color change.
Application of Treatments
Treatment 1 involved weighing one hundred grams of Eggplant desquamations using a small weighing graduated table.
The desquamations were placed and washed in a small basin. They were then chopped into small pieces using a knife and chopping board. Next, the desquamations were boiled in a 150mL beaker with 100mL distilled H2O using a Bunsen burner.
The decoction was moved to various test tubes. In Treatment 2, 100g of Eggplant desquamations were weighed using a small weighing scale. The desquamations were then put and cleaned in a small basin. After washing,
Using a knife and chopping board, the desquamations were cut into small pieces. Next, they were boiled in a 150mL beaker together with 100mL of a 70% ethanol solution. This was done using a Bunsen burner. The resulting mixture was then transferred into several trial tubes, specifically for Treatment 3.
Using a small weighing scale, 100 grams of Camote tops were weighed. The peelings were then placed and washed in a small basin. After rinsing, the peelings were chopped into small pieces using a knife and chopping board.
The peels were boiled in a 150mL beaker using 100mL distilled H2O with a Bunsen burner. The resulting mixture was then transferred into separate test tubes. To prepare Treatment 4, 100g of Camote tops were weighed using a small weighing scale. The peels were then placed and washed
in a small basin. After completing the rinsing process.
The desquamations were diced using a knife and cutting board. They were then boiled in a 150mL beaker with 100mL of a 70% ethanol solution using a Bunsen burner. The resulting mixture was transferred into separate test tubes.
Statistics to be Used
The effectiveness of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of acid-base index using eggplant desquamations and camote tops was determined using the Friedman Test. This study is an experiment that yields qualitative responses that can be either ranked or categorized. These measurements cannot be easily quantified, such as the acceptability of a product.
The Friedman trial was used in this survey to compare more than two populations or interventions. The purpose of the survey was to assess the acceptability of acid-base index based on color change and color strength. The expression for solving the Friedman trial statistic is: Fr = 12bt ( t+1 ) j=1Tj2-3b ( t+1 ).
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