The Challenges In An Arranged Marriage Sociology Essay Essay

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Throughout my school old ages, I have frequently heard the words ‘multicultural ‘ and ‘diverse ‘ to depict Australia. I knew the construct of it and ab initio believed that everyone would be more than happy to belong in a society — in peculiar, Australia ‘s — where the cultural diverseness high spots Australia ‘s alone individuality as a state. Recently nevertheless, the onslaughts on Indian pupils in Sydney and Melbourne has made me reflect over Australia and it ‘s multicultural label. This has incited me to take multiculturalism as a subject that would be both of great involvement to me and at the same clip, is a subject extremely relevant in Australian society.

My personal contemplation would be a plausible and extremely relevant signifier of research as my position can be contrasted against the positions of other people sing multiculturalism ; one of the purposes of my research.. A close-ended questionnaire would be the most effectual manner to estimate a figure of general attitudes from respondents, the consequences of which can be used for farther comparing or contrast with other research findings. The questionnaire will be conducted in the South-Western Sydney part as my research requires me to concentrate on a specific country and may perchance let me to show those findings as similar across the remainder of Australia. The use of statistical analysis as it would be a simple manner to show my findings and behavior farther analysis if needed.

Multiculturalism establishes the acknowledgment of the diverse linguistic communication and civilization of Australian society and is a term many Australians proudly pin to the individuality of Australia. However, it is besides a term used in many arguments over whether it really benefits or is destructive to society therefore is a important construct that will be farther explored through my research. Society-in peculiar, Australian society, will be the focal point of the findings and analysis of my research as I attempt to detect what multiculturalism means to people which is a significant intent for my research. Cultural diverseness is besides related to multiculturalism in that it refers to a society constructed by a figure of civilizations. In that sense, civilization is besides relevant in my research as this is what the foundation of many positions I will garner in my research, will be based upon. Identity will besides play a portion in my probe as I aim to delve further in respects to the Australian individuality, which multiculturalism is perchance a portion of.

The cross-cultural position I have decided to compare is ethnicity. The term ‘ethnicity ‘ has a assortment of definitions but in this context, I be specifically concentrating on comparing positions between people of Anglo-Australian background to those who are non from an Anglo-Australian beginning. Comparing these two positions will let me to happen – if any-possible differences or similarities in positions sing multiculturalism which would enable me to reflect on the grounds for these positions and contrast them with my ain.

A figure of ethical issues may originate during the procedure of my research. Respondents in my questionnaire may happen some inquiries of a extremely personal nature as my research is mostly based on these positions. The confidentiality of respondents will besides be a cardinal factor, one in which I will take to guarantee.

The procedure of this undertaking will hopefully ensue in doing me a more socially and culturally literate individual as I would hold a assortment of positions similar or dissimilar to my ain in relation to a important subject in society, that of multiculturalism. The application a figure of research methodological analysiss will besides implement the legimiticy of my findings and accordingly, better my research accomplishments.

Chapter 1 – Credence V. Racial Tension

As a Vietnamese-Australian pupil from a South-Western Sydney school and holding contact on a day-to-day footing with pupils from assorted cultural backgrounds, I believe multiculturalism has benefited society. From Harmony Day jubilations at school to interchanging nutrient with my Lebanese neighbors, it seems clear to me that multiculturalism is critical to promote understanding and credence between people of different backgrounds.

In 1997, The Department of Immigration and Citizenship published their positions multiculturalism in Australia, saying that overall, it has a positive impact on Australia from by increasing employment rates and general life criterions. It besides highlights the advantage Australia has gained globally as a consequence of multiculturalism, for illustration, our strong economic relationship with Asia. ( Multicultural Australia: The Way Forward 1997 )

On a more local degree, multiculturalism for me seems to be merely as successful and advantageous as it appeared to be on a national degree, 13 old ages ago.

However there has been incidents over the old ages which have generated arguments sing the ability for people of different backgrounds to esteem each other and unrecorded harmoniously, the ultimate purpose of multiculturalism. An illustration is the 2005 Cronulla public violences. This series of public violences stemming from an onslaught against Australian lifeguards rapidly escalated into a race-driven concatenation of violent onslaughts. This incident can be seen as an illustration of the failure of multiculturalism in Australian society. On the other manus, it can be used to show the success of multiculturalism, where an country homogenous, in other words, dominated by a individual cultural group ( hence more hostile towards foreigners ) will be more prone to force. ( Bell, 2006 )

In my questionnaire, ( a transcript of which can be seen below ) I have discovered a figure of attitudes that supports Bell ‘s positions on multiculturalism.

Questionnaire – An probe into attitudes sing multiculturalism in South-Western Sydney

Please take a few minutes to finish this questionnaire about multiculturalism in South-Western Sydney. I have conducted it as portion of my primary research for my HSC Personal Interest Project and your responses will be really helpful as portion of this research. Remember that you will stay anon. and your responses will be used entirely for academic intents.

Tick the box that applies to you

I am an Anglo-Australian

I am non an Anglo-Australian

How make you normally come into contact with people of a different cultural background to your ain? Tick the 3 most important options

School Shopping Centre Food

Workplace Media Other _______

Tick 3 options out of the following that you frequently associate with the term ‘multiculturalism ‘

Harmony Tolerance Racism

Conflict Exotic nutrient Acceptance

On the graduated table below, grade with an X how you feel towards people of a different cultural background to yourself

Uneasy Neutral Very accepting

( Continue on to the following page )

Has multiculturalism played a function in determining your response to the old inquiry? Circle yes or no

Yes/No

Indicate with a tick your response to each statement

Strongly differ

Disagree

Impersonal

Agree

Strongly hold

Australia is a really multicultural state

Multiculturalism benefits society by doing people more understanding of other civilizations

Multiculturalism is an of import facet of Australian civilization

“ Conflict occurs when people of different cultural backgrounds live near together in a society ”

Indicate with a figure from 1-10 how much you agree with the above statement, with 10 being in complete understanding

1-10

Rank the undermentioned states from 1-6 harmonizing to how multicultural you think they are, with 1 being the most multicultural and the least being 6

Australia India Netherlands

Canada Japan United States

Do you believe multiculturalism will last in Australia? Circle yes or no

Yes/No

Have you of all time experienced racial torment in your community? Circle yes or no

Yes/No

Thank you for your clip in finishing this questionnaire.

Q. 4 of my questionnaire ( see p. 6 ) suggests that multiculturalism has had a positive consequence on society. Overwhelmingly, 100 % ( 21/21 ) of all respondents revealed a feeling of credence towards people from other cultural backgrounds with 56 % ( 5/9 ) of Anglo-Australian respondents and 42 % ( 5/12 ) of non Anglo Australian respondents bespeaking they were ‘very accepting ‘ . Q. 5 ( see p. 7 ) follows up on the old inquiry, with 100 % ( 21/21 ) of respondents admiting that multiculturalism had an consequence on the result of their response to the old inquiry. ( Questionnaire 2010: 6-7 )

The consequences of these two inquiries can be contrasted with Bell ‘s positions on multiculturalism, where an country – peculiarly South-Western-Sydney – that is mostly multicultural will hold people more likely to accept those from other cultural backgrounds to themselves.

Bruce Haigh, an article author for ABC challenges this position of Australia as an accepting society. He states ‘Of class Australia is racist. ‘ ‘Australians from the dominant Anglo/Celtic civilization expect new Australians from other cultural backgrounds to demo some regard, possibly even a little cringe and servility, forelock tugging, until such clip as they know the ropes, cut their cultural ties and enter the mainstream ‘ . ( Haigh 2009 )

This article nevertheless contradicts my findings in Q.4 of my questionnaire, where I observed that all, peculiarly Anglo-Australian respondents, expressed that they felt credence towards people of other cultural backgrounds.

A recent survey by political scientist Robert D. Putnam besides confronts the position that multiculturalism benefits society. The comprehensive survey involved more than 40 instances and 30 000 people in the U.S and suggests a figure of jobs associating to swear in a culturally diverse community. His findings reveal that the higher the degree of diverseness in a community, the higher the degree of misgiving between people of that community. These consequences depict multiculturalism as holding a damaging consequence on society, making misgiving in multicultural societies alternatively of the ideal purpose of conveying people in these societies closer together. ( Wikipedia – Robert D. Putnam 2010 )

Putnam ‘s survey struck a chord in my memory, in peculiar, the word ‘mistrust ‘ .

It was the beginning of Year 7, my first twelvemonth of high school when sitting in category, the instructor began inquiring each individual as a ‘get-to-know-your-classmates-game ‘ to denote to the category what their nationality was and what primary school they had come from. One miss in specific said she came from Iraq. Her reply generated a answer from a fellow-classmate who called her a ‘terrorist ‘ .

Acerate leaf to state, this case of racial stereotyping can be suggested as grounds to recognize Putnam ‘s findings where misgiving between civilizations can develop as a consequence of multiculturalism. It highlights an implicit in bias and negative stereotyping that may happen even in a culturally diverse society.

Cultural historian Hsu-Ming Teo ‘s article mirrors Putnam ‘s statement that multiculturalism has potentially negative effects on society, saying, “ Once touted as the remedy to racism, intolerance and premises about Anglo-Saxon cultural domination, multiculturalism is now cited as the cause of intolerance and racism ” . ( Teo 2006 )

Q. 7 of my questionnaire ( see p. 3 ) besides investigates a possible negative facet of multiculturalism in society

Figure 1: Conflict in society

The responses I received for this inquiry ( see Figure 1 ) were diverse. I distinguished a great scope of responses with a plurality ( 8/21 ) of respondents bespeaking dissension that ‘conflict occurs in culturally diverse societies. ‘ However, a similar figure of respondents ( 7/21 ) expressed understanding with the statement, which may propose a divide in positions sing struggle in a culturally diverse society. Neither of these opposing point of views convey a bulk over the other which hints that my findings in relation to this inquiry do non back up or rebut Teo ‘s positions on multiculturalism in Australia but alternatively, remain equivocal. ( Questionnaire 2010: 7 )

Chapter 2 – Examine the function of ethnicity on differing positions sing multiculturalism

“ Multiculturalism means that as a state Australians recognise, accept, regard and observe the state ‘s cultural diverseness. ” ( Healey 2006: 41 )

Question 2 of my questionnaire ( see page 2 ) addressed the constructs that I believed most respondents would utilize to depict the term ‘multiculturalism ‘ , the consequences of which can be contrasted against Healey ‘s definition of multiculturalism.

100 % ( 21/21 ) of all respondents, irrespective of ethnicity, established ‘harmony ‘ as one of the constructs that linked to multiculturalism. However, merely 76 % ( 16/21 ) of respondents indicated ‘acceptance ‘ as one of their options. Out of these, 25 % ( 4/16 ) were of Anglo-Australian beginning compared to 75 % ( 12/16 ) of whom were non-Anglo-Australian. The results of this inquiry can be used to propose that non-Anglo-Australians connote ‘acceptance ‘ as portion of a definition for multiculturalism whereas Anglo-Australians would happen it of less importance. This nevertheless, would be a general statement, the least of which required me to farther analyze my findings. ( Questionnaire 2010: 6 )

Healey besides adds that multiculturalism is “ considered to be a consolidative force in Australia ‘s developing nationhood and germinating individuality. ” ( Healey 2006: 41 )

This contrasts with positions from Graeme Campbell and Mark Uhlman who province, “ A cardinal measure needed to advance societal coherence and an evolving national individuality – to convey us together as Australians – is to trash the policy of multiculturalism. ” ( Giles 1993: 225 )

Question 6 of my questionnaire challenges these positions, ( see p. 7 ) which were originally aimed to estimate general positions from respondents sing multiculturalism in society. The consequences of this inquiry can be seen in the graphs below.

Figure 2.a – Consequences from Anglo-Australian respondents

Figure 2.b – Consequences from non Anglo-Australian respondents

100 % ( 21/21 ) of all respondents agreed that ‘Australia is a really multicultural state ‘ with 92 % ( 19/21 ) bespeaking that they ‘strongly agree ‘ with the statement. The bulk of respondents besides agreed that “ Multiculturalism benefits society by doing people more understanding of other civilizations ” . Merely 22 % ( 2/9 ) Anglo-Australian respondents ‘strongly agree [ vitamin D ] ‘ to the impression that multiculturalism is ‘an of import facet of Australian civilization ‘ ( refer to Figure 2.a ) compared to 58 % ( 7/12 ) of non Anglo-Australians respondents ( refer to Figure 2.b ) . This can be interpreted as a little reluctance from Anglo-Australian respondents in set uping multiculturalism as a characteristic of importance in Australian society. ( Questionnaire 2010: 7 )

Another facet that is peculiarly relevant and requires farther geographic expedition is racism – this ineluctable ( ? ) facet to multiculturalism is indispensable in analyzing differing positions of multiculturalism.

Equally much as I wish racism does non happen, I know it happens in Australia – a state that is invariably listed as one of the most culturally diverse in the universe – and have on occasion been a victim of it, the most direct illustration of it occurred when I was walking down a street with a friend. We passed a group of people who proceeded to shout out and name us ‘chinks ‘ and to ‘go back to your ain state ‘ . In stating that though, it seldom happens but when it does, I truly get down to wonder..

BBC released an article on racism in Australia. It describes an about decade-long survey led by Professor Dunn from the University of Western Study which reveals that ‘more than 80 % of people see cultural diverseness as a benefit ‘ . This result supports my findings in Q.6 of my questionnaire where the bulk of respondents besides agreed that multiculturalism enhanced society. His other findings nevertheless, suggest that 1 in 10 Australians hold racist positions. ( BBC 2008 )

Q.10 of my questionnaire ( see p. 7 ) attempted to poll whether respondents have of all time experienced racial torment in their community. A bulk of respondents ; 78 % ( 7/9 ) Anglo-Australians and 75 % ( 9/12 ) non Anglo Australians reported themselves as holding experient racism. The consequences of my discovery were rather distressing, particularly as most respondents, seem to hold that multiculturalism benefits society by advancing credence and understanding therefore would diminish racism happening. My findings to this inquiry nevertheless, suggest otherwise. ( Questionnaire 2010: 7 )

Chapter 3 – Predict the hereafter of multiculturalism in Australia

There have been many events throughout the history of Australia that have helped determine multiculturalism and it ‘s relation to the Australian individuality as we know it today.

A major event would include the period when Australia became a Federation ; with its execution of The Immigration Restriction Act or, more widely known as the “ White Australia Policy ” . By the turning point of the century, popular beliefs were held of white high quality and racial pureness. The creative activity and subsequent abolition of this policy would actuate a wholly different Australian individuality in the close hereafter compared to what it was so. ( Walsh 2001: 27 )

Possibly the most important event in developing multiculturalism in current Australian society is the debut of the state ‘s first official multicultural policies in 1978. It symbolised a new individuality for Australia as a culturally diverse state and stood in great contrast to the earlier policy curtailing in-migration for non-British peoples into Australian society. ( Australian Immigration Fact Sheet 6: 2007 )

Another event of considerable influence to would be Populating in Harmony plan, subsequently to be changed to The Diverse Australia Program. The building of this plan initiated the launch of ‘Harmony Day ‘ . Started in 1999, Harmony Day is celebrated by many Australians every twelvemonth on the 21st of March. The mere fact that it is declared a twenty-four hours to observe Australia ‘s inclusiveness and diverseness is adequate to propose multiculturalism has a great impact on Australia ‘s civilization and individuality. ( Ellson 2009 )

Harmony Day for me, brings a moving ridge of ideas that come from each twelvemonth in high school. It was one of the most extremely awaited yearss for our school each twelvemonth and a twenty-four hours of amusement, non merely as a recreation from the schoolroom but a twenty-four hours where I could both see and reflect on the traditions and heritage of other civilizations whether it be through nutrient or cultural public presentations.

A general position of multiculturalism and its current consequence on can be distinguished in Figures 2.a and 2.b ( see p. 12 ) where most respondents agree that multiculturalism contributes positively to Australian society. This understanding suggests that multiculturalism has a strong consequence in society, one that may digest in the hereafter.

With the fortunes that have occurred both in the yesteryear and the present respecting multiculturalism and its presence in Australian society comes the inquiry, ‘Will it last? ‘

Multiculturalism is presently something, I believe, will hold a permanent consequence on Australia, whether or non it will last into the hereafter. It seems to me that its consequence on society is irreversible – I at least, can non conceive of a hereafter Australia devoid of its current rich mix of civilizations.

The 2006 nose count reveals a drastic addition in the entire population of Australia from 1901 to 2006. However, it besides places the figure of Australians born overseas as doing up about 22.2 % of the entire population, which is approximately the same per centum ( 22.8 % ) per centum observed in 1901. Assuming the per centum of overseas-born Australians remain the same, the consequences can be used to propose a hereafter where cultural diverseness is still a fact of life in Australia. ( Australia: a culturally diverse society: 2008 )

The consequences of Q.9 of my questionnaire ( see p. 7 ) conveys, if non the same ideas as mine, a similar position on multiculturalism in the hereafter ( see figure below )

Figure 3: Responses sing hereafter of multiculturalism in Australia

All respondents ( 100 % ) indicated that they believed multiculturalism would last in Australia which strongly suggests a continuity for this facet of Australian society, particularly when correlated with the informations presented by the 2006 nose count. ( Questionnaire 2010: p. 7 )

Decision

I have discovered a scope of attitudes sing multiculturalism in Australian society some in which I believe may reflect a big part of the whole of Australia, if non all. The responses received from my questionnaire can be interpreted as consequences that can reflect the positions of the wider community, such as the fact that most respondents agreed that multiculturalism was an of import facet of Australia ‘s civilization. Some responses nevertheless were non rather as expected particularly sing Q.10 which gauged whether or non my respondents had experienced racism, the consequences of which encouraged me to reflect on my ain experiences as a high-school pupil life in South-Western Sydney, — an country which I believed was really culturally diverse and in which I had supposed would hold the least sum of racism. The responses had in fact, suggested that multiculturalism might non be working after all and if it is, racism is an issue that would necessitate to be addressed. My secondary research has besides been valuable in finding assorted facets of cultural diverseness and it ‘s possible effects. Some articles, particularly the 1s that expressed the sentiments of the authors, contained their ain personal experiences and positions on multiculturalism in Australia which were important to my research.

In a manner, my research has efficaciously answered my hypothesis in that it displayed an array of different positions associating to cultural diverseness. However, there are some facets of my findings which remain unsure such as the responses to Q.7 of my close-ended questionnaire, the consequences of which I have decided were excessively similar between the two ethnicities measured – similar in that the per centums would differ dramatically if a individual person were to take a peculiar option. I believe that had I given out a larger figure of questionnaires, the consequences may hold been more dependable. Besides, I found it rather hard to make inquiries that were both clear to the respondent and at the same time- remain relevant to the intended subjects of the question/s, this is partially why I have merely depicted the consequences of the inquiries I believed were the most appropriate.

Some alterations I would perchance do to my methods of research include a greater figure of questionnaire respondents and possibly, aim to make a questionnaire more clear in its intent.

I believe my application of personal contemplation has been advantageous for my research in back uping some attitudes towards multiculturalism. The employment of statistical analysis has besides been utile in that it made presentation of some of my findings more readily viewable therefore allowed a greater easiness for analysis of the consequences.

I unfeignedly believe the research I have undertaken has made me a more culturally and literate individual. The usage of research methodological analysiss has provided me with an apprehension of their intent and how the consequences of my findings may be more valid if I had ensured a better creative activity of them. I have learnt to spot the media critically and tried to recognize prejudice that may happen in specific articles and more significantly, I have recognised my ain prejudice in ab initio sing multiculturalism as something that that every Australian should encompass. Despite the findings that I have found that travel against the thought of multiculturalism, which is something that I have invariably come across during the procedure of my research, I still believe that it is an of import characteristic of Australia, if non for the remainder of the universe.

Log

The procedure of this journey can be described with 10 important stairss that have helped develop the terminal merchandise.

One includes the category presentation where we had to come up with an thought that interested. This allowed us to come up with different issues in society that interested us the most and accordingly, make a proposal for our personal involvement undertaking based on those chosen thoughts.

Originally, I had decided on planetary heating as a subject of some involvement to me. However, after reflecting on my category presentation and the thought of planetary heating as a subject for my personal involvement undertaking, I had decided that even though it was a subject of involvement to me, it was non interesting plenty for me to pass a great trade of clip in researching it. In other words, I did n’t believe it interesting adequate to research for 9 months. Consequently, I chose multiculturalism as it was both relevant to a figure of society and civilization constructs, but more significantly, it was a extremely interesting subject to me.

The debut of my undertaking besides had a big impact on the creative activity of my undertaking. The building of it enabled me to hold a clear position on the research I would necessitate to set about and supply me with specific ends hence, doing my research more manageable.

My PIP scrapbook was besides important as it helped me maintain a check on all the thoughts and assorted research which were to lend to my undertaking.

Some category clip was besides spent on rehearsing close-ended questionnaires. This contributed positively to the creative activity of my ain questionnaire which was later utilized and improved to go portion of my research for my PIP.

Kate Walsh ‘s book on the “ Changing Face of Australia ” provided me with inspiration for my 3rd chapter, where I would so research on the past and present events that contributed to the multiculturalism we experience in today ‘s society. Television was besides a beginning of information for me and provided me with some thoughts for farther research on my subject.

The polish of my subject had a big impact on the result of my undertaking as I needed to concentrate on an country that was n’t excessively wide but at the same clip, could be used lawfully to stand for a greater portion of Australian society. Recognizing some ethical issues that may show themselves during my research was important in my research as it ensured that my research was to stay an appropriate as possible to research as portion of Society and Culture. Other facets that have contributed my undertaking include my personal contemplations, contemplations in which enabled me to research further and happen thoughts that contrasted mine.

Annotated Bibliography

Australia: a culturally diverse society, 2008. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dfat.gov.au/facts/culturally_diverse.html ( 9 August 2010 )

The information in this article included a figure of relevant statistics that were used to back up my findings.

Australian Immigration Fact Sheet 6 – The Evolution of Australia ‘s Multicultural Policy, 2007. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/06evolution.htm ( 3 August 2010 )

This factsheet described cardinal events in Australia ‘s history that were priceless when used to contrast against Australia ‘s early policy on curtailing in-migration.

BBC, Australian racism ‘still serious ‘ , 2008. hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7641158.stm ( 26 July 2010 )

This resource allowed me to estimate the statistics of a recent survey refering racism in Australia, the consequences of which were important to my research.

Bell, John, Australia: province of fright, 2006. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.theage.com.au/news/opinion/australia-state-of-fear/2006/01/26/1138066918372.html ( June 15 2010 )

This article gave me an interesting position that could be taken in sing the consequences of the 2005 Cronulla public violences, with an account of how it be used as an illustration to back up multiculturalism.

Ellson, Sue, What does Harmony Day intend to me? , 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.openforum.com.au/content/what-does-harmony-day-mean-me ( 7 August 2010 )

This resource enabled me to reflect on my ain ideas refering Harmony Day and my experience with this peculiar jubilation.

Giles, Richard. For & A ; against: public issues in Australia, Queensland, Brooks Waterloo, 1993.

This resource contained point of views reasoning the importance of multiculturalism. The points addressed were valuable in leting comparing between other research findings of the same topic.

Haigh, Bruce, Racism in Australia, 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.abc.net.au/unleashed/stories/s2588104.htm ( 16 June 2010 )

Haigh ‘s positions on racism in Australia allowed me to contrast my ain findings with his sentiments and therefore, enabled me to research further on the negative facets of multiculturalism.

Healey, Justin. Australian Identity and Values, Thirroul, The Spinney Press, 2006.

The extent of this resource was that it contained a definition of multiculturalism – 1 in which I compared to my primary research findings.

Multicultural Australia: The Way Forward, 1997. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/multicultural/issues97/macpape3.htm ( 15 June 2010 )

This resource was convenient in giving me a general overview of the advantages Australian society gained globally and as a state.

Robert D. Putnam, 2010.http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_D._Putnam ( 16 June 2010 )

Putnam ‘s findings contrasted, but more significantly, facilitated my personal contemplation on possible issues related to populating in a culturally diverse society

Teo, Hsu M, These yearss it ‘s harder to be different, 2006. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/these-days-its-harder-to-be-different/2006/12/06/1165081019992.html? page=fullpage # contentSwap1 ( 17 June 2010 )

Walsh, Kate. The Changing Face of Australia, NSW, Allen & A ; Unwin, 2001.

The overview of Australian history in this resource provided me information about events that helped make modern twenty-four hours Australia, of which were of import in my research.

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