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Aldehydes and ketones undergo what type of reaction?
• Aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic addition.
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What three tests were preformed in the aldehydes and ketones lab?
The Tollens test, the Schiff test, and the Iodoform test.
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Nucleophilic Addition to Aldehydes and Ketones (Mechanism)
The net result is that the ? bond is broken, two new ? bonds are formed, and the elements of H and Nu are added across the ? bond.
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Substitution vs Addition (Why don’t aldehydes and ketones undergo substitution reactions like Carboxylic acids, Amides, Esters, Anhydrides)
In order for a substitution to occur there must be a leaving group. Acid derivatives all have leaving groups: Cl- in the case of acid chlorides, -OH in the case of carboxylic acids, a carboxylate ion in the case of anhydrides, etc. The stability of these groups after they leave varies widely, but in the case of an aldehyde or ketone there are no groups that would be reasonably stable and therefore no candidates to act as leaving groups. The aldehyde hydrogen will not leave as H:-, nor will an R group leave from a ketone as a carbanion R:- (excluding rare cases where substituents on the R group dramatically change its properties—as in -RX3). In both cases the leaving group would become a strong base. Recall that strong bases never make good leaving groups. Good leaving groups must be weak bases that are stable after they leave. For this reason, aldehydes and ketones only undergo addition reactions—lacking a suitable leaving group to undergo substitution.
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The VSEPR model predicts bond angles of 120° about the carbonyl carbon of aldehydes and ketones.
Why can’t Aldehydes and ketones undergo nucleophilic substitution?
Aldehydes and ketones cannot undergo substitution because they have no leaving group bonded to the newly formed spÂł hybridized carbon. Nucleophilic substitution with an aldehyde, for example, would form H:-, an extremely strong base and therefore a very poor (and highly unlikely) leaving group.
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What is the difference in the smell between aldehydes and ketones?
Aldehydes have pungent odors (like vanilla extract or cinamaldehyde) and Ketones tend to smell sweet (the sweet odors of spearment and caraway seed (carvone).
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