Functional Groups: Organic Chemistry

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functional group
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groups on a molecule that have high chemical reactivity
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alkanes
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hydrocarbon molecule with no functional group
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alkenes
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hydrocarbon that has double bonds acting as functional group
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alkynes
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hydrocarbon that has triple bonds that act as functional groups
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arenes
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six-membered hydrocarbon rings with 3 double-bonds (typically have strong aromas or smells)
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haloalkanes
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molecule that contains a carbon-halogen bond that acts as their functional group
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alcohols
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molecule that contain a hyrdroxy group (-OH) as its functional group
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ethers
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molecule whose functional group is 1 oxygen bonded to 2 carbons
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carbonyl groups
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molecule whose functional group is a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen (3 types include: aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid)
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aldehyde
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type of carbonyl group where the oxygen is double bonded to a carbon and that carbon is bonded to a hydrogen
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ketone
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type of carbonyl group where the oxygen is just double-bonded to the carbon
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carboxylic acid
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type of carbonyl group where the oxygen is double bonded to a carbon which is bonded to a hydroxide
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amide
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alkyl group containing nitrogen instead of carbon (typically only making 3 total bonds)
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thiols
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sulfur replaces the oxygen in the hydroxy group of an alcohol
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alkyl
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an alkane (hydrocarbon with no functional groups) with one hydrogen removed (typically represented by R)
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isopropyl
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isobutyl
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tert-butyl
tert-butyl
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neopentyl
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