Territorial Intelligence And Developing Apuseni Mountains Sociology Essay Essay
- 1.2. The demographical resources
- 1.3. Economic and societal jobs
- 2. METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTIONS
- 2.1. Territorial Intelligence and CATALYSE Methodology
- 3. THE REPRESENTATIONS OF THE CHANCES OF DEVELOPMENT
- The studied district and its features
- Representations of the studied district
- Table No. 3. Representations of the studied district
- The job
- Table No. 4. Problems and duties
- Degree of duty
- State and departmental per centum
- Table No. 5. Representations sing the development chances
- in the micro-region
- The development chance
The Apuseni Mountains country extends on 4.7 % of the Romania ‘s surface, the agricultural country comprises 3.6 % of the agricultural territorial found of Romania, and its population represents 1.7 % of the entire population of the state.
The full personality of the Apuseni Mountains is characterized by the undermentioned characteristics: ( 1 ) the ranging in stairss of the alleviation with some more of import karyons ( Biharia, Vladeasa, Gilau ) ; ( 2 ) lithological diverseness ; ( 3 ) the accentuated tectonically atomization ; ( 4 ) little and in-between heights ; ( 5 ) comparatively reach wood found ( over 55 % of the surface ) ; ( 6 ) high denseness of the population and of the houses in depressions, vales or inter -rivers and mountainsides ; ( 7 ) the predominance of the plane or wavy and glistening inter- rivers, a representative factor in the procedure of escape of the lasting houses as grove, between 1000-1400 metres ; ( 8 ) tourer found really reach and diverse.
1.2. The demographical resources
At the general degree, the planetary facets of the development are reflected, largely, by the development of the social-demographical phenomena. Even the simple development of dwellers ‘ figure may hold of import meanings in the word picture of the development ‘s tendency of the social-economical activities at the regional degree.
The development of the human community from Apuseni proves that there is the danger of depopulation, of the migration towards the urban Centres from the field country, and furthermore, the danger of acquiring old and hapless of those who remained in the country.
In the Apuseni Mountains country, the denseness of the population on square kilometer is about three times smaller than the degree of the full state. The ground is represented by the low potency of guaranting the nutrient. There can be noticed some differences inside the country, these acquiring reduced at the same time with the increasing of the height. The phenomenon is a effect of the reduction of the agricultural and cultivable surface, an exclusion being a group of people situated at 800 metres altitude, where the cultivable surface is largely reduced from the agricultural point of position. In this context, the migration appeared later and maintained a higher denseness.
The survey from 1996 showed that besides Rosia Montana ( an of import excavation Centre ) , holding a population of 100 habitants/ square kilometer, the other towns register low values refering the population ‘ denseness. Migration registered the highest values in the mountain infinite of the Alba County, demoing values as 10 % to 20 % ( for illustration in Almasu Mare and Mogos ) .
Refering the population from the Apuseni country, it registered a autumn in the same period, reported to altitude group.
At the height group of 100-600m, the population decreased with 6.15 % , and at the height of 600-1000m the population decreased with 22.9 % ( a lessening with about three quarters ) . This lessening of the dwellers ‘ figure from the Apuseni Mountains country happened on the context of lasting addition of the population at the degree of the full state, even if some lessenings at the degree of the Romania ‘s population have been registered late.
Still, it has to be noticed that the lessening of the population was and has continued to stay dramatic, particularly in the rural country, a phenomenon that happens in Alba County, excessively, as in the Apuseni mountains country, excessively.
The visual aspect of the depopulation phenomena, as the proportion of the manifestation of this phenomenon grows in strength, non merely in clip, but besides, with the rise of the height. Still, the state of affairs of those who live at the height of over 800 metres is different. The account stands in the isolation of these people.
Some of the causes which lay at the footing of the depopulation of the mountain countries are: a lower productive production of the agricultural countries, bad clime conditions with long and really cold winter and short summer, the nutrient is non sufficient from the thermal point of position, and besides milk, other merchandises lack in this country, and the presence of milk does non replace the demand of the vitamins and proteins. The disconnected lands make really hard the agricultural plants and do really low forces of working, the deficiency of the substructures and the bad life in these countries determine particularly the young person to schools, and other topographic points which offer them better conditions of life and work.
At the same clip, the rewards obtained from agribusiness are non supplemented with incomes accomplished from other activities, the lone beginning of income – the exploring of the gold and Cu ( in Rosia Montana, Baia de Aries, Rosia Poieni and Almasu Mare ) , and their processing ( in Zlatna ) does non be any longer, a great portion of mineworkers being unemployed ( get downing with 2006 ) .
1.3. Economic and societal jobs
From the social- economical point of position, the country is characterized by the most unfavorable conditions as: ( 1 ) a hard entree towards the urban and rural Centres because of the deficiency of communicating ways ; ( 2 ) a high strength of the depopulation procedure because of the unstable local conditions and a strong ripening of the population, this doing the hereafter depopulation and the biological disappearing ; ( 3 ) a low criterion of life, the reduced degree of concern reported to the citizens, the little power of purchasing, the monetary values of the bulk of the merchandises are greater than the mean degree of the state ; ( 4 ) a lacking substructure ; ( 5 ) the impossibleness of look intoing the excess of the agricultural merchandises ( particularly animate beings ) because of the isolation, of the deficiency of conveyance agencies ; ( 6 ) the high per centum of the unemployed because of the dismissing from the excavation and easy industry from the country ; ( 7 ) the decreased rating of the tourer resources whose possible is one of the greatest, non merely at the natural extraordinary degree of elements ( karstic signifiers, natural landscapes ) , but besides at the cultural wealth degree ( the particular architecture, the traditional fabrics, the imposts. )
2. METHODOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTIONS
The methodological buildings which are at the footing of our survey are built on the theory of the territorial intelligence and on the CATALYSE methodological analysis.
2.1. Territorial Intelligence and CATALYSE Methodology
In 2005, Jean-Jacques Girardot presented a survey under the rubric “ Territorial intelligence and engagement ” . Girardot confesses in his survey that he himself proposed the term of territorial intelligence in 1999, in tight relation with that of territorial technology ( ingenierie territoriale ) , territorial intelligence intending “ seting the direction of undertakings and engineerings of information society in the service of sustainable development ” . Along the development of several undertakings coordinated by Girardot, a new methodological analysis suited for the development of territorial intelligence is determining, a methodological analysis named Catalyse. Catalyse means methods and instruments which allow the great engagement of territorial histrions in the achievement of the territorial diagnosings or in the local research labs in order to lucubrate more efficient and pertinent action undertakings for development ( Girardot, 2005 ) . The chief feature of the Catalyse methodological analysis, harmonizing to Girardot, is engagement. Actors represent foremost an informal partnership for the devising of a data-collecting usher in order to continue to a societal or territorial diagnosing. Each of the histrions collects the information at the degree of his or her users ( usagers ) . The information is enhanced for analysis, and so the histrions participate to the reading of informations every bit good.
For Girardot, the construct of territorial intelligence means “ the set of inter-disciplinary cognition which, on the one manus, contribute to the apprehension of the constructions and kineticss of the districts, and, on the other manus, intends to be an instrument in the service of the histrions of the sustainable territorial development ” ( Girardot, 2005 ) .
Territorial intelligence, harmonizing to Girardot, relies on six ethical and methodological rules, among which the first is the rule of engagement.
We consider the designation of the ethical rules of territorial intelligence in the rules of sustainable development of particular heuristic value. Harmonizing to Girardot, sustainable development relies on three rules validated by legion moral and political cases at universe graduated table: ( 1 ) the engagement of all histrions to development, chiefly of the villagers ; ( 2 ) the planetary attack of the state of affairss, characterized by a proper equilibrium among the economic, societal and environmental considerations ; ( 3 ) the partnership of the histrions. These ethical rules associate with three methodological rules able to vouch their observation ( 1 ) the attack of the district as action infinite ; ( 2 ) the airing of the civilization of rating and the disposal through undertakings ; ( 3 ) the development of the handiness of the engineerings of the information society.
Girardot states that these rules take into history foremost that the planetary attack relies on a both territorial and prospective vision and, secondly, that engagement and partnership define territorial intelligence as an attack chiefly focused on histrions, and which relies on the handiness of the information engineerings every bit good as on the cooperation of the histrions.
Engagement. The impression of engagement, harmonizing to Girardot, does non concern merely the operators ( les operateurs ) but besides the donees of the action, more exactly, the citizens. Engagement involves decision-making every bit good as the construct, disposal and rating of action. Engagement is based on communicating, accordingly on information in an synergistic context. This means the handiness of information, the histrions ‘ capacity of accessing the contents of the information, and therefore, the engineerings of information.
The planetary and balanced attack. This rule is based on the fact that sustainable development, harmonizing to Girardot, tends towards a harmonisation of the economic, ecologic, societal and cultural aims. As compared to the centralised ( centralisee ) logic, which is globally translated through a divider of activities, sustainable development is based on an incorporate attack of jobs at a territorial graduated table. It is besides planetary in the sense that a district depends on the universe logics. It is besides planetary in the sense that it integrates all the dimensions of the territorial action. Therefore, both the societal dimension, through the precedence given to the meeting of the demands of the deprived, and the ecological dimension in order to continue the hereafter for the coevalss forthcoming are taken into history. Territorial intelligence, as Girardot concludes in this chapter, involves legion Fieldss of cognition and action ( human ecology, geographics, environment, economic system, communicating, wellness, patrimony and establishments ) and must affect jurisprudence, history and civilization.
Partnership. Partnership, as Girardot explains, consequences from the integrated attack which means non merely the engagement and cooperation of the histrions of the territorial action, more by and large, of the set of histrions in a certain district. Territorial intelligence, harmonizing to Girardot, is characterised by the demand to develop the methods and instruments which would ease the web action of the partnerships of histrions, the divider of information and cooperation.
Let us now focus on the methodological rules stated by Girardot.
The district as infinite of action. The aboriginal function played by the district in the administration raises a particular involvement for the construct of territorial intelligence. The district is defined as interaction between a geographic infinite and a human community. Hence consequences that territorial intelligence agencies three complementary degrees of analysis: 1 ) the territorial histrions ‘ game ( le jeu ) , their representations and influential dealingss, the institutional backgrounds within which they act, every bit good as the undertakings and achievements which initiate them ; 2 ) the socio-economic kineticss which result from doing single or corporate determinations: demographic behaviors, the mobility of goods and persons, the kineticss of activities etc. ; 3 ) the spacial constructions and their development which are concrete interlingual renditions of the histrions ‘ games and of the socio-economic kineticss: sceneries and environment, development ( business ) of the dirt, the urban morphologies and the webs of colonies, equipments, substructures etc. As for the district, we consider it the necessity to place the district proper for action in relation to the administrative districts, and the analysis of regulating at several degrees to be really of import ( multi-niveaux ) .
The undertaking direction and the action rating. Engagement, harmonizing to Girardot, means the capacity to lucubrate and pull off undertakings, rating being the warrant of an efficient direction. The undertaking amplification in the context of a planetary and incorporate attack means an of import apprehensiveness ( apprentissage ) attempt on the histrions ‘ behalf. The engagement to the corporate achievement of a territorial diagnosing, so the achievement of the system of territorial intelligence inaugurates an apprehensiveness procedure which continues with the participative rating of actions, this meaning the valorisation of good pattern and the designation of evitable mistakes.
The handiness of the engineerings of the information society and of information. The computing machine webs, harmonizing to Girardot, represent the substructure of territorial intelligence. The computer-science and telecommunication instruments are indispensable for the exchange administration and for the exchange of corporate work of the legion, different histrions, who are far off from one another and do non synchronize in clip. But, as Girardot notices, the information engineerings do non needfully guarantee the information airing, or the automatic production of new information.
Territorial intelligence, we believe, through some of its contents and rules ( such as that of engagement and partnership ) comes instead close to what is called today community development.
The Catalyse methodological analysis is developed by the Laboratory MTI @ SHS with the University Franche-Comte in Besancon, France. The research lab MTI, as it is presently called, reunites a squad of interdisciplinary research ready to gestate, do up and reassign methods and instruments based on the application of computerized engineering in the scientific disciplines of adult male and society. In 1997, we find MTI involved in two great undertakings: ARCHAEORES ( the observation of the multi-regional and long-run archaeological and environmental kineticss ) and CATALYSE ( the rating and observation of local political relations and kineticss in the socio-economical and cultural spheres ) . CATALYSE will detach as methodological analysis, developing methodological and instrumental solutions that exploit the rules of territorial intelligence defined by: the engagement of the histrions, the partnership of the operators, the planetary attack and the quality and handiness of information.
The kernel of the CATALYSE methodological analysis is represented by the Restoration of consequences as agencies of determining and seting in hierarchy the community jobs in local and regional countries[ 1 ]. The elements of territorial diagnosing and the sociological enquiries are merely fixing phases for Restoration, lending to the acquisition of a set of information which would motivate arguments within the community with the terminal of the designation and seting in hierarchy of the existent jobs of the community.
Mentions to the construct of Restoration are to be found even in the 7th and 8th decennaries of the last century, in a France, which made considerable attempts in the support of rural redevelopment. The more the importance of a old well-done rural questionnaire additions, said the Gallic psycho-sociologist R. Mucchielli, the more the feedback of a questionnaire ( i.e. the Restoration of the decisions to the community the questionnaire was made ) under the conditions in which the community accepted the questionnaire in its bend. From this point of position, the rural questionnaire represents the decisive minute. If the scientists know how to acquire the people cooperate and to do the questionnaire be accepted from the really beginning, to do the informal and the local leaders get involved, if they restore the consequences, and if the villagers recognize themselves in this image, there is already an urge to be able to catalyze the alteration ( Mucchielli, 1976 ) .
The Restoration can be seen as an instrument within the action research ( AR ) . The AR can and was applied to administrations but besides to the extended groups ( town, part ) . Thus AR represents for some research workers a research scheme utilizing action or the participant observation, an action scheme in the practical field, as a agency of act uponing the planetary behavior of the group, a method of analysis conceived as such to assist an histrion to observe the significances of his behavior and the state of affairss he confronts with ( Juan, 1999 ) . Within the context, one can raise besides the term “ societal technology ” , a term proposed by Fourier in the nineteenth century.
Detecting the fact that in the humanistic disciplines and societal scientific disciplines no type of research was likely really much disputed, P. Paille, in Dictionaire des Methodes Qualitatives en Sciences Humaines et Sociales, coordinated by Al. Mucchielli, considers the AR as being its exact quadruplicate kernel: applied research ( this is for the humanistic disciplines and societal scientific disciplines what applied research is for natural scientific disciplines ) , involved research ( the rationalist stake of the impersonal and external observation of the societal phenomena proved impossible to win, as we can non but stand up to it, if non ideologically, at least pragmatically ) , combined research ( the histrion is himself an breathing topic, a possible theorist of his life and of the events that affect him ) , research engaged in an action, and non estranged from it or detecting it from the distance, and this battle can take both the signifier of practical experiment and that of the societal or political intercession, going therefore an battle for action ( Paille, 2002 ) .
M. R. Verspieren calls the research – action interpolation – reinsertion or strategic research-action. For Vespieren it ‘s obligatory that one should get down in the action research from two types of hypothesis: research hypotheses and action hypotheses. The research hypotheses, when they are validated, have the production of cognition as consequence while the action hypotheses have as terminal the transmutation of world ( Verspieren, 1990 ) . The dealingss between the research worker and the histrion in the strategic action research suppose, in Vespieren ‘s vision, the engagement of the histrion into the research and of the research worker into action, which presupposes the preparation of the research worker to go a practician and of the practicians to go research workers, so that in the terminal we have a corporate histrion.
Kimberley Ann – Ford will analyze the impression participative action research ( recherche – action participative ) . In participative action research the research does non see in the respondents merely a cherished beginning of information to be collected and analysed, but besides a panel of experts in the sphere to analyze. It is about an just partnership for the interest of which all the involved parties take net income of their engagement to the research work, the participants lending, at different degrees, to the conceiving of work, to the amplification of the great subjects and of the research instruments. The consequences and the observations of the research work are communicated to the participants along the whole period of work, the participative action research allowing to the marginalized or excluded groups to show themselves.
3. THE REPRESENTATIONS OF THE CHANCES OF DEVELOPMENT
The studied district and its features
The micro-region Albac-Scarisoara-Horea is situated in the North-West of the Alba County. It lies on a surface of 20871 hour angle, which represents 4.3 % of the rural part of the Alba County. Here 4 % of the rural population lives ( 6487 individuals ) in 3.7 % of the families of the small towns in Alba ( see besides Table No. 1, in ANNEX ) . At the degree of the rural country of the Alba County, adult females represent 49.6 % and in the studied micro-region 48 % . The birth rate of the unrecorded new-born babes is 9.3aˆ° in the rural portion of Alba and 10.5aˆ° in the micro-region Albac-Scarisoara-Horea. The asleep represent 15.4aˆ° in the small towns in the Alba County and 10.9aˆ° in the micro-region. For a population which represents 4 % , the entire agricultural surface represents merely 2 % , of which the cultivable land represents 14 % , as compared to 40 % in the small towns of Alba. The grazing lands and meadows represent 86 % of the agricultural land in the micro-region, and, correspondingly, the figure of cowss is 639 per 1000 villagers as compared to 336 of the entire sum of the rural part of Alba. The milk production is 7.8hl/person in the micro-region, merely a small spot higher than that of the entire figure of small towns of the county: 7.4 % .
The three communes that make up the micro-region ( Albac-Scarisoara-Horea ) have several common major jobs of substructure ( conveyance and telecommunication agencies, H2O supply etc. ) , poverty rates near to one another from a valuable point of position, a batch above the county norm and a big figure of people of more than 15 old ages old who graduated primary school at most, accordingly with a low instruction degree ( Table No. 2, in ANNEX ) .
The differences shown by indexs of human capital ( larger sum of population with a lower instruction degree in Scarisoara, a higher sum of unemployment in Albac, a larger per centum of kids in Albac ) are the specific features of every commune, as C.A. Butiu notices, but besides suggest a certain complementary resources in a possible undertaking of micro-regional development ( Butiu, 2006 ) . Although the natural capital is similar ( a cragged part favorable to touristry, carnal elevation and wood development ) , Scarisoara was considered as one of the poorest communes in Romania ( Sandu, 1999 ) , without accomplishing singular advancement in the latest old ages, while Albac ( the Centre small town ) was declared a touristed small town ( in 2005 ) , on the evidences of homo, natural and touristed substructure potency. This could be the development pole of the micro-region, harmonizing to C. A. Butiu.
Representations of the studied district
Harmonizing to the methodological rules of the community development, as Calina Ana Butiu writes in a recent survey, the official statistics and the experts ‘ sentiments need to be interpreted together with the villagers ‘ sentiments. ( Butiu, 2005 ) . It is what imposes besides the rule of engagement at the degree of territorial intelligence. Villagers ‘ representations, and implicitly, their sentiments were taken by us with the agencies of a inquiry from the questionnaire of the sociological enquiry.
Harmonizing to the informations in Table No. 3, the hierarchy of the community-territorial jobs is the undermentioned: 1. The bad province of the roads ( 81.6 % ) ; 2. non reception the Television plans ( 40.8 % ) and 3. the deficient H2O supply ( 36.7 % ) . We mention the fact that in the instance of the commune Scarisoara, the H2O supply is on 2nd topographic point and the informations resulted from the sociological enquiry were presented to our middlemans, and were followed by the following inquiries: Do you hold with this hierarchy? What would be the solutions to each job?
Most of the questioned believe that the hierarchy rendered by our enquiry is right. Those who would alter something in the proposed hierarchy would set the H2O supply on 2nd topographic point or would merely alter the hierarchy wholly: “ I believe that the H2O supply job is on first topographic point, so the Television plans response and on 3rd topographic point the roads. ” ( B.P. , Scarisoara ) Even the ex-mayor of Albac proposes another hierarchy, besides proposing some solutions to the jobs: “ My hierarchy is the undermentioned: 1. the H2O supply, 2. roads and 3. Television plans response. For roads and H2O the best solution would be the small town undertakings, but non merely at local degree, the whole part should be united so that several small towns should profit from this. The H2O supply job requires a cloaca system. As for the Television response, a solution would be satellite transmittal, merely as in the instance of nomadic telephones. ” ( P.G. , Albac ) .
Table No. 3. Representations of the studied district
Difficult H2O supply
Lack of phone
Difficult response of Television plans
Other jobs ( the deficiency of foreign investing, inundation danger, deficiency of occupations, deficiency of a refuse cavity )
When it is about solutions, foremost the completion of the begun plants is suggested: “ The European Community built some roads, but non all of them are finished, they besides intend to put one or two autos to take the milk to Albac. Those who started the undertaking should complete the roads. “ ( H.G. , Albac ) .
The apply for EU financess is often invoked in the micro-region: “ If Bucharest does non O.K. of the SAPARD H2O undertaking, there is nil we can make. ” A ( T.T. , city manager, Albac ) .
Other mentions are made to the duties of the section and province governments: “ If we refer to the county roads, we can detect that they are really bad and the State should acquire involved in order to work out these jobs. The State should besides affect in restituting the route to Huedin, which crosses our commune. “ ( C.O. , city manager, Horea )[ 2 ].
The mobilisation of the local and household resources is secondary as compared to these entreaties, but yet house: “ Yes, the roads! But they, lazy people, do n’t make anything. In Lazaresti[ 3 ]there are 100 donees of societal aid but they contributed with no shovel of sand to the route. Everyone should hold H2O put up in his family. Why should the Local Council do it for them? ! For illustration, when the Local Council made the H2O supply system for the establishments in the Centre ( school, Local Councilaˆ¦ ) , the people in the Centre could put it excessively and one of the donees asked for a great recompense for the land he gave to the setting-up. ” ( A.B. , priest, Scarisoara ) .
The incapacity to mobilise the community resources touches besides a critical job such as medical aid: “ The medical edifice was falling downaˆ¦it was built 74 old ages ago by a physician who settled here. All physicians following him used it and since 1970 there has been no physician to remain in the villageaˆ¦all of them had been commuters till four old ages ago when I and my hubby moved here. In order to populate in the dispensary house, we had to put 240 million wreath for redevelopment. The Local Council granted us a portion of the sumaˆ¦but non all of it. They prefer populating without a physician ” ( F.A. , the physician ‘s married woman, Scarisoara ) .
The restoring of the consequences to the inquiry related to the community-territorial jobs allowed us to place the degree of duty matching to every job. See besides Table No. 4.
The convergence of the involvements of the three communes can be shaped besides from the analysis of the villagers ‘ representations of what can develop better in the vicinity ( Table No. 5 )
Named here representations of the development chances, the day of the month given by our enquiry turn out a quasi-unanimous understanding sing touristry as the chief economic activity which can develop in the micro-region. The wood industry is an exclusion, which is on first topographic point for the topics in Horea ( where the development and wood fabrication is the most consistent beginning of income ) . Consequently, for them, the opportunities of development are related to an economic activity problematic from the point of position of sustainable development.
Table No. 4. Problems and duties
Degree of duty
State and departmental per centum
Community and household per centum
Family per centum
Table No. 5. Representations sing the development chances
in the micro-region
The development chance
Field works civilization
Another economic activity ( the development of the rock and non-ferrous ores resources, fish genteelness, picking and work of wood fruit, dressmaking, bee civilization ) .
As we remarked, the replies to the inquiry which focused on the economic spheres most likely to develop in the communes of the micro-region, give the undermentioned hierarchy: 1. touristry ( 92.9 % ) , 2. animate being elevation ( 86.4 % ) , and 3. wood industry ( 83.6 % ) . Therefore, the hierarchy above is different for the villagers in Horea for whom wood development is on first topographic point. Without pretermiting this facet, within reconstructing, the presentation of the consequences of the sociological enquiry was followed by the inquiries: Do you hold with this hierarchy? What do you believe that prevents now households from gaining adequate money from touristry, carnal elevation and wood industry?
As for touristry and its development, the interviewed individuals considered that many alterations were extremely necessary.
Now, harmonizing to person, the quality of service is dubious: “ I believe that people are non ready for touristry, as you merely ca n’t direct people to a lavatory outside or hold them kip in the same room with you. You must hold a good room, and a bathroom with a shower and hot H2O. If you do something, you should make it good. ” ( P.I. , Albac ) .
It is considered that monetary values are excessively high as compared to the services offered, even where there are proper adjustment conditions: “ Well, people got ready for touristry, but at that place have been excessively few people this summer. Possibly, if the monetary values were lower, tourers would experience encouraged to come. They have suites and bathrooms but their monetary values are instead high. ” ( F.A. , Albac ) .
In Horea, non merely touristry development is prevented by the unstable substructure: “ Tourism is prevented by the substructure of roads with the Cluj County. From Matisesti to Cluj the route is non asphalted and people do n’t look for adjustment in Horea. ” ( F.B. , Horea ) .
Bureaucracy is considered a halt in the development of touristry entrepreneurship, which is a aboriginal status for investings in this sphere: “ The State does n’t prolong people who take inaugural to put up a commercial company with simple and profitable Torahs, one needs a batch of paperss to register it, does n’t acquire profitable loans, being prevented by the deficiency of money. ” ( T.T. , Scarisoara ) .
The micro-region needs another publicity every bit good: “ In our part there are no tourers as the part is non mediated, if there were some better defined touristed aims, there would be a opportunity. ” ( P.G. , Albac ) .
In malice of the place it has in our hierarchy, carnal elevation is non regarded with excessively much optimism. The legion Michigans brought approximately, such as the quality of the fresh fish and the deficiency of market for the merchandises, are the most signalized: “ Animal raising would non develop as one can non raise a cow with the fresh fishs we have here, as they are wild and do non give adequate milk. ”[ 4 ]( F. C. , Horea ) ; “ The villagers raise their animate beings in their ain families, without holding the possibility to verify the milk and the milk merchandises, the porc and lily-livered meat. Centres to roll up these merchandises would be necessary, through investing of the province. ” ( D.E. , Scarisoara ) .
The commentaries sing the wood industry reflect the complexness of the procedures related to this sphere, which are ecologic, economic and societal. Therefore, we notice foremost the entire dependance of the villagers to the wood industry in the part: “ With us, if we run out of wood, it ‘s black! ” ( P.H. , Albac ) . It is so appreciated that the wood industry is hard and expensive, particularly for old people: “ Those who take attention of the woods earn immense amounts of money, but non everybody can be involved as the hills are hard to mount and it takes several people and you ca n’t travel at that place entirely to cut down a Christmas tree and till you cut up some aˆ¦and so conveyance is expensive. In the terminal, you get nil. ” ( F.A. , 82 old ages, Albac ) . The processing work itself is besides expensive: “ In wood processing, there is non adequate money to work the wood by utilizing a sawmill or other tools. ” ( T.T. , city manager, Albac ) . In the terminal, the deficiency of wood stock leads to unsatisfactory monetary values: “ I think that the market prevents the people from gaining sufficient money from these economic activities, the deficiency of wood stock, if we can state so. ” ( C.O. , city manager, Horea )
The exhaustion of wood resources is besides signalised: “ In wood industry, how can at that place be wood if it was all cut down? ” ( A.B. , Albac ) . Hence the exigency signals sing the impact of wood cutting upon sustainable development: “ aˆ¦They about finished with wood cutting. They should allow the woods grow once more so that our grandchildren should besides profit from it. ” ( F.C. , Horea ) ; “ We should halt cutting wood as we spoil the environmentaˆ¦ ” ( B.C. , priest, Scarisoara ) .
Tourism could win the wood industry, harmonizing to some sentiments: “ At present, everybody lives out of wood, and they do what they can make every bit long as they can make. Then, when the wood is over, touristry can develop. ” ( F.D. , Horea ) .
4. FINAL Remark
We prefer for the concluding portion of our survey the presentation of some critical self-evaluating notes, instead than a more ample gap of the approached job.
From the general theoretical facets, that are still to be developed and profoundly analyzed, our survey moves to a complex and heavy methodological job i.e. that of the reconstructing the consequences. Actually, we could state that the restoring of consequences is the instrument through which the sociologist challenges or strengthens engagement, and therefore, the moral force of worlds covered by constructs such as territorial intelligence, community development, administration.
The mentioning of action research is obligatory in this context, although we stated several times the fact that our research focused chiefly on the heuristic valencies of the restoring of consequences. We admit here the fact that the dimension intercession to the restoring of consequences was non supported by matching hypotheses in our research i.e. intercession hypotheses ( Juan, 1999 ) . This is due to the fact that, for the clip being, we do non hold clear standards to measure the intercession consequences by reconstructing the consequences. Consequently, new probes and experiments will be necessary for this intent.
Decidedly, we can speak about an unintended intercession, more precisely about some positive or negative effects of the reconstructing the consequences, at the degree of the local histrions ( governments and villagers at the same clip ) . We do non hold a validated instrument to measure these effects either. What we could afford in our probe in the micro-region Albac – Scarisoara – Horea was merely, through the restoring procedure, to determine an stock list of the plus-value of the sociological enquiry. We shall hold to project new instruments to measure and determine the plus-value of the probes in their assembly.