Succession in Sand Dunes Essay Example
Succession in Sand Dunes Essay Example

Succession in Sand Dunes Essay Example

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  • Pages: 4 (960 words)
  • Published: November 9, 2017
  • Type: Essay
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Researching Succession in Sand Dunes. Scientific Understanding: Succession refers to the gradual transformation of a community's composition over time, as a result of the actions of its inhabitants. Primary succession takes place when a community establishes itself on barren terrain that has never experienced vegetation growth.

Primary succession can be observed in sand dunes while secondary succession takes place in areas that were previously colonized but are now available due to the destruction of the previous community. The ground in secondary succession may not be entirely new as remnants such as soil, organic matter, and seeds may still be present, as well as possible resistant plant species. A forest fire is an example of an event that could lead to secondary succession.

The initial inhabitants of an area are known as pioneer species, possessing unique characteristics that allow them to thrive under challenging circumstances


. These species can endure harsh abiotic conditions, possess effective seed and spore distribution methods, exhibit rapid germination rates, and do not rely on animal assistance for survival. Additionally, these types of vegetation may be capable of fixing nitrogen with the aid of bacteria located in their root nodules, contributing to soil nutrient accumulation in areas with limited nitrate availability. Furthermore, pioneering species typically engage in photosynthesis, allowing them to independently generate energy without dependence on external organisms.

Photosynthesis in pioneer species is affected by various limiting factors. An increase in light intensity enhances the rate of light-dependent reactions and thus, photosynthesis, in a proportional manner. However, beyond a certain level of light intensity, the rate of photosynthesis is bounded by another factor. An increase in carbon dioxide concentration promotes the incorporation of carbo

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into carbohydrate via light-independent reactions and concomitantly, increases the rate of photosynthesis until it becomes limited by another factor.

Photosynthesis relies on temperature as it is facilitated by enzymatic reactions. The reaction rate increases as enzymes approach the optimal temperature and decreases beyond it until it ceases entirely. Xerophytes are plant species adapted to thrive in regions with limited water or moisture resources.

Xerophytes have various adaptations to cope with dry conditions. These adaptations include reducing the permeability of the epidermal layer, controlling stomata and cuticle to minimize transpiration and maintain optimal water amount in tissues, modifying the root system to obtain water from deep underground or humid sources, and storing water in swollen stems, leaves or roots. It is crucial for xerophytes to maintain maximum water levels at all times. Transpiration, which refers to the loss of water vapour from the leaves through open stomata, occurs when the water potential inside the leaf is higher than outside. Although this is a normal process in all plants, xerophytes living in arid conditions must have adaptations to limit their water potential gradient and decrease stomatal size.

Conserving water is crucial for plants living in dry conditions as it reduces water loss and prevents turgor loss and tissue wilting. If the water loss is excessive, it may reach the plant's permanent wilting point, which leads to its death. The final method involves preparing a table of apparatus with a justified degree of accuracy to ensure precision and reliability. Moreover, a risk assessment should be conducted before performing the laboratory method for pH and Salinity measurements. Precautions must be taken to reduce any anticipated risks, and all samples must

be gathered and arranged accordingly.

Take one level scoop of the first sample and put it in a 100cm3 glass beaker. Add 30cm3 of distilled water from a measuring cylinder to the beaker and stir well with a metal spatula until the soil and water are mixed. Let the sand settle and then use a pH probe to test the pH level accurately. Record the result in a table.

Create a second test in a beaker with the same soil sample and use a conductivity probe to measure salinity. Record the result in a table. Dispose of the soil and water in a waste bucket, not down the sink. Use a sieve to remove any additional debris if necessary.

Test all soil samples by repeating the previous steps. To determine soil litter content, measure 10 grams of the first dried soil sample with a calibrated electronic balance that measures to 3 decimal places.

Add the soil sample to a 500cm3 measuring cylinder and measure out 100cm3 of distilled water to add to the cylinder. Cover the end of the cylinder with plastic and invert it a few times to mix the soil sample and water. Afterward, allow the different fractions of the sample to separate for a brief period.

Eliminate the buoyant fraction through filtration via a funnel. Proceed to desiccate the residue on the filter paper and re-measure the weight. Determine the proportion of soil consisting of the litter layer and repeat each stage for all soil specimens to boost accuracy. Soil Moisture Content: Employ a precise electronic scale calibrated to 3 to weigh an empty weighing container.

To determine the water content of a soil sample, follow these steps:

first, measure the initial mass of the sample, naming this "MASS A." Then, take a 10-gram sample and reweigh it in a beaker, naming this "MASS B." Next, dry the soil sample in a crucible by baking it in an oven at 100 degrees for 24 hours or microwaving it for 15 minutes. Reweigh this new sample in the beaker and name it "MASS C." Repeat this process until a constant mass is achieved. Finally, calculate the percentage water content using the formula: (MASS B – MASS C) x 100 / (MASS B – MASS A). Repeat this process for each soil sample to improve reliability of results. To determine the humus content, weigh a dry soil sample with all moisture removed, and record to three decimal places.

Combine everything in a big crucible.

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