the health determinant that we have least control over is:
the nine dimensions
to chronic diseases
during the past 100 years, the major causes of death have shifted from infectious diseases
America’s number one cause of death
the single most important factor in determining an individual’s level of wellness:
lowering treatment costs
a large portion of public health policies are aimed at:
income and education are closely linked with status
the higher the poverty rate and the lower the education level,the more likely it is a group will have poor health
conduct a self-assessment
the first step in improving wellness by lifestyle management is to:
internal locus of control
believe that events turn as they do based on their own actions
refers to situations that can trigger physical and emotional reactions
responsible for body’s physical response to stressors
nervous and endocrine
Triggered by something pleasant
is when the fight-or-flight reaction is resolved
past experiences, personality type, cultural background
influences the way an individual responds to stress
academics and time management
break down long-term goals into short term goals
keeping track of tasks you put off
muscles are relaxed
laughter might be the best medicine for stress because after a good laugh your:
helps people reduce stress by
making them more aware of their levels of physiological arousal
identify your stressors
first step in creating a personal plan for managing stress:
IDK IF THIS IS TRUE Being mentally healthy.
The stages of Erik Erikson’s model of psychological development are experienced:
Which of the following statements is an example of negative self-talk?
A defense mechanism by which unacceptable feelings are transferred from one event or person to a less threatening one is:
culture, biology, genetics
Which of the following factors plays a major part in psychological disorders?
People are most likely to develop post traumatic stress disorder after:
If the air temperatures is 75F, cooked or refrigerated foods should not be left at room temperature for more than:
Needs more B12
What is the main nutrition-related problem likely to be encountered by a vegan if his or her diet is not carefully selected?
processed and prepared foods
Salt consumption is most often from:
50 to 60 percent
Human body weight is composed of approximately __________ water.
Help regulate body functions.
Fiber can help
Reduce the absorption of cholesterol.
Manage diabetes by slowing the movement of glucose into the blood.
Prevent constipation by increasing fecal bulk.
function of fats
They help insulate your body.
They support and cushion your organs.
They help your body absorb fat-soluble vitamins.
essential common amino acids
Proteins provide ________ calories per gram,
carbohydrates provide _______ calories per gram,
and fats provide _______ calories per gram.
components of physical fitness
Diabetes, joint problems, back pain
Which of the following is a person with excessive body fat more likely to experience than a person with a healthy body composition?
exercise and disease prevention
Weight-bearing exercises protects women against osteoporosis.
Regular exercise reduces the risk of stroke.
Exercise prevents the development of type 2 diabetes.
Which of the following activities will provide the MOST aerobic benefit for a beginning exerciser who has been sedentary until then?
One of the easiest ways to determine appropriate endurance exercise intensity involves measuring:
improve muscular endurance
Do resistance exercises no more than 3 days per week.
5 to 7 days a week
Stretching exercises should ideally be performed:
may cause increased heart rate, muscle cramps, reduced blood volume
characteristic of binge-eating disorder
Eating more rapidly than normal.
Eating when not hungry.
Characteristics of bulimia
Bingeing followed by purging
Fear of becoming fat.
Concern about control.
An eating disorder characterized by a refusal to eat enough food to maintain a reasonable body weight is:
successful weight management
Drink fewer calories in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.
Choose foods with a low energy density and a high nutrient density.
Always check food labels for serving size, calories, and nutrient content.
high in calories
Processed foods labeled “fat-free” or “reduced fat” mai
Recent research indicates that drinking more than one soda per day may be associated with:
Type 2 diabetes
is best prevented by eating a healthy diet and exercising
body density and water displacement
Hydrostatic weighing is used to predict percent body fat based on
comparing weight to height.
The main drawback of using BMI to assess health is that it is not a good tool for
Eating heart healthy
Reducing sodium intake.
Eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Eating a high-fiber diet.
Which of the following statements about rheumatic fever is TRUE?
Treatment for congestive heart failure
Increasing salt intake.
Reducing the workload of the heart.
Taking drugs that eliminate excess body fluid.
pressure in the chest
The most common symptom associated with angina is:
A heart attack
When a coronary artery becomes blocked, the result is
Diabetics have higher rates of:
The thickening of artery walls by deposits of fatty substances
high blood pressure
A controllable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a disease itself.
smoking, inactivity, cholesterol
All of the following cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors can be changed
How many chambers does the heart contain?
infectious to chronic
How causes of death have shifted from 100 years ago to today.
Healthy People 2020
Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death. Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
locus of control believes that he or she can influence events and their outcomes
locus of control blames outside forces for everything
a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or very demanding circumstances.
A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.
moderate or normal psychological stress interpreted as being beneficial for the experiencer.
extreme anxiety, sorrow, or pain
1 stages of the fight or flight
stimuli that are sent to the brain
all stages of the fight or flight response 2
the brain deciphers the stimulus as either a threat or a non-threat
fight or flight 3
the body stays activated until the threat is over
all stages of the fight or flight response 4
the body returns to homeostasis, a stage of physiological calmness
A defense reaction that prepares an individual for conflict or escape by triggering hormonal, cardiovascular, metabolic and other changes.
fight or Flight
Mental reaction and consequences of stress, both short and long-term stressors.
is an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions)
the action or practice of meditating
the use of electronic monitoring of a normally automatic bodily function in order to train someone to acquire voluntary control of that function.
infancy, 0-2 years
Hope: trust vs. mistrust
Will: autonomy vs. shame and doubt
infancy, 4-5 years
Purpose: initiative vs. guilt
Competence: industry vs. inferiority,
(latency, school age,
Fidelity: identity vs. role confusion (adolescence,
Love: intimacy vs. isolation (early adulthood
Care: generativity vs. stagnation (adulthood,
65 – death
Wisdom: ego integrity vs. despair; maturity,
A mental device for coping with conflict or anxiety.
primitive defense mechanisms
denial, regression, acting out, dissociation, compartmentalization, projection, reaction formation,
medium mature defense mechanisms
repression, displacement, intellectualization, rationalization, undoing,
mature defense mechanisms
sublimation, compensation, assertiveness.
acting as if the feeling didn’t exist
bedwetting, reverse developing
lose track of person and time
an honest person who cheats on their income tax return and keeps their two value systems distinct and un-integrated while remaining unconscious of the cognitive dissonance.
misattribution of a person’s undesired thoughts,
For instance, a woman who is very angry with her boss and would like to quit her job may instead be overly kind and generous toward her boss and express a desire to keep working there forever.
“Repressed memories” are memories that have been unconsciously blocked from access or view.
Displacement is the redirecting of thoughts feelings and impulses directed at one person or object, but taken out upon another person or object.
a person who has just been given a terminal medical diagnosis, instead of expressing their sadness and grief, focuses instead on the details of all possible fruitless medical procedures.
a woman who starts dating a man she really, really likes and thinks the world of is suddenly dumped by the man for no reason. She reframes the situation in her mind with, “I suspected he was a loser all along.”
By “undoing” the previous action, the person is attempting to counteract the damage done by the original comment, hoping the two will balance one another out.
when a person has sexual impulses they would like not to act upon, they may instead focus on rigorous exercise. Refocusing such unacceptable or harmful impulses into productive use helps a person channel energy that otherwise would be lost or used in a manner that might cause the person more anxiety.
Compensation is a process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weaknesses by emphasizing strength in other arenas.
Assertiveness is the emphasis of a person’s needs or thoughts in a manner that is respectful, direct and firm.
Factors that contribute to mental illness
Having a blood relative, such as a parent or sibling, with a mental illness
Stressful life situations, such as financial problems, a loved one’s death or a divorce
An ongoing (chronic) medical condition, such as diabetes
Brain damage as a result of a serious injury (traumatic brain injury), such as a violent blow to the head
Traumatic experiences, such as military combat or being assaulted
Use of alcohol or recreational drugs
Being abused or neglected as a child
Having few friends or few healthy relationships
A previous mental illness
symptoms of depression
Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions
Fatigue and decreased energy
Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and/or helplessness
Feelings of hopelessness and/or pessimism
Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping
Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex
Overeating or appetite loss
Persistent aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment
Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” feelings
Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts
Risk factors for suicide
Family history of suicide
Family history of child maltreatment
Previous suicide attempt(s)
History of mental disorders, particularly clinical depression
History of alcohol and substance abuse
Feelings of hopelessness
Impulsive or aggressive tendencies
Cultural and religious beliefs (e.g., belief that suicide is noble resolution of a personal dilemma)
Local epidemics of suicide
Isolation, a feeling of being cut off from other people
Barriers to accessing mental health treatment
Loss (relational, social, work, or financial)
Easy access to lethal methods
Unwillingness to seek help because of the stigma attached to mental health and substance abuse disorders or to suicidal thoughts
Excessive thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions).
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A condition that causes the sufferer to worry excessively and uncontrollably about future threats is called:
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
a condition of persistent mental and emotional stress occurring as a result of injury or severe psychological shock, typically involving disturbance of sleep and constant vivid recall of the experience, with dulled responses to others and to the outside world.
a long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation.
The process of breaking down foods into compounds the gastrointestinal tract can absorb and the body can use.
functions of fats
Help to insulate the body and cushion the organs;
functions of carbohydrates
The role of carbohydrates is to provide energy, as they are the body’s main source of fuel, needed for physical activity, brain function and operation of the organs. All the cells and tissues in your body need carbs, and they are also important for intestinal health and waste elimination.
functions of fiber
Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help with weight control. Fiber aids digestion and helps prevent constipation. It is sometimes used for the treatment of diverticulosis, diabetes, and heart disease.
functions of vitamins
help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy.
functions of minerals
minerals help your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. The body uses minerals to perform many different functions — from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are even used to make hormones or maintain a normal heartbeat.
Nutrition needs and risks for pregnant women
Protein, calcium, folate, iron
Nutrition needs and risks for vegans
B12, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Protein, Zinc,
Nutrition needs and risks for old people
B12, Folic Acid, Calcium, Vitamin D, Potassium, Magnesium, Fiber, Omega-3 Fats, Water
Health problems associated with obesity
Heart disease and stroke.
High blood pressure.
Gallbladder disease and gallstones.
Breathing problems, such as sleep apnea (when a person stops breathing for short episodes during sleep) and asthma.
Benefits of stretching
Optimism, posture, flexibility, stamina, decreases injury, energy levels, blood circulation, athletic performance, reduced soreness, reduced cholesterol
Effects of dehydration
margin of error can vary depending on the experience and knowledge of the technician.
can be affordable enough to keep around the house.
skill and time trade-off comes at an expense: accuracy
Hydrostatic weighing is an incredibly accurate technique for measuring body composition.
DEXA (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry)
incredibly accurate at measuring body composition; on table
making an appointment with a medical professional in your area, price tag
more comfortable, any shape and size
While commercial machines might pop up at select high-level training facilities, locating one near you might be difficult. Plus, the cost (between $45 and $60 per reading) might steer you in the other direction.
prevent type 2 diabetes
eat healthy foods, get physical, lose excess pounds
causes of of Type 2 Diabetes
the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin. Exactly why this happens is unknown, although genetics and environmental factors, such as excess weight and inactivity, seem to be contributing factors.
Dietary factors that contribute to obesity
lifestyle, social factors, smoking, alcohol, age, cushing’s
Factors that contribute to, or can reduce the risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Quit smoking. …
Improve cholesterol levels. …
Control high blood pressure. …
Get active. …
Follow a heart-healthy diet. …
Get to a healthy weight. …
Control diabetes. …
Manage stress and anger.
Factors that contribute to high blood pressure
Being overweight or obese.
Lack of physical activity.
Too much salt in the diet.
Too much alcohol consumption (more than 1 to 2 drinks per day)
the qualifications of healthy and high blood pressure
top number that’s between 90 and 120, and a bottom number that’s between 60 and 80.
a condition marked by severe pain in the chest, often also spreading to the shoulders, arms, and neck, caused by an inadequate blood supply to the heart.
a condition in which the heart beats with an irregular or abnormal rhythm.
abnormally high blood pressure.
a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls.
Treatments for congestive heart failure and heart disease
eating less salt, limiting fluid intake, and taking prescription medications. In some cases a defibrillator or pacemaker may be implanted.
Antibodies bind to specific foreign particles, such as viruses and bacteria, to help protect the body. Immunoglobulin
Enzymes carry out almost all of the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in cells. They also assist with the formation of new molecules by reading the genetic information stored in DNA. Phenylalanine hydroxylase
Messenger proteins, such as some types of hormones, transmit signals to coordinate biological processes between different cells, tissues, and organs. GROWTH HORMONES
These proteins provide structure and support for cells. On a larger scale, they also allow the body to move. ACTIN
These proteins bind and carry atoms and small molecules within cells and throughout the body, FERRITIN