Sports Marketing Ch’s 1, 2, 4, 5

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Agent
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Intermediary whose primary responsibility is leveraging athletes worth or determining their bargaining power
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Amateur Sporting Event
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Sporting competition for athletes who do not receive compensation for playing the sport (College & Prep athletics)
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Benefits
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The goods or services consumers derive from a product
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Exchange
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a marketing transaction in which the buyer gives something of value to the seller in return for goods and services
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Goods
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Tangible, physical products that offer benefits to consumers
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Licensing
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a contractual agreement whereby a company may use another company’s trademark in exchange for a royalty or fee; also, a practice whereby a sports marketer contracts with other companies to use a brand name, logo, symbol, or characters
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Marketing Myopia
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the practice of defining a business in terms of goods and services rather than in terms of the benefits sought by customers
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Marketing Orientation
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understanding consumers’ wantes and needs and providing a product that meets those needs while achieving the organization’s objectives
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Organized Sporting Events
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sporting competitions that are sanctioned and controlled by an authority such as a league, association, or sanctioning body
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Participants
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those who take part in a sport
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Personal Training
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products that are produced to benefit participants in sports at all levels, including fitness centers, health services, sports camps, and instructions
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Professional Sports
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sporting competitions in which athletes receive compensation, commonly classified as major or minor league status
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Producers and Intermediaries
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the manufacturers of sports products or the organizations that perform some function in the marketing of sports products ex. sports labor, sanctioning bodies, sponsors, media, agents, equipment manufacturers
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Services
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intangible, nonphysical products that offer benefits to customers
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Simplified Model of the Consumer-Supplier Relationship
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A model of the sports industry consisting of three major elements: 1) Consumers 2) Products 3) Producers/Intermediaries
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Spectators
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consumers who derive benefit from observing a sporting event
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Sport
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a physical activity or entertainment
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Sporting Event
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the primary product of the sports industry – the competition
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Sporting Goods
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tangible products that are manufactured, distributed, and marketed within the sports industry Four segments = equipment, transportation, apparel, and footware
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Sports Equipment Manufacturers
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responsible for producing and sometimes marketing the sports equipment used by consumers
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Sports Information
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News, statistics, schedules, and stories about sports ex. newspapers, internet, magazines, radio, etc.
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Sports Marketing
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applying marketing principles and processes to sports products and nonsports products associated with sports
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Sports Marketing Mix
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the coordinated set of product and service strategies, pricing decisions, and distribution issues that sports organizations use to meet marketing objectives and satisfy consumers’ needs
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Sports Product
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a good, a service, or any combination of the two designed to provide benefits to a sports spectator, participant, or sponsor
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Sports Product Map
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the intersection of the dimensions of goods-services and body-mind
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Sports Sponsorship
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exchanging money or product for the right to associate a name or product with a sporting event
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Strategic Sports Marketing Process
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the process of planning, implementing, and controlling marketing efforts to meet organizational goals and satisfy consumers’ needs
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Unorganized Sports
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The sporting activities people engage in that are not sanctioned or controlled by some external authority
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Competition
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the attempt all organizations make to serve similar customers; also, a threat that is thought to be reduced by sponsorship external contingency
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Competency Framework for Strategic Sports Marketing
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A model predicting and strategically aligning the marketing process with with internal and external contingencies
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Control Phase
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the phase of the strategic sports marketing process of evaluating the response to plans to determine their effectiveness. Includes sales analysis, profitability analysis, customer satisfaction, and marketing audit
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Cultural Values
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widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable by members of a society
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Culture
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the set of learned values, beliefs, language, traditions, and symbols shared by members of a society and passed down from generation to generation internal contingency
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Demographic Environment
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population trends such as total number of consumers, age, ethnic background, geographic dispersion, and so on
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Direct Competition
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competition between sellers producing similar products and services
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Economic Activity
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the flow of goods and services between producers and consumers
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Environmental Scanning
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a firm’s attempt to continually acquire information on events occurring outside the organization so it can identify and interpret potential trends.
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External Contingencies
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all influences outside the organization that can affect its strategic marketing process ex. competition, legal/political, demographics, technology, culture, physical environment, economy
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Goal
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a short term purpose that is measurable and challenging, yet attainable and time specific
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Implementation Phase
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phase of the strategic sports marketing process of deciding who will carry out the plans, when the plans will be executing, and how the plans will be executed
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Indirect Competition
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sports marketers’ competition with all other forms of entertainment for the consumers’ dollar
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Internal Contingencies
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all influences within the organization that can affect its strategic marketing process Vision, Mission, Objectives & Goals, strategy, and culture.
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Macroeconomic Elements
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the big picture, such as the national income
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Market Selection Decisions
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decisions made to segment markets, choose targeted consumers, and position the sports product against the competition. These decisions that dictate the direction of the marketing mix
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Marketing Environment
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the competitive forces to be assessed in the strategic sports marketing process
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Marketing Mix
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integrating sports products, pricing, promotion, and place to meet identified sport consumer needs
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Microeconomic Elements
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smaller elements of the big picture, such as consumer income level
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Objectives
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the long range purposes of the organization that are not quantified or limited to a time period internal contingency
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Organizational Culture
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the shared values and assumptions of organizational members that shape an identity and establish preferred behaviors
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Organizational Strategies
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the means by which the organization achieves its objectives and marketing goals
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Physical Environment
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natural resources and other characteristics of the natural world that have an impact on sports marketing external contingency
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Planning Phase
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phase of the strategic sports marketing process of understanding sports consumers through marketing research and identifying their wants and needs Includes market selection decisions, segmentation, positioning, marketing mix decision (4 P’s)
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Political, Legal, and Regulatory Environment
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legal and political issues that affect sports and sports marketing external contingencies
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Strategic Windows
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Limited periods of time during which the characteristics of a market and the competencies of a firm fit together and reduce the risks of a market opportunity
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Technology
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a rapidly changing environmental influence on sports marketing; it can have an indirect or direct influence on pricing decisions external contingency
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Vision
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an organization’s long term road map that creates its purpose and identity internal contingency
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Affective component
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the part of attitude based on feelings or emotional reactions
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antecedent states
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temporary physiological and mood states that a sports consumer brings to the participant situation
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attitudes
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learned thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward a given object
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Behavioral Component
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the part of attitude based on actions
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behavioral learning
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concerned with how various stimuli elicit certain responses (feelings or behaviors) within an individual
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cognitive component
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the part of attitude concerned with beliefs
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cognitive dissonance
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experiencing doubts or anxiety about the wisdom of a decision
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cognitive learning
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concerned with the ability to solve problems and use observation as a form of learning
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consumer socialization
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learning the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to be a consumer
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culture
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the set of learned values, beliefs language, traditions, and symbols shared by members of a society and passed down from generation to generation external contingency
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decision-making process
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1) problem recognition 2) information search 3) evaluation of alternatives 4) participation 5) post participation evaluation
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esteem
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according to Maslow, the need for recognition and status
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evaluation of alternatives
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considering and judging the acceptability of a range of criteria
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evaluative criteria
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the features and characteristics that a decision maker looks for.
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evoked set
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alternatives given the greatest consideration by a decision maker
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experiential source
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an external information source
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extensive problem solving
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comprehensive information search and evaluation of many alternatives on many attributes (extended problem solving)
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external sources
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A personal, marketing, or experiential source of information
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family influence
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the influence of family members on decisions
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habitual problem solving
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limited information search and evaluation of alternatives; a decision becomes a habit or routine. (routinized problem solving)
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information search
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seeking relevant information to resolve a problem
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internal sources
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information recalled from memory, based on previous experience
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learning
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a relatively permanent change in response tendency due to the effects of experience.
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limited problem solving
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internal and sometimes limited external information search and evaluation of a small number of alternatives on few criteria
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love and belonging
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according to Maslow, the social need to be a respected part of the group
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marketing sources
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information from advertisements, sales personnel, brochures, web sites, and so on
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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
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a theory of human motivation based on classification of needs. 1) Physiological 2) Safety 3) Love/Belonging 4) Esteem 5) Self Actualization
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model of participant consumption behavior
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model that tries to understand how consumers arrive at their decisions
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motivation
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an internal force that directs behavior toward the fulfillment of needs
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participant consumption behavior
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actions performed when searching for, participating in, and evaluating the activities believed to satisfy needs
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perceived risk
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the potential threats inherent in making the wrong decision
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perception
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the complex process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting stimuli
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personality
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the set of consistent responses an individual makes to the environment
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personal sources
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information from friends and family
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physical surroundings
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the location, weather, and physical aspects of the participation environment
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physiological needs
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according to Maslow, the bilogical needs to eat, drink, and meet other physiological needs, such as have some level of physical activity
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postparticipation evaluation
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evaluation of a decision after making it and participation has begun
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primary reference group
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those people, such as friends and coworkers, who have frequent contact with us and have the power to influence our decisions
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problem recognition
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the result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state important enough to activate the decision making process
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psychological or internal factors
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basica factors such as personality, motivation, learning, and perception that are unique to each individual and guide decision making
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Reference groups
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individuals who influence the information, attitudes, and behaviors of other group members
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safety needs
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according to Maslow, the need to be physically safe and to remain healthy
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selective attention
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A consumer’s focus on a specific marketing stimulus based on personal needs and attitudes
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selective interpretation
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consumers perceive things in ways that are consistent with their existing attitudes and values
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selective retention
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the tendency to remember only certain information
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self actualization
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according to Maslow, the individual’s need to fulfill personal life goals
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situational factors
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factors that may affect a consumer’s acceptable range of prices: presence or absence of time, usage situation, and social factors
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social class
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the homogeneous division of people in a society sharing similar values, lifestyles, and behaviors that can be hierarchically categorized
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social learning
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watching others and learning from their actions
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socializing agents
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direct and indirect influences on children
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social surroundings
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the effect of others on a participant during participation in an event
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sociological or external factors
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influences outside an individual that affect the decision making process. Culture, reference groups, family, social class
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sports involvement
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the perceived interest in and personal importance of sports to an individual participating in a sport
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task definition
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the reasons that occasion the need to participate in a sport, which affect the decision-making process
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time
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a situational influence on the decision making process
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values
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Widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable in a culture
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aesthetic value
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one of Wann’s 8 basic motives for watching sport: to appreciate the beauty of the performance and the pleasure of the art form
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demographic factors
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variables such as population, age, gender, education, occupation, ethnic background external contingency
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diversion from everyday life
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one of Wann’s 8 basic motives for watching sport: to “get away from it all”
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economic factors
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controllable (such as the price of tickets) and uncontrollable (such as average income) factors that affect game attendence
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economic value
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one of Wann’s 8 basic motives for watching sport: the potential for economic gains from gambling on sporting events
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entertainment value
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one of Wann’s 8 Basic motives for watching sports: sports as a form of entertainment
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eustress
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one of Wann’s 8 basic motives for watching sport: because it is enjoyable and exciting to the senses
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facility aesthetics
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the exterior and interior appearance of a stadium, which can play a role in fan satisfaction
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family ties
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one of Wann’s 8 basic motives for watching sport: to foster family togetherness
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fan identification
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the personal commitment and emotional involvement customers have with a sports organization
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fan motivation factors
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reasons why individuals are sports fans or sports consumers. Self esteem enhancement, diversion from everyday life, entertainment value, eustress, economic value, aesthetic value, need for affiliation, family ties
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game attractiveness
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a situational factor that varies from game to game; its perceived quality based on the skill level of participants.
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layout accessibility
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referring to whether spectators can move freely about a stadium (Space allocation, signage)
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need for affiliation
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fans need to feel connected to the community and to identify with a team
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scoreboard quality
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a dimension of the stadium that is sometimes seen as the focal point of the interior
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seating comfort
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perceived comfort of the seating and the spacing of the seats relative to each other in the stadium
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self esteem enhancement
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one of Wann’s 8 basic motives for watching a sport: to enhance or maintain self-esteem through associating with a winning team
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signage
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a factor of the sportscape that affects spectators’ enjoyment of the game experience
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space allocation
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a factor of the sportscape that affects spectators enjoyment of the game experience
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sport involvement
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the perceived interest in and personal importance of sports to an individual participating in a sport
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sportscape
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the physical surroundings of the stadium that affect spectators’ desire to stay at the stadium and return to the stadium to watch future games (space allocation, signage, stadium access, facility aesthetics, scoreboard quality, layout accessibility)
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stadium access
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issues such as availability of parking, ease of entering and exiting the parking areas, and location of parking relative to the stadium
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stadium factors
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variables such as newness of the stadium, stadium access, aesthetics of the stadium, seating comfort, and cleanliness of the stadium, which are all positively related to game attendence
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Wann’s 8 Basic Motives for Watching Sport
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1) Self Esteem Enhancement 2) Diversion from everyday life 3) entertainment value 4) eustress 5) economic value 6) aesthetic value 7) need for affiliation 8) family ties
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Community Solidarity
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sport enhances the image of the community, enhances community harmony, generates a sense of belonging, and helps people to feel proud
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Public Behavior
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sport encourages sportsmanship, reinforces positive citizenship, encourages obedience to authority, and nurtures positive morality
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Pastime Ecstasy
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sport provides entertainment and brings excitement
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Excellence Pursuit
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sport encourages achievement and success, hard work, and risk taking
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Social Equity
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sport increases racial and class equality and promotes gender equity
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Health Awareness
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sport eliminates drug abuse, encourages exercise, and promotes an active lifestyl
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Individual Quality
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sport promotes character building and encourages competitive traits
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Business Opportunity
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sport increases community commercial activities, attracts tourists, and helps community economic development
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Eight Value Dimensions of Sport to the Community
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1) Community Solidarity 2) Public Behavior 3) Pastime Ecstasy 4) Excellence Pursuit 5) Social Equity 6) Health Awareness 7) Individual Quality 8) Business Opportunity
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Consumers of the Simplified Model of the Consumer-Supplier Relationship in the Sports Industry
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Spectators, Participants, Corporations
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Products of the Simplified Model of the Consumer-Supplier Relationship in the Sports Industry
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Events, Sporting Goods, Personal Training, Sports Information
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Sports Marketing Exchange Process
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Must involve two or more people and you must exchange something of value, must have a means of communication, free to accept or decline the offer, and each believe it is desirable to deal with the other party
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Contingency Framework for Strategic Sports Marketing
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Made up of 3 parts: 1) Strategic Sports Marketing Process 2) Internal Contingencies 3) External Contingencies
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Environmental Contingencies
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Competition, Technology, Culture/Social Trends, Physical Environment, Regulatory/Legal/Political, demographic trends, economy
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Conceptual Model of Consumer Behavior
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Evaluates Needs/Desires, decision making, and past experience.
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Decision Making Process
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Problem Recognition, Information search, alternative evaluation, participate, post-participation evaluation
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Internal Needs/Desires
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Personality, perception, attitudes, motivation, learning
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Factors Influencing Attendance
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Fan motivation, game attractiveness, economic, competitive, demographic, stadium, value to the community, sports involvement, fan identification
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Economic Factor
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The least motivating fan factor
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Entertainment
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The most motivating fan factor
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Trademark Violations
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One major issue when discussing licensing is…
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Provides a structure for the complexities of the sports industry. Entire sports industry can be labled with this model
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Simplified model of the consumer supplier relationship in the sports industry
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Participants can come in two forms
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Unorganized & Organized
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Internal Contingencies
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What are the influences within the organization that affect the strategic marketing process
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Segmentation Bases
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Demographic, geographic, psycho-graphic, benefits, geodemographic, behavioral
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Segmentation
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grouping consumers together with common needs
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Sizable, measureable, reachable, demonstrate behavioral varioation
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Successful Targets must be
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Product Characteristics
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Total Product = Branding, product quality, product design
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Attendance Figures, Media Coverage, Employment Figures, Global Markets
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How do we measure Growth in the sports industry?
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Marketing Orientation
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understanding the consumer and providing a sports product that meets consumer need while achieving organizational objectives

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