SOCIOLOGY FINAL QUESTIONS Answers

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Interpretive sociology is sociology that…
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focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior
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Which theory developed by the psychologist John B. Watson, claims that most human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment?
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Behaviorism
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Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson’s view of socialization?
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Personality develops over the entire life course in patterned ways
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A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it..
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ignores how structural factors such as class affect a person’s experiences
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What approach is based on the philosophical doctrine of Materialism?
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Social Conflict
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In Freud’s model of personality, what ego represents the presence of culture within the individual?
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Superego
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Which of the following theoretical approaches paints society in broad strokes at a macro-level?
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structural functional and social conflict
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What is the term for a basic image of society that guides thinking and research?
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Theoretical approach
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Looking at childhood in a global perspective, we find that…
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rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do
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Gerhad Lenski focused on which of the following factors as having great power to shape a society?
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Technology
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The term “sociology” was coined in 1838 by
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August Comte
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Compared to an industrial society, a postindustrial society was based on
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an information based economy
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What would a sociologist be most likely to say about why an individual chooses a particular person to marry?
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Society guides human behavior more than we realize.
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The text states that cultural change is set in motion in three general ways…
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invention, discovery, and diffusion
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Jean Piaget called the level of development at which individuals first use language and other cultural symbols the…
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preoperational stage
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The theoretical approach in sociology that views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the…
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structural functional approach
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Which of the following statements is an accurate criticism of the structural functional approach?
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it ignores inequality that can generate tension and conflict
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What discipline is defined as “the systematic study of human society?”
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Sociology
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Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s population are referred to as
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popular culture
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Which early sociologist claimed that his goal was not to simply understand society but to change it?
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Karl Marx
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As part of human culture, religion would be an example of
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Non-material culture
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Unrecognized and unintended consequences of the social structure are called
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Latent Functions
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Which theoretical approach highlights the fact that it is not so much what people do that matters as much a the meaning they attach to their behavior?
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Symbolic Interaction Approach
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High-income nations tend to have cultural values that emphasize…
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Self-expression
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Cultural transmission refers to the process of…
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passing cultural patterns from one generation to another
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Thomas Hobbe’s idea that society reflects a selfish human nature illustrates the thinking common to Comte’s…
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Metaphysical state of societal development
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Critics of the Saphir-Whorf thesis point out that
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language does not determine reality
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Which of the following can correctly be called the “framework for building theory that sees society as an area of inequality that generates conflict and change?”
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Social Conflict Approach
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Which of the following concepts refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?
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Socialization
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What distinguishes between right and wrong?
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Mores
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What distinguishes between polite and rude?
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Folkways
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Sam had unpleasant and even frightening experiences when he was encountering a strange way of life while visiting another country over spring break. His experiences can be called…
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culture shock
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What is a way of understanding the world based on science?
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Positivism
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Which of the following concepts refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together constitute a people’s way of life?
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Culture
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When people model themsevlves after the members of their peer groups they would like to join, they are engaging in…
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Anticipatory socialization
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What typically has the greatest influence on the socialization process, especially in the early years of life?
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Family
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Which of the following concepts defines who and what we are in relation to others?
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Status
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Which of the following concepts refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily take on later in life?
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Ascribed Status
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Which of the following concepts refers to a status that has very great importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life?
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Master Status
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Being an honors student is a good example of…
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Achieved Status
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Sociologists use what concept to refer to the behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
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Role
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A role set refers to a number of roles…
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attached to a single status
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Joan is an excellent artist and she enjoys her work, but feel she cannot devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing…
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Role Conflict
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Assume a plant supervisor wishes to be a good friend and hang out with the workers, but the supervisor must keep a personal distance to remain objective in order to assess the worker’s performance. This example involves…
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Role Strain
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What do sociologists call two or more people who identify with and interact with one another?
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Social Group
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What is the most important primary group?
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Family
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What leadership refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?
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Expressive Leadership
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Adrian is a leader who tends to downplay her position and power, allowing the group to function more or less on it’s own. Which type of leader is she?
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Laissez-Faire
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The process of groupthink involves several dimensions. Which of the following statements does NOT correctly describe groupthink?
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groups larger than three members rarely are able to reach consensus.
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Jake is a member of the Bulldogs soccer team. The team’s rival is the Tigers. Members of the Bulldogs put down the Tigers all the time. To Jake, the Tigers represent…
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An Out-group
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Which statement correctly reflects Simmel’s understanding of a dyad?
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Dyads are less stable than groups with more members
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From the point of view of parents, what type of formal organization is a school’s Parent-Teacher Association? (PTA)?
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A normative organization
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To Weber, the rise of bureaucratic organization is an expression of…
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Rationality
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The emergency room clerk who keeps a bleeding patient waiting while filming out extensive paperwork is a classic example of
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Bureaucratic Ritualism
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Which of the following is NOT a way in which today’s business organizations in the US differ from those a century ago?
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Today’s organizations have a steeper pyramid shape
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The development of breasts in females and deeper voices in males are examples of…
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Secondary Sex characteristics
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Which of the following concepts refers to humans who have some combination of female and male genitalia?
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Intersexual people
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In terms of his sexuality, Mark has always felt that he is “trapped in the wrong body.” The feeling suggest that Mark is in which of the following categories of people?
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Transsexual
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Sociologists point to several functions of the incest taboo. Which of the following is NOT one of those functions?
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The incest taboo limits a family’s contact with larger society
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Sexual attractions to people of both sexes is called…
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Bisexuality
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Historically, once a society develops effective birth control technology,
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social norms regarding sexuality become more permissive
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THe changing importance of virginity over the last century in our society is a topic correctly linked with
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the Symbolic Interaction approach
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Queer Theory is growing body of knowledge asserting that…
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there is bias against homosexuality in the US
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Which of the following statements is a criticism of the social-conflict approach’s view of sexuality?
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Sexuality is not a power issue for everyone
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Which of the following sociological terms refers to the recognized violation of cultural norms?
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Deviance
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Every society regulates the thoughts and behaviors of individuals. This process of regulation is called…
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Social Control
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The value of psychological theories of deviance is limited because…
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Most people who commit crimes have normal personalities
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Emilie Durkheim’s basic insight if that deviance is…
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a normal element of social organization
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The basic idea behind labeling theory is…
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deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do
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When friends began to criticize Juan as a “boozer”, pushing him out of their social circle, he became bitter and began to drink even more. Juan ended joining a new group of friends, all whom were heavy drinkers. According to Edwin Lemert, this situation illustrates
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The onset of secondary deviance
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Based on scapegoat theory, you would conclude that prejudice is cause by…
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Frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged
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Gender refers too…
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the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being male and female
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Talcott Parsons described gender in terms of
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Complementarity
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Looking back over US history, we see a general trend by which women…
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have gained both power and economic opportunities
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What does modernization theory focus on?
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the production of wealth
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What does dependency theory focus on?
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the distribution of wealth
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Because of social stratification in the US…
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some people have more privileges and opportunities than others do
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The concept of “absolute poverty” refers to…
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a lack of resources that is life threatening
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Which theoretical approach is linked to dependency theory?
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Social Conflict Approach
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Dependency theory claims that poor nations…
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were underdeveloped by the colonial practices of rich nations
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In general, societies that have a caste system have an economy based on…
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Agriculture
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A college professor who has advanced degrees, moderate salary, and little power can be described as having
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Low Status consistency
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Which type of feminism accepts the basic organization of US society, but seeks to expand the rights and opportunities of women?
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Liberal Feminism
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In the US, most people…
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identify with one or more ethnic category
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The “beauty myth” refers to the idea that…
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women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance
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Which of the following concepts refers to an invisible, yet real, barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positions?
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“Glass Ceiling”
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Which of the following concepts refers to social organization in which males dominate females?
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Patriarchy
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The Davis Moore Thesis states that…
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Society must attach enough rewards to important jobs to attract the talent needed to perform these jobs well.
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While being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of________, being in the lower-upper class is more often a matter of_____.
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Birth; Achievement
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In theory, which of the following involves the greatest amount of social mobility?
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Meritocracy
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WHich of the following situations is NOT an example of institutional discrimination?
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A mother wants her child to stay away from schoolmates of a different race
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Modernization theory claims that..
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the main causes of poverty include traditional culture and lack of advanced technology
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Compared to poverty in the US, poverty in low-income nations is…
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more widespread and severe
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Which factor accounts for the largest share of difference in the earnings of working men and women in the US?
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difference in the type of work men and women do
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Read the following four statements. Which statement is NOT correct?
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A family’s social standing typically changes a great deal from generation to generation
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Critic claim that modernization theory…
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ignores how rich nations can block the economic development of poor nations
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In the US schools, courses in sociology typically enroll….
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more women then men
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Race refers to _______ considered important by a society; and ethnicity refers to ______.
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Biological traits; cultural traits
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If you wanted to recruit people to join a feminist organization, you would expect to have the most positive response from…
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African Americans
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Which of the following statements about gender and housework is CORRECT?
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Among employed people, married or not, with or without children, women do most of the housework
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The concept “race” refers to…
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a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
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In general, the people in the ______ tend to be less tolerant of controversial behavior such as homosexuality.
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Working Class
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Read the following statements about minorities. Which of the following is NOT correct?
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All people in a minority category as socially disadvantaged
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Read the following statements about minorities. Which is NOT correct?
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“Arab” and “Muslim” mean the same thing
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Most low-income nations are found in..
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Asia and Africa
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While prejudice is a matter of ______. Discrimination is a matter of _______.
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Attitudes; Action
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In the US, the costs of sexism for men include…
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engaging in many high-risks behaviors
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Which type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender itself?
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Radical feminism
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Polygamy
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Marriage that unites a person with 2 or more partners
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Monogamy
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Marriage that unites 2 partners
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Nuclear Family
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a family composed of one or two parents and their children
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Extended Family
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a family composed of parents, children and their kin
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How families in US have changed
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divorce rates gone up, homosexuals can get married in some states
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Structural Functional Approach to the Family
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identifies major family functions like socialization of young, regulation of sex activity, social placement, providing material and emotional support
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Social Exchange approach to the family
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highlight the variety of family as experienced by various family members
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Reasons for Rising Divorce Rates
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Family Violence
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Sacred
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set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence
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Profane
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included as an ordinary element of everyday life
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Structural Functional approach to Religion
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Religion gives life meaning and purpose
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Symbolic Interaction approach to Religion
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People often turn to sacred symbols for comfort when facing danger and uncertainty
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Social Conflict approach to Religion
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Religion turns problems of this world to a “better world to come”
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Church
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a religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
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Sect
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a religious organization that starts apart from the larger society
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Cult
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a religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions
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Secularization
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historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and sacred
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Religious Fundamentalism
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a conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in favor of restoring traditional, other worldly religion
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Latent and Manifest functions of school
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child care, job opportunities, networking
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Smoking
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greatest preventable cause of death in the US

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