Sociology Ch13

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Increases with age
Generally, voter participation in the United States…
Preindustrial, industrial , and postindustrial
What are the different types of economic systems?
Invisible hand
What did Adam Smith call the interplay between supply and demand?
According to Marx, what are the bourgeoise?
Some people believe that the collapse of communism leaves what as a viable economic system?
Late 1800s
When did the corporations become the moving force behind economy?
Small corporations
Management of a corporation by its stockholders is typically practiced by…
One of the chief consequences of corporate capitalism is the growth of what?
Exxon Mobile
What company had the highest multinational revenues in 1999?
Technological advances are eliminating what kind of jobs?
The global network that links millions of computers is the…
Making systems more secure
What are many businesses doing to ease e-commerce consumers’ fears about loss of privacy?
self interest
& market competition
In a purely capitalist society, the economy is regulated by ….
What is the largest sector of e-commerce?
California’s high tech industrial region
Silicon Valley is…
World War II
When did the United States establish the office of War Information?
Industrialization, limits on power, access to information, and shared values
What conditions are needed for democracy to thrive?
Private business
China adjusted its constitution in 1999 to acknowledge the economic importance of what?
Erich Fromm
Who tried to answer the question of why individuals submit to totalitarian rule in Escape from Freedom?
The United States has offered assistance to countries changing from what type of government system?
Democracy aid
Aid specifically designed to foster a democratic opening in a nondemocratic country is…
What year did Adam Smith suggest specialization of jobs?
Voter apathy
Which of the following poses a threat to American democracy?
Economic institution
A system of roles and norms that governs the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Factors of production
Resources needed to produce goods and services
Primary sector
Deals with the extraction of raw materials from the environment
Secondary sector
Concentrates on the use of raw materials to manufacture goods
Tertiary sector
Emphasis on producing services
Factors of production are owned by individuals
Factors of production are owned by the government
Law of supply
States that producers will supply more products when they charge higher prices and fewer with lower prices
Law of demand
States that consumers will demand more of a product as the price of the product decreases
Laissez-faire capitalism
Pure form of capitalism in which the government does not interfere with the economy
Free-enterprise system
A system with limited government control of business operations
Political and economic system in which property is communally owned
Those in power exercise complete authority over lives of individual citizens
A business organization that is owned by stockholders and is treated by law as if it were owned by an individual person
The market situation in which a few large companies control the industry
The rise of trade barriers to protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competitors
Free trade
Trade that is not restricted by trade barriers between countries
Multinational corporations
Any corporation that has factories and offices in several countries
Business conducted over the Internet
Adam Smith
Suggested that specialization could greatly increase productivity
The ability to control others with or without consent
The primary political authority in society
Political institution
The system of roles and norms that governs the distribution and exercise of power in society
Whether those in power are viewed as having the right to control, or govern, others
Legitimate power
Traditional authority
Power based on long standing custom
Rational-length authority
Outline the rules and regulations of those in power
Charismatic authority
Based on the personal characteristics of the individuals exercising the power
Power that is considered illegitimate by the people being governed and is exercised through threat or force
Power is exercised through the people
Type of government in which one person rules
Constitutional monarchy
Type of government in which the ruler, or monarch, is nothing more than a symbolic head of state
Democratic socialism
Combination of democratic government and socialist economy
Power rests firmly in the state
An authoritarian system in which power is in the hands of a single individual
Absolute monarchy
An authoritarian system in which the hereditary ruler holds absolute power
An authoritarian system in which a small group has seized power from the previous government by force
Political party
An organization that seeks to gain power through legitimate means
Proportional representation
System in which a party receives number of seats in government related to the popular votes they received
Interest groups
An organization that attempts to influence the political decision making process
Power-elite model
States that the political power is exercised to the privileged few in society
Pluralist model
States that the political process is controlled by interest groups that compete with one another for power

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