Please enter something

social psychology chapter 8, 9, and 10

question

what is a group?
answer

2 or more people who interact and influence one another
question

collective influences (3 examples)
answer

Social Facilitation, social loafing, deindividuation
question

3 examples of social influences
answer

Group polarization, group think, minority influences
question

Social facilitation
answer

(original meaning) tendency of people to perform simple or well learned tasks better when other are present. (current meaning) strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others (running faster with someone else than being w yourself
question

Social loafing
answer

tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable `
question

Deindividuation
answer

loss of self awareness and evaluation apprehension occurs in group situations that fosters responsiveness to group norms
question

anonymity
answer

nobody knows you
question

arousing & distracting activities
answer

there a self reinforcing pleasure in acting impulsively while observing others doing likewise
question

diminished self awareness
answer

a group experiences that diminish self consciousness tend to disconnect behavior from attitudes
question

self awareness
answer

opposite of deindividuation
question

group polarization
answer

group discussion often strengthens members initial indignation
question

explaining polarization ( 2 theories)
answer

informational influences and normative influences
question

informational influences
answer

influence that result from accepting evidence about reality
question

normative influence
answer

influenced based on a person’s desire to be accepted or admired by others
question

pluralistic ignorance
answer

a false impression of what most people are thinking or feeling or how they are responding
question

group thinking
answer

when a group becomes so cohesive that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative causes of action
question

two symptoms lead group members to over estimate their groups might and right
answer

1. an illusion of invulnerability 2. unquestionable belief in the groups morality
question

group members also become close minded
answer

3. rationalization- Groups discount challenges by collectively justifying their decision
question

4. sterotyped view of opponent
answer

participant in these group thank tanks consider their enemies too evil to negotiate with or too weak and unintelligent to defend themselves against the planed initiative
question

5. conformity pressure
answer

Group members rebuffed those who raised doubts about the groups assumptions and plans at times not by argument but by personal sarcasm
question

6.self censorship
answer

to avoid uncomfortable disagreements members misheld or discounted their misgivings
question

7. illusion of unanimity
answer

self censorship and pressured not to puncture the consensus creates an illusion of unanimity
question

8. mind guards
answer

some members protect the group from information that would call into question the effectiveness or morality of its decisions.
question

preventing group think
answer

1. be impartial 2. encourage critical evaluation 3. occasionally subdivide the group, then reunited to air differences 4. welcome critiques from outside experts and associates 5. before implementing, called a “second chance” meeting to air way lingering doubts. (two minds are greater than one!)
question

3 ways to enhannce group brainstorming
answer

1. combine group & solitary brainstorming 2. have group members interact by writing 3. incorporate electric brainstorming
question

group problem solving
answer

when group members freely combine their creative ideas and varied insights.
question

3 things that determine minority influences
answer

1. consistency 2. self-confidence 3. defections from the majority
question

leadership (3 types)
answer

1. task leadership 2. social leadership 3. transformation leadership
question

task leadership
answer

a directive style goal oriented challenging goals
question

social leadership
answer

building teamwork, mediating conflicts and being supportive
question

transformational leadership
answer

motivates others to identify with and commit themselves to the groups mission: charismatic
question

prejudice
answer

a preconceived negative judgement of a group and its individual members it is an attitude
question

sterotype
answer

a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people
question

discrimination
answer

a negative behavior
question

prejudice
answer

is a negative attitude
question

recism
answer

an individual a prejudicial attitudes and discrimination behavior toward people of a given race
question

sexism
answer

same as racism but except toward people of a given sex.
question

implicit
answer

automatic may linger, change as new habits are formed.
question

explicit
answer

conscious, may change with education
question

displaced aggression
answer

when the cause of our frustration is intimidating or unknown, we often redirect our hostility
question

the social identity theory
answer

we categorize, we identify, we compare
question

ingroup bias
answer

tendency to favor your own group
question

status is relative
answer

to perceive ourselves as having status; we need people below U.S.if your status is secure we have less need to feel superior
question

what does motivation to avoid prejudice do to people?
answer

lead people to modify their thought and actions aware of gap between how they should feel and how they do feel, self conscious people will feel quit and try to inhibit their prejudicial response
question

what are the cognitive sources of prejudice?
answer

1. pressed for time 2. preoccupied 3.tired 4. emotionally aroused 5. too young to appreciate diversity
question

today many people live in a “just world phenomenon”
answer

the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
question

consequences of prejudice?
answer

1. self perpetuating prejudgments 2. discrimination impact: self-fulfilling prophecy 3. stereotype threat 4. do stereotype bias judgement of individuals
question

aggression
answer

(hurting others) physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
question

2 types of aggression among animals
answer

social aggression silent aggression
question

social aggression
answer

display of rage
question

silent aggression
answer

predator stalks
question

In humans:
answer

1. hostile aggression 2.instrumental aggression
question

Hostile aggression
answer

comes from anger/ the goal is to injure (murders)
question

instrumental aggression
answer

the goal is to injure but only as a means to some other end
question

terrorism
answer

a strategic tool used during conflict
question

wars
answer

are instrumental aggression
question

3 theories of aggression
answer

1. biological influences 2. frustration 3. learned behavior
question

1. biological
answer

A) abnormal brains: can contribute to abnormally aggressive behavior such as murders and death row inmates B) Genetic influence- 3 year old who exhibits little conscientiousness & little self-control is more vulnerable to substance abuse & arrest by age 30-32 C) alcohol- unleashes aggression when people are provoked
question

testosterone
answer

levels tend to be higher among prisoners convicted of planned and unplanned violent crime than off nonviolent crimes
question

2. frustration
answer

the blocking of goal directed behavior
question

examples of frustration
answer

A) frustration aggression theory- frustration triggers a readiness to be aggressive B) Displacement- (Example: starts anger from dad to mom to kids and continuous down to everybody c) relative deprivation
question

aggression cues
answer

A) the sign of a weapon B) aggression against women
question

examples of aggression cues
answer

tv, internet, and video games.
question

some influences on aggression
answer

aversive, arousal, the media, group context
question

aversive
answer

incidents/ pain, uncomfortable heat, an attack or overwhelming
question

arousal
answer

risk towards love to get a “rush” ( skydiving)
question

the media
answer

tv, internet, video games
question

group context
answer

the bigger the group the more aggressive. assariot begins aggressive acts often tend to spread rapidly
question

aggression be reduced?
answer

1. reduced aversive stimulation 2. rewarding & modeling nonaggression 3. eliciting reactions incompatible with aggression
question

ways to reduce aggression
answer

1.do NOT plant false, unreachable expectations in people’s minds 2. rewards & reinforce cooperation & non aggressive behavior and ignore aggressive behavior 3. prevent aggression before it happens teach non aggressive conflict resolution strategies 4. teach problems: solving skills, emotion control strategies and conflict resolution technique 5. reduce tv watching and video game play
question

teach problems
answer

solving, skills, emotion control strategies, and conflict resolution techniques.