Social capital and societys social interactions Essay Example
Social capital and societys social interactions Essay Example

Social capital and societys social interactions Essay Example

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  • Pages: 10 (2540 words)
  • Published: July 22, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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Social capital: Sociology defines social capital as the combination of individuals' achievements and skills, along with the institutions, relationships, and norms that impact the extent and quality of interactions in a society. Social capital includes collective action enabled by established norms and networks. It encompasses all institutions, relationships, and customs that shape social interactions within a society. Numerous studies have shown how crucial social capital is for economic prosperity and the sustainable development over time.

Enhancing social capital in a positive manner can enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of endeavors by strengthening the community's ability to collaboratively address their shared needs. This also fosters greater inclusion, coherence, transparency, and accountability. The concept of social capital can be applied through five key dimensions:
1. Groups and networks: Establishing connections among individuals that support and safeguard personal relationships, leading to improvemen


ts in societal well-being and economic progress.
2. Trust and solidarity: Promoting interpersonal behaviors that encourage greater coherence and more impactful collective action.
3. Collective action and cooperation: Empowering individuals to work together to resolve communal issues in economics.
4. Social cohesion and inclusion: Efforts aimed at mitigating conflict risks and promoting equitable access to development benefits by involving marginalized groups.
These dimensions provide a framework for implementing social capital effectively. Additionally, information and communication play a vital role in both mitigating negative impacts on social capital and cultivating positive social capital by enhancing people's access to developmental information and technology.The text below describes the importance of social capital and its implications for World Bank operations. It also discusses the development of the Social Capital Implementation Framework (SCIF) to make the theory of social capital more relevant to economics.

These five key dimensions

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capture both the structural and cognitive aspects of social capital. The Social Capital construct has significant implications for enhancing the quality, effectiveness, and sustainability of World Bank operations, particularly community-based initiatives. To make the theory of Social Capital more applicable to economics, the development of the Social Capital Implementation Framework (SCIF) was based on findings from two main evaluations of both internal and external projects incorporating social capital elements. The primary goal of this framework is to offer guidance on incorporating social capital into economic operations.

The text describes the four main elements of social capital. The first component is networks, which emphasizes the importance of individuals being connected in various groups and bridging gaps between different groups, regardless of power or influence levels. Adhering refers to strong supportive ties within a group, fostering a sense of family or community. Bridging involves weak ties that connect people across different groups, providing access to new ideas, resources, communities, and cultures. Associating entails linking with individuals who share similar values. These connecting ties play a crucial role in attaining strategic outcomes in specific situations.

Second is reciprocity, which occurs when an individual gives to someone else, expecting a fair and tangible return at some future date. Reciprocal interaction often leads to trusting relationships. Third is trust, which involves a high degree of information and resource exchange within a relationship. Trust can be built on knowledge and trustworthiness. Finally, there are norms and values that form the basis of the culture within a specific group or community. These norms and values guide the type of relationships that are formed and enhance the development of networks.


Journal of industrial selling management

(2008) highlights the flow of social capital between different types of relationships, as represented by the vertical arrows connecting different relationships.

Investing in societal relationships can have positive effects on both hierarchical and market structures. For example, by improving occupation arrangements, investing in these relationships can lead to increased benefits. Additionally, societal capital can enhance the efficiency of business transactions. Overall, societal capital can improve various types of relationships. It is important to determine whether a relationship exists and if it meets the quality standards necessary for the flow of societal capital. The availability of sufficient amounts of societal capital within an individual's network is also crucial. Network position plays a significant role in determining the presence and flow of capital, as demonstrated by research conducted by Ghoshal.

It is important to consider the role of relationship quality, chance, and societal capital in 1998. Trust plays a significant role in accessing societal capital, as a higher level of trust allows for a larger amount of capital. Motivation is the accepted behavior in a community or society and is deeply rooted in our culture. Determining whether the use of societal capital is acceptable in recycling business practices is a crucial aspect of motivation. Reciprocity and the expectation of returned favors are important aspects to consider in understanding motivation (Kwon, 2002).

Reciprocity is an important component of requing, as returning favors is a common practice in Southeast Asian Society (Pornpitakpon, 2000). Another important component of motivation is enforced trust. This does not encompass all behavioral aspects of trust, such as commitment that contributes to relationship quality. In their research, Adler and Kwon (2002) explained that ability reflects whether network actors

possess the skills, competences and assets to engage in resource exchange within a network. Skills consist of having access to information, specialized knowledge, trust-building abilities, networking skills, and creativity, to name a few.

Skill levels may vary depending on the different individuals with whom one has established relationships based on their abilities. If it is discovered that certain skills are not currently available within the existing online community, individuals must actively search for and establish new connections.

A Network-Based Approach: Civic Action

Civic action is the outcome of leveraging diverse resources within individual and organizational social networks. It is crucial to cultivate social capital through civic action.

Organizational societal capital represents the structural characteristics of embedded resources within an organizational web. It involves aggregating the relevant societal features of members from various civic associations within the organization. Through civic action, individual societal capital can be measured, which shows the assortment of resources within the network of friendships. The implementation of civic action within a state confirms that structural equation models indicate individual societal capital as a consistent and important predictor for both types of civic actions, with organizational societal capital being the most significant predictor for instrumental and gendered civic action. Civic action contributes to the construction of individual and organizational societal capital measures. Specifically, it creates multiple indices for organizational societal capital, reflecting the diverse structural characteristics of embedded resources within the organizational web by aggregating relevant societal features from members of each civic association. However, the lack of relevant measures prevents the generation of corresponding indices for individual societal capital. Nonetheless, a summated scale of individual societal capital can still be created to represent resource diversity within

the friendship network.

Putnam's scheme, as famously discussed in Bowling Alone (1995; 2000), addresses the declining civic engagement in the United States by analyzing civic community and societal capital. His examination of the history of civic community in Making Democracy Work is highly regarded (Beem 1999: 85). Putnam's analysis provides empirical data that supports republican themes, making him comparable to a neo-Tocquevillian.

A Social Value Function Based on Sustainability

Sustainability and Social Capital

To effectively tackle sustainable development, it is necessary to expand the above model to include the social context of development. Additionally, redefining sustainability from a holistic perspective becomes crucial. It is important to assess the sustainability of the entire system rather than just a portion of it (Gowdy and O'Hara, 1997: 243). The availability of resources will be impacted by population growth, thereby influencing the potential for sustainable development.

The limits of sustainable development are determined by economic and societal capital, as well as the critical boundaries of human activity in the long run. Anticipating human activity is necessary for sustainable development. To address the challenge of sustainable development, the model mentioned above must be considered in the societal context of all developments. The foundations of sustainability must be reformulated as a whole. In other words, sustainability should be defined based on the goals and functioning of the overall system from a human perspective. This can only be assessed in terms of the societal capital of a region.

Social capital includes socio-cultural capital which refers to a society's ability to deal with social, economic, and environmental issues. This includes socio-cultural values, learned preferences, human capital, local knowledge, social competency and institutions, human health and life expectancy, as

well as cultural and societal unity and stability which are important for human well-being.

The constituent of societal capital is part of a societal public assistance map. It also contributes to improving environmental quality and per capita income. In addition, macroeconomic stability objectives like full employment and price stability, as well as other economic goals, determine individual and societal well-being. Social capital has various functions, including contributing to economic production and supporting collective action in society. It is an essential input factor for accumulating social assets, including healthcare. Therefore, social capital is considered a valuable asset that encompasses elements of human well-being such as health, literacy, life expectancy, cultural and social cohesion, and societal stability (UNDP, 1990). These components are taken into account in the societal public welfare map.

A Productive Consumption Approach

Social capital refers to the societal networks and norms that generate shared understanding, trust, and reciprocity. These factors form the basis for cooperation and collective action for the common good, promoting economic prosperity. This survey focuses on the development of social capital through the cultivation of human capital that is derived from productive consumption. Social capital encompasses the social networks and norms that foster mutual understanding, trust, and reciprocity, thereby enhancing cooperation and collective action for mutual benefits. It serves as the foundation for sustainable economic prosperity. This approach emphasizes the importance of developing human capital through productive consumption in building social capital.

In less developed countries, productive consumption is essential for generating sustainable economic growth and developing human capital. It has a significant impact on the economy by promoting sustainable development in underdeveloped regions or countries. By enhancing human capital,

productive consumption contributes to the improvement of human well-being and the advancement of knowledge capital. Additionally, it helps create and strengthen social capital within the economy. Policymakers should prioritize forms of social capital that can enhance economic prosperity for marginalized communities and individuals. Social capital is formed through interactions between individuals in formal and informal settings.

The increase in societal activities is directly linked to the development of human capital in all levels of education within developing countries. Educated individuals are interested in engaging in dialogue and conversation to build a community and commit to each other, thus fostering societal capital. This societal capital facilitates smooth progress within a country.

Induced Community-Based Organization in Nepal

The induced community-based organization or group within a community has become a popular approach in development, with a focus on the participatory process.

Today, there is increasing recognition of the importance of societal capital and its impact on development. Social capital is centered around the organization within a community, which is often taken for granted. In Nepal, research has been conducted to evaluate the role of societal capital in promoting sustainability within communities. This approach enhances our understanding of sustainable development by identifying the factors linked to social capital in rural areas of southern Nepal. The process of uniting individuals in a group and engaging in various activities, such as saving and lending money, relies on trust, community norms, and cooperative behavior.

Furthermore, community-based organizations (CBOs) focus on regular meetings and the implementation of joint activities as individuals who can provide more benefits. This approach can advance social capital by enhancing it in small towns and groups. Improving social capital in these areas can

help overcome problems in corporate governance, including the governance of the groups themselves. The level of social capital varies from village to village, as does the functioning of these groups. Simultaneously, the differences in social capital and levels of performance in institutions between different places confirm that the determination of social capital is consistent with many previous studies. In terms of social capital aspects, cognitive social capital is strongly associated with the functioning of these groups when bonding is at a high level.

However, it is not an absolute rule because there are two other factors besides play that play a role in small towns. First, there are contrary norms and networks that have a wider impact on the operation of groups in small towns, even though the level of cognitive societal capital is high. Second, some of the less solid groups may still survive and improve with the facilitation and mediation of an agency.

Creating Social Capital in Russia: The Novgorod Model

The Novgorod region of Russia demonstrates a high level of economic performance, trust in the Russian government, and associational activity, which are common indicators of high levels of societal capital. This can be attributed to the local government's efforts to promote an historical image of Novgorod as a thriving mercantile democracy. The policies implemented by the local government have contributed to the development of societal capital. The success of the region highlights the fact that local governments can establish common societal values and priorities for their community, even in the absence of a national consensus.

(2001 ElservierScience). The city of Novgorod will bring a new dimension to our understanding of why the state is important in

promoting social trust. While the factors that promote trust may vary across different cultures, one common element is the presence of a strong state establishment that allows for predictable relationships among societal actors and a robust system for enforcing social norms. As the main agent of socialization, the state plays a crucial role in creating social norms and providing a common cultural framework. The impressive achievements in the Novgorod region challenge the widespread assumption that Russian history hinders reform. The reference to the past has a meaningful transition to the future, making it a dream come true.

The main lies in choosing the type of past that best explains future social capital. By relying on its history, Novgorod has already started and is increasing the rewards of investing in social capital as an incentive.


Encouraging a high level of social capital is essential for the sustainable development of physical and human capital, as well as various other initiatives that contribute to a successful local economy. The sustainable development of social capital is not only important in terms of government policies for regional sustainability, but also for communities themselves who aim to influence their long-term economic sustainability by ensuring their community can adapt and respond to the changing needs of the global economy. Higher levels of social capital in small regional communities will positively impact economic sustainability.

The challenge for policy shapers in promoting positive economic sustainability development in regional towns lies in determining whether it is more beneficial to invest in developing the societal capital of towns with limited societal capital or to focus on towns that already have a higher

level of societal capital, with the aim of maximizing the return on limited resources.

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