Rad tech Physics ch.1(Radiation Units, Atoms, and Atomic Structure)

question

What are the two major systems of measurement?
answer

English(british) & Metric(CGS or MKS)
question

What is the International System(SI)?
answer

an expanded metric system that has 4 additional base units (electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance and luminous intensity)
question

1 inch=
answer

2.54 cm
question

1 kg=
answer

2.2 lbs
question

10^6
answer

mega (M)
question

10^3
answer

kilo (k)
question

10^2
answer

hecto (h)
question

10^1
answer

deka (da)
question

10^-1
answer

deci (d)
question

10^-2
answer

centi (c)
question

10^-3
answer

milli (m)
question

10^-6
answer

micro (u)
question

10^-9
answer

nano (n)
question

1 Liter=
answer

1.09 quarts
question

How much natural radiation do we receive each year?
answer

3.1 mSv/year
question

How much manmade radiation do we receive each year?
answer

3.2 mSv/year
question

Who was the first person to think that matter was composed of atoms?
answer

Democritus
question

What did the Ancient Greeks believe in?
answer

Earth, Air, Fire, Water
question

What did the Ancient Greeks believe could change the 4 elements?
answer

Wet, Dry, Hot, Cold
question

What is the significance of John Dalton?
answer

He is best known for his pioneering work in the development of modern atomic theory
question

Dmitri Mendeleev
answer

Developed the first element chart, and discovered that they could be arranged by anatomic #
question

JJ Thompson
answer

Proposed that atoms looked like plum pudding (plums were electrons)
question

Ernest Rutherford
answer

Believed that the atom had a nucleus which was positively charged with electrons surrounding
question

Niels bohr
answer

Believed that the atom looked like a miniature solar system expanded on Rutherford’s idea
question

Nucleons
answer

neutrons and protons
question

Electron shells
answer

Arranged from order from the first shell (K) to the last shell (Q). Contain one subatomic particle: Electrons (- charge)
question

Mixtures
answer

All sorts of things
question

Substance
answer

definite constant composition
question

Molecules
answer

smallest character substance
question

Atom
answer

smallest particle of an element that has characteristic properties
question

Compound
answer

combination of two or more elements
question

2,000 times bigger than electrons
answer

protons and neutrons
question

formula for finding number of electrons in shell
answer

2n^2, where n=principle quantum #
question

Electron binding energy
answer

how tightly the electron is held in its shell
question

What determines the electron binding energy?
answer

by the distance of electron shell from the nucleus (K shell produces the greatest binding energy because the closer to the nucleus, the greater the attraction, which means the greater the energy)
question

Unit for measuring electron energy
answer

Electron volt (eV)
question

What is an Electron volt (eV)?
answer

energy acquired by an electron as its accelerated through the potential difference of 1 Volt.
question

Ionization
answer

adding or removing an electron from its shell
question

In ionization, if an electron is added, then…
answer

it is termed a negative ion
question

In ionization, if an electron is removed, then…
answer

it is termed a positive ion
question

Atomic number
answer

Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom… “Z number”
question

Atomic Mass Number
answer

Equal to the number of protons and neutrons in an atom “A number” *May be measured using amu (atomic mass unit)
question

Y
answer

element
question

How are atoms arranged the periodic table?
answer

by their atomic (Z#) in the periodic table of elements
question

Rows
answer

Arranged by increasing Z#
question

Columns or groups
answer

Elements with similar chemical properties and same number of electrons in their outer shell.
question

Isotopes
answer

Protons are the same; nucleus has excess energy(radioactive)
question

isobars
answer

“A” number stays the same
question

Isotones
answer

Same number of neutrons
question

isomers
answer

nucleon arrangement is different
question

ions
answer

different number of electrons
question

Unstable isotopes often have?
answer

a deficient of excess number of neutrons, which caused them to spontaneously change from one element to another (considered radioisotopes)
question

Radioactive decay
answer

Process where a radioisotope is transformed into a new element
question

Half Life
answer

time required for a radioisotope to decay to one-half of its decay; half life is unique to its radioisotope
question

Radioisotopes release what three different forms of ionizing radiation?
answer

Gamma, Alpha, Beta (Particulate particles)
question

Gamma rays are physically identical to what?
answer

x-rays
question

Gamma radiation
answer

Photon or electromagnetic radiation; similar to x-rays
question

Alpha particle
answer

-2 protons and 2 neutrons (He nucleus) -A# = 4; Z# = 2 -4 amu; positive charge -very ionizing, but can only harm you if you injest them
question

Beta particles
answer

-identical to an electron, comes from the nucleus -1/2,000 amu; negative charge -neutron changes into a proton -can penetrate skin
question

Symbol: X
answer

Exposure
question

Symbol: D
answer

Absorbed dose
question

Symbol: Efd
answer

Dose limit
question

Symbol: A
answer

Activity
question

Traditional unit for Exposure
answer

Roentgen (R)
question

Traditional unit for Absorbed dose
answer

Rad
question

Traditional unit for Dose limit
answer

Rem
question

Traditional unit for Activity
answer

Curie (Ci)
question

SI unit for Exposure
answer

Coulombs/Kilogram (C/Kg)
question

SI unit for Absorbed dose
answer

Gray (Gy)
question

SI unit for Dose limit
answer

Sievert (Sv)
question

SI unit for Activity
answer

Becquerel (Bq)
question

Effect measured for Exposure
answer

Air ionizations
question

Effect measured for Absorbed dose
answer

energy absorbed
question

Effect measured for Dose Limit
answer

Biologic effects
question

Effect measured for Activity
answer

disintegrations per second (dps)
question

Measuring media for Exposure
answer

Air
question

Measuring media for Absorbed Dose
answer

Matter
question

Measuring media for Dose Limit
answer

Tissue
question

Measuring media for Activity
answer

N/A
question

Exposure is what type of radiation?
answer

x-ray and gamma ray
question

Absorbed dose is what type of radiation?
answer

All types
question

Dose Limit is what type of radiation?
answer

All types
question

Activity is what type of radiation?
answer

Radioactive nuclides

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member