Thermodynamics Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Thermodynamics?
Thermodynamics is a branch of physical science that studies the movement and exchange of heat energy in a system. It is an important part of physics, chemistry, and engineering. Thermodynamics deals with how energy is used to do work as it relates to temperature and pressure changes. The study of thermodynamics began in the 18th century when scientists such as Denis Papin and Sadi Carnot studied the conversion of heat into mechanical energy. In 1840, Julius von Mayer introduced the idea that energy could be conserved by transforming one form into another. This established the first law of thermodynamics which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but only changed from one form to another. Since then, many other laws have been developed including the second law which states that entropy (a measure of randomness or disorder) always increases over time; this means that processes tend towards more efficient forms for example heat will flow from hot bodies to cold ones until both reach equilibrium at a constant temperature. There are also two additional laws known as third and zeroth law which deal with absolute temperatures and universal constants respectively. Thermodynamic systems can be either open or closed depending on whether they allow matter or energy to enter or leave their boundaries while still maintaining its properties such as temperature, volume etc., Open systems are common in everyday life while closed systems are mainly found in laboratories where experiments take place under controlled conditions. The behavior of these systems is described using equations derived from thermodynamic principles like the conservation of mass-energy equation or Gibbs free energy equation. In conclusion, thermodynamics is an important field studying various aspects related to heat movement and transformation; its applications range from understanding large scale natural phenomena such as global climate change right down to microscopic biological processes like osmosis within cells making it essential for researchers across different fields.