Chemistry CH 18 Acids and Bases

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
can turn litmus paper a different color (acids or bases or both or neither)
both

reacts with certain metals
acid

contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
acid

feels slippery
base

reacts with carbonates
acid

feels rough
neither

contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxide ions
neither

tastes bitter
base

tastes sour
acid

What model of acids and bases states that an acid contains the element hydrogen and forms ions of hydrogen when it is dissolved in water?
Arrhenius

A base contains what group?
hydroxide

A base also dissociates to produce ions in aqueous solution. What ions do they produce?
hydroxide

According to what model does an acid donate hydrogen ions, and a base accept hydrogen ions?
Bronsted-Lowry

In the Bronsted-Lowry Model in an acid-base reaction, each acid has a what?
Conjugate base

In the Bronsted-Lowry Model in an acid-base reaction, each base has a what?
Conjugate acid

Acid A and acid B are of equal concentration and are tested with a conductivity apparatus. When the electrodes are placed in acid A, the bulb glows dimly. When they are placed in acid B, the bulb glows more brightly. Is acid a or b stronger?
Acid B is stronger than acid A

Why is acid b stronger than acid a?
acid a-the bulb glows dimly
acid b-the bulb glows more brightly; Which makes acid be stronger.

A chemical equation for the ionization of an acid uses a single arrow to the right (–>) to separate the reactant and product sides of the equation. What does this mean for the ionizing acid?
The ionizing acid is strong.

Is Sulfuric acid weak or strong?
strong acid

Sulfuric acid is a strong acid. What is true about its conjugate base?
Its conjugate base is weak

In a solution, a weak acid produces what?
a mixture of molecules and ions

Why are K_a values all small numbers?
the solutions contain a high concentration of un-ionized acid molecules

What dissociates entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in a solution?
a strong base

In general, compounds formed from active metals, and hydroxide ions are…
strong bases

simplest form of the chemical equation for the self-ionization of water
H_2O (l) <-> H^+(aq) + OH^-(aq)

The equilibrium content expression, K_eq, for this equation
K_eq= [H+] [OH-]/[H2O]

The expression for the equilibrium constant for water, K_w
K_w= [H+] [OH-]

Why can the concentration of water be ignored in the equilibrium expression for water?
the concentration of water molecules is essentially constant

What is the numberical value of K_w at 298 K?
1.0 x 10^-14

In solution, if the hydroxide ion concentration increases, what happens to the hydrogen ion concentration?
decreases

[OH-] is greater than…
1.0 x 10^-7; therefore its a base

The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of what ion concentration?
hydrogen

values for pH range from…
0 to 14

Stomach contents can have a pH of 2, which means that they are what?
acidic

they hydrogen ion concentration in a solution with a pH of 3 is how many times greater than the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution with a pH of 5?
100 times greater

Does the pH of a neutral solution at room temperature equal the pOH of the solution?
yes

If the pH of a solution is 3, its pOH is what?
11

The pH of a solution with a [H+] of 1×10^-8 is what?
8

The pH of a solution with a [OH-] of 1×10^-6 is what?
8

Indicator paper can be used to measure the what of a solution?
pH

Indicators are substances that are different what depending on the pH of the solution tested?
colors

Another way to measure the acidity of the solution is the what?
pH meter

what uses electrodes placed in solution to directly read the results?
pH meter

a chemical dye that changes color based on the pH of a solution?
acid-base indicator

a method for using a neutralization reaction to determine the concentration of a solution?
titration

a reaction in which an acid and a base react to produce salt and water?
neutralization

a solution of known concentration?
standard solution

an ionic product of an acid-base reaction?
salt

the point in a titration in which an indicator changes color?
end point

the stoichiometric point of a titration?
equivalence point

Water and other substances that can act as acids or bases are called?
amphoteric

a Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor and a Lewis base is an electron pair donor?
Lewis model

acids that ionize completely
strong acids

good conductors of electricity
strong acids

pH
-log [H+]

pOH
-log [OH-]

is a reaction in which an acid and a base in an aqueous solution react to produce salt and water
neutralization reaction

the point at which moles of H+ ion from the acid equals moles of OH- ion from the base
equivalence point

the anions of the dissociated salt accept hydrogen ions from water or the cations of the dissociated salt donate hydrogen ions to water
salt hydrolysis

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member