chemistry – EOC study guide

describe the molecular structure and properties of two solid forms of carbon diamond, and grapite?
different molecular structures and different properties

what are the groups of the periodic table?
• alkali metals
• transition metals
• non-metals
• noble gases

compared to the atoms of nonmetals in period 3, the atoms of metals in period 3 have
fewer valence electrons

why is neon a group 18 element?
neon atoms have a full valence she’ll of electrons

which states of matter will take the shape of any container they are placed into?
liquids and gases

chemical properties
a property of a substance that is observed during a reaction in which the chemical make-up of the substance changes

example of chemical properties
tendency of metal to rust in salt water

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physical properties
a property of a substance that is observed during a reaction in which the substance physically changes

example of physical properties
color or smell

what model introduced the nucleus as a very small central charge but contained the majority of the atoms mass?
Rutherford model
Gold Foil

what model first included electrons as subatomic particles?
Thomas model
Plum Pudding

what model deduced that all elements are composed of indivisible and indestructible atoms?
dalton model

what model proposed that electrons move in definite orbits around the nucleus, much like planets of a solar system?
Bohr model

how to find the amount of protons
proton = atomic number

how to find the amount of electrons
electrons = atomic number

how to find the amount of neutrons
atomic mass – atomic number

describe the molecular structure and properties of two solid forms of carbon diamond, and grapite?
different molecular structures and different properties

compared to the atoms of nonmetals in period 3, the atoms of metals in period 3 have
fewer valence electrons

why is neon a group 18 element?
neon atoms have a full valence she’ll of electrons

which states of matter will take the shape of any container they are placed into?
liquids and gases

chemical properties
properties of a reaction where the substance undergoes a change that effects the chemical make up of the substance

example of chemical properties
tendency of metal to rust in salt water

physical properties
properties of a reaction where the substance undergoes a change that effects that physically effects the substance

example of physical properties
burning wood

compared to the charge of a proton, the charge of an electron has
the same magnitude and opposite sign

what is the charge of the nucleus of an oxygen atom?
+8

the nucleus of an atom is
positively charged

which atom in the ground state requires the least amount of energy to remove its valence electrons?
rubidium atom

when an atom of lithium loses an electron, the atom becomes a
positive ion with a radius smaller than the radius of the atom

what characteristics both generally decrease when the elements in period 3 are considered in order from left to right?
metallic properties and atomic radius

describe the relative energy of the electrons in the shells of a calcium atom?
an electron in the third shell has more energy than an electron from in the second shell

atoms of which element have the greatest tendency to gain electrons?
Francium

atoms of which element have the weakest tendency to gain electrons?
Helium

compared to a phosphorus atom, a P3- ion has
more electrons and a larger radius

as the elements in period 3 increase in atomic number, there is also s general decrease in
atomic radius

what atom has the largest atomic radius?
Fr

what atom has the smallest atomic radius?
F-

in the alkaline earth metals group, atoms with the smallest radii
have the highest ionization energies

what is the electron configuration for a Sodium atom?
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s1

dipole-dipole forces
attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule

London dispersion forces
attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles

the London dispersion forces in a polar substance are
usually much weaker than the dipole-dipole forces

why is the boiling point of water higher than that of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)?
hydrogen bonding

a covalent bond is most likely to have been formed by combining what elements?
oxygen and oxygen

compared to the charge of a proton, the charge of an electron has
the same magnitude and opposite sign

what is the charge of the nucleus of an oxygen atom?
+8

the nucleus of an atom is
positively charged

which elements in the ground state require the least amount of energy to remove their valence electrons?
alkali metals

which elements in the ground state require the most amount of energy to remove their valence electrons?
noble gases

when an atom of lithium loses an electron, the atom becomes a
positive ion with a radius smaller than the radius of the atom

what characteristics both generally decrease when the elements in period 3 are considered in order from left to right?
metallic properties and atomic radius

describe the relative energy of the electrons in the shells of a calcium atom?
an electron in the third shell has more energy than an electron from in the second shell

what is the correct name for the compound FeSO4
iron (II) sulfate

what is the formula for nitrogen dioxide?
NO2

how manga electrons are shared in a double covalent bond?
4

the most characteristic component of an acid is that the formula of the compound must contain what element
hydrogen

what is the molecular formula for the empirical formula C4H16O8
CH4O2

how many lone pairs are in the central atom (B) for the Lewis structure BF3

in what type of chemical reaction are electrons transferred?
oxidation and reduction

single displacement (replacement) reaction

double displacement (replacement) reaction
the ions of two compound in aqueous solutions form two new compounds

in a double displacement reaction between hydrogen chloride and sodium hydroxide, one product is sodium chloride and the other is
water

synthesis reaction

why type of reaction has occurred when solid magnesium is burned in oxygen gas and magnesium oxide is produced
synthesis reaction

decomposition reaction
reaction in which a single reactant is heated and results in the production of multiple products

how many aluminum and oxygen atoms are there in 4 Al2O3, the product of a chemical reaction
8 atoms of aluminum and 12 atoms of oxygen

describe the particles of an ideal gas, based on kinetic molecular theory
the gas particles have no attractive forces between them

describe the particles of an ideal gasp according to the kinetic molecular theory
the had particles are in random, constant, straight-line motion

cylinder with a moveable piston contains a sample of gas having a volume of 6.0 liters at 293K. What is the volume of the sample after the gas is heated at 324K, while the pressure is held constant?
6.6L

equal volumes of 1 molar hydrochloric acid and 1 Miley sodium hydroxide are mixed. after mixing, the solution will be
nearly neutral

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