Quiz 2 Questions Essay

question

A graduate student is almost done with his dissertation when he is informed that twenty years ago someone did a very similar project and already demonstrated what he had hoped to be the first to discover. What basic step of the scientific method could have saved him from this problem? developing an operational definition selecting a research method analyzing data reviewing the literature creating relevant variables
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reviewing the literature
question

Which method of social research might involve shifting between participating in a social situation and being an observer? interviews surveys access negotiation comparative-historical research ethnography
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ethnography
question

Every discipline that does research on humans needs a code of ethics in order to protect its research subjects. While it’s easy to see that medical research could harm people if not carried out ethically, the risks associated with sociological research may seem more subtle. Describe these risks.
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Some of these risks include breaching of confidentiality and subjects finding out what was written about them. The code of ethics avoids risks by avoiding bias, adhere to professional standards and protect respondents from harm.
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Every four years when it’s time to elect a new president, we pay much attention to surveys, which we usually call “polls.” Even though there are more than three hundred million people in the United States, most political pollsters ask about a thousand people who it is they plan to vote for and use that information to predict how the election will turn out. Who is the sample for a presidential poll? every person who is planning on voting every American all those people who have strong political opinions voters the one thousand people who are asked whom they will vote for
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the one thousand people who are asked whom they will vote for
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Which methodology most closely resembles the scientific method? ethnography survey research experimental research interviews content analysis
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survey research
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Both interviews and surveys require a researcher to write clear, unambiguous questions in order to generate good data. What are the pitfalls and benefits of crafting specific types of questions?
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Some pitfalls of writing clear, unambiguous question involves asking the right kind of question to obtain good data based on the group, the types of questions to ask are closed-ended question which imposes a limit possible responses, an open ended question allows for a wide variety of responses. The researchers must avoid biased or leading questions so they do not purpose a respondent to answer a certain way and having double barreled questions that involve too many different issues at one time. Questions must avoid ambiguous or emotional language that might confuse or spark emotional language on the part of the respondent. The benefits of crafting these questions is the result of getting good data that is reliable.
question

When Laud Humphreys was a sociology graduate student at Washington University in St. Louis, he wrote his dissertation on the “tearoom trade,” anonymous homosexual encounters in the men’s rooms of public parks. To gather data, he acted as a lookout for his subjects, but he also surreptitiously noted license-plate numbers as the men left, so he could get their names and addresses. The next year, he picked about 50 men from the “tearooms” and interviewed them in their homes, claiming to be performing a health survey. His descriptions of the interviews made it possible for many of the men (and their families) to recognize themselves when the dissertation was published. Why do many sociologists consider this research method to be unethical? It used terminology that was confusing to the interview subjects. It put Humphreys at risk for arrest or retaliation. It harmed the reputation of the city of St. Louis. It failed to protect the biographical anonymity of his subjects. It investigated an extremely sensitive subject.
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It failed to protect the biographical anonymity of his subjects.
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Sometimes survey researchers reject randomness and instead use weighting techniques to construct a sample. How is a weighted sample different from a random one? The weighted sample does not target any specific group within the population. The weighted sample more closely resembles the larger population. A weighted sample excludes some members of the population. A weighted sample draws from a larger target population rather than a random one. A weighted sample is only used when a researcher needs to ask weighted questions.
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The weighted sample more closely resembles the larger population.
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Which of the following steps might help a researcher avoid problems associated with reactivity? using secrecy or deception being totally ethical at all times using random sampling techniques using properly constructed questions being objective
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using secrecy or deception
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Which of the following affect the methods used by sociological researchers? what they want to accomplish the methods they are trained in and feel comfortable with the time available to complete their projects the resources and funds available all of the above
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all of the above
question

Why is the use of existing data, especially in comparative and historical research, especially helpful to students? It allows them to explore new topics. It requires fewer resources than collecting original data. It eliminates problems with sampling bias. It lets them improve their interview and participant observation skills. It is usually more valid than collecting new data.
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It requires fewer resources than collecting original data.
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No harm can come to subjects as a result of completing a questionnaire. True False
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false
question

Survey research tends to produce quantitative data. One key advantage of this kind of data is that: it is easy to transmit to the public. it includes observations and informal interviews. it allows the researcher to review the literature. it affords easy access to the norms, values, and meanings held by members of a group. it is the only kind of data that is useful.
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it is easy to transmit to the public.
question

What does it mean for a sociologist to control for a variable? Research subjects are divided into two groups. Change over time is measured in a dependent variable. One group is allowed to understand the nature of the experiment, while the other group is kept in the dark. Precise tools are developed with which to measure a variable. All factors except for the independent variable are taken into account.
answer

All factors except for the independent variable are taken into account.
question

In her ethnography Number Our Days, Barbara Myerhoff investigated the daily lives of elderly Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe who lived in Los Angeles. Most of her work took place at a senior citizen center. Before she could even start this research, Myerhoff had to convince the director of the center that it was a legitimate and worthwhile project, a process known as: gaining access. participant observation. fieldnotes. thick description. sampling.
answer

gaining access.
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Clifford Geertz coined the term “thick description” to define good ethnographic fieldnotes. Which of the following is NOT associated with thick description? sensitivity to context interactional details the meaning events have for those participating in them attention to tone of voice and facial expressions a comprehensive list of events
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a comprehensive list of events
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When researchers use a social networking site like Facebook to obtain data, they are: ethically questionable. doing qualitative research. using interview data. likely to have issues with reflexivity. using existing sources.
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using existing sources.
question

A sociologist wants a major national organization to fund her study of medical marijuana clubs in San Francisco but is turned down because the grant-makers don’t see how her study would represent knowledge about anything more than the clubs that would be studied. What is the organization concerned about? representativeness replicability bias sampling error the target population
answer

representativeness

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