PSY 2012 – Chapter 1,2,3, & 5 Quizzes

The cerebral cortex consists of the
frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes

Three structures associated with the brain stem are the _____.
pons, medulla, and the midbrain

This part of the brain is responsible for survival functions such as heart beat and respiration.
brain stem

A main function of the medulla is to _____.
control automatic bodily functions such as respiration and heart rate

The hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex are all part of the ______
forebrain

Three structures included in the hindbrain are the:
medulla, pons, and cerebellum

This structure at the top of the brain stem is involved in respiration, movement, waking, REM sleep, and dreaming.
pons

This structure at the base of the brain behind the brain stem is responsible for maintaining smooth movements, balance, and some aspects of perception and cognition.
cerebellum

The next time you see someone at a party who is having trouble walking properly, you might say, “He has had too much to drink, and it went right to his _____.”
cerebellum

The _____ is located near the top of the brainstem and is involved in coordinating eye and body movement, sleep, and arousal.
midbrain

While reading your newspaper in the morning, you notice a crash in the street outside. The part of your brain that refocuses your attention from the paper to the crash is the _____.
reticular formation

The largest and most prominent part of the human brain is the _____.
forebrain

What is the major sensory relay area for the brain?
thalamus

Injury to the thalamus can cause all except which of the following?
loss of smell

Many symptoms of schizophrenia, like hearing voices, misunderstanding social cues, and misinterpreting sensory information could be due to abnormalities in the _____.
thalamus

This is a small structure that maintains homeostasis and regulates emotions and drives such as hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression.
hypothalamus

The hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus are all parts of the _____.
limbic system

Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes make up the _____.
cerebral cortex

In total, due to the cerebral hemispheres. We have _____ lobes in our brain.
8

Motor control, speech production, thinking, personality, emotion, and memory are all governed by your _____.
frontal lobe

The case of Phineas Gage suggests that the _____ lobes regulate our personality and are largely responsible for much of what makes us uniquely human.
frontal

The _____ lobes are involved with hearing, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control
temporal

_____ area is found in the temporal lobe, and is involved with language comprehension.
Wernicke’s

Vision and visual perception occur in the _____ lobes.
occipital

This is the name of the bundle of nerve fibers that carries information between the brain’s right and left hemispheres.
corpus callosum

Your left brain doesn’t know what your right brain is doing. It is MOST likely that your _____ has severed.
corpus callosum

The right hemisphere of the brain is specialized for _____ in most adults.
A. musical abilities
B. spatial abilities
C. recognizing facts
D. all of these options
D. all of these options

Both concussion and contusion are types of _______.
traumatic brain injuries

The evolutionary/circadian theory of sleep says that sleep conserves energy and protects us from _____.
predators

REM sleep is also called _____ because the brain is aroused and active while the person remains nonresponsive and asleep.
paradoxical sleep

Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence of sleep stages?
A) non-REM → Stages 1-2-3-4 – REM
B) hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4 – REM – Stages 4-3-2-1
C) hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 – REM
D) non-REM → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 – REM
C) hypnogogic → Stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 – REM

The _____ state occurs at the beginning of sleep when you may experience visual, auditory, and kinesthetic sensations.
hypnogogic

Darius is sleeping right through the sounds of fire engine and police car sirens right outside his window. It is MOST likely that Darius is _____.
in Stage 4 sleep

Just before sleep, brain waves move from _____ waves, indicating normal wakefulness, to _____ waves associated with drowsy relaxation.
beta; alpha

A mental state other than an ordinary waking state, in which there are distinct changes in perception, emotion, memory, thinking, etc. is called alternate _____.
states of consciousness

As you read this text, you will likely do best if you _____.
employ controlled processing

Scientists study sleep in sleep labs using _____.
EEG recordings

Mental activities that require minimal attention are called _____ processes.
automatic

You are in a sleep lab and have just been hooked up to an EEG, an EMG (for muscle activity), and an EOG (for eye movements). This means the sleep researcher is interested in your _____.
brain waves, facial muscle movements, and eye movements

Our awareness of our environments and ourselves.
Consciousness

Which of the following is a circadian rhythm?
the sleep-wake cycle

Armand is daydreaming, Adele is dreaming while asleep. Both Armand and Adele are in _______states of consciousness.
alternate

In mid-sentence, your friend suddenly slumps over on the couch and appears to have entered the REM-stage of sleep. What does he probably suffer from?
narcolepsy

Consciousness exists on a _____.
continuum

Melatonin influences _____.
sleep

How many cycles of distinct sleep stages do we typically experience during a normal night’s sleep?
4-5

The idea that dreams are the by-product of random stimulation of brain cells, and that the brain attempts to combine this spontaneous activity into coherent patterns, is known as the _____ hypothesis of dreaming.
activation-synthesis

Sleepwalking is MOST likely to occur in _____.
NREM sleep

This is NOT a kind of parasomnia.
sleep apnea

Consuela persistently has difficulty falling or staying asleep. It is not because of noise or stress. What does she probably suffer from?
insomnia.

Irvings’s doctor prescribed Valium to help him cope with job-related anxiety. He found a less stressful job, and is anxiety-free. However, Irving keeps taking Valium because he likes its effects. He hasn’t had to increase the dosage, and he did not have withdrawal symptoms when he forgot to take his pills. It is MOST likely that Irving is _________________ on Valium.
psychologically dependent

the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it
stress

an environmental trigger that prompts a stressful reaction
stressor

In your text, the physical and mental arousal to situations that we perceive as threatening or challenging is called _____.
stress

You have a minor car accident after which you experience sweaty palms, rapid breathing, and a racing heart. In this situation, the accident is the stressor, and _____ is the stress.
your physical reaction

According to Selye, pleasant, desirable stress is called _____.
Eustress

According to Selye, distress is _____.
unpleasant

The end result of a total absence of stress is _____.
death

The Social Readjustment Rating Scale constructed by Holmes and Rahe measures the stress in a person’s life on the basis of _____.
life changes

Poor working conditions or a bad marriage are classified in your text as:
chronic stressors

_____ is one of the largest sources of chronic stress for adults.
work

When one is forced to choose between two or more different and incompatible functions, one is experiencing ______.
role conflict

Small problems of daily living that accumulate and sometimes become a major source of stress are called _____.
hassles

_____ is an unpleasant state of tension, anxiety, and heightened sympathetic activity that results from a blocked goal.
frustration

A negative emotional state caused by having to choose between two or more incompatible goals or impulses is called _____.
conflict

In an approach-approach conflict, a person must choose between two or more goals that will lead to _____.
a desirable result

In an avoidance-avoidance conflict, a person must choose between two or more goals that will lead to _____.
an undesirable result

The most difficult conflict to resolve is usually the _____ conflict.
avoidance-avoidance

The body’s immediate fight-or-flight response is facilitated by the _______ system(s).
SAM

According to your text, the chemical that saves to feedback information to the brain about the body’s response to stress is _______.
cortisol

The fight or flight response is triggered by the _____ nervous system.
sympathetic

The release of cortisol during the fight or flight response occurs at the end of the _____ pathway.
Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal cortex

A physiological alarm reaction, followed by resistance, and ending with exhaustion is known as _____.
the general adaptation syndrome

The field that studies the effects of psychological factors on the immune system.
Psychoimmunology

After exposure to a severe and prolonged stressor, illness and death may occur in the _____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.
exhaustion

According to your text, most people do NOT have cancer because _____ keeps cancer cells in check.
the immune system

The General Adaptation Syndrome indicates that we experience a biological reaction to stress, which occurs in three phases. The first phase is our initial response to a stressor. In the second phase we expend considerable energy to adapt to the stressor. And lastly, if the stressor is prolonged, it will likely result in us feeling depleted of energy, and increase our risk of becoming susceptible to serious illnesses. Identify below the correct order of the three phases:
alarm reaction; resistance; exhaustion

The interdisciplinary field that studies how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes is called ____.
neuroscience

A collection of glands found throughout the body that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to effect behavioral change or maintain normal bodily functions is called the____________________
endocrine system

A cell of the nervous system responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information.
a neuron

The basic units of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that process, store, and transmit information are the _____.
neurons

The cells that provide structural, nutritional, and other support for neurons are called _____ cells.
glial

The branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey them toward the cell body are called _____.
dendrites

The branches of the neuron that receive neural impulses from other neurons are called _____, and the tube-like structure that conveys impulses toward other neurons is called the _____.
dendrites; axon

An impulse travels through the structures of the neuron in the following order:
endrites, cell body, axon

The long tube-like structure that conveys impulses away from the cell body toward other neurons, muscles, or glands is called a(n) _____.
axon

The _____ is another name for the cell body.
soma

Fatty insulation wrapped around some axons that increases the rate at which impulse travel along the axon
myelin sheath

Rosa has multiple sclerosis, a degenerative disorder that causes myelin to disintegrate. What effect is this going to have on Rosa’s nerve impulses?
They will slow down.

Lynn has a disease that makes her muscle coordination difficult. It’s caused by progressive deterioration of the myelin sheath. It’s called ______
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

nerve cell responsible for transmitting information to and from the brain and spinal cord
neuron

The tips of the branches of the axon are called _____.
terminal buttons

Neurotransmitters are __________.
released from the terminal button of a cell

This neurotransmitter affects sleep, appetite, and emotional states, among other behaviors.
serotonin

Certain forms of depression are related to lowered levels of _____.
serotonin

This neurotransmitter is suspected of playing a role in Alzheimer’s disease.
acetylcholine

A chemical substance in the nervous system that is involved in pain control, pleasure, and memory is _____.
endorphins

When an axon is not stimulated it is in a polarized state called _____.
the resting potential

In your textbook, the process of objectively evaluating, comparing, analyzing, and synthesizing information is called _____.
critical thinking

You decide you want to work in the mental health field. Which careers will allow you to prescribe medication to psychiatric patients?
psychiatrist

Lloyd is fascinated by interpersonal behavior, especially prejudice and other attitudes. It is likely that Lloyd is a(n) ___________ psychologist.
social

The father of psyschology is:
Wilhelm Wundt

The psychoanalytic/psychodynamic perspective is associated with _____.
Freud

Psychotherapy or ‘talk therapy” was developed by whom?
Sigmund Freud

The psychological perspective that emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences of overt behavior is called the __________________________.
behavioral perspective

Dr. Watson, from the _____ school of psychology, focused on objective, observable behavior rather than on the unconscious
behaviorism

The psychological perspective that emerged in the 1950s that stressed free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking was the __________ perspective.
humanistic

The idea that depression is influenced by genetics and neurotransmitters, learned responses and thinking patterns, and socioeconomic status and culture represents the _____ model of psychology.
biopsychosocial

Which of the following terms do NOT belong together?
A) structuralism: observable behavior
B) behaviorism: stimulus-response
C) psychoanalytic: unconscious conflict
D) cognitive: thought
structuralism: observable behavior

The term basic research is BEST defined as research that _____.
advances scientific knowledge

The first step in the scientific method is:
reviewing the literature of existing theories

Salary and years of education are ____________ correlated.
positively

If researchers gave participants varying amounts of a new “memory” drug and then gave them a story to read and measured their scores on a quiz, the exposure to the drug would be the independent variable (IV), and the __________would be the dependent variable (DV).
quiz scores

Grade point average and the number of hours of television watched per day are ______________ correlated.
negatively

Field of psychology that focuses on mental processes such as thinking, perception, and information processing__________________
cognitive pyschology

The psychological perspective that studies how we gather, encode, and store information is the ________ perspective.
cognitive

Area of psychology that expanded the scope of psychology to consider such topics as emotion and observable behavior.
Functionalism

The field of psychology that made an important contribution to the science of psychology because it established a model for the scientific study of mental processes is called ________________.
Structuralism

The psychological school of thought called structuralism is associated with Wundt & Titchene and engages in the method of studying experience called _____.
introspection

According to your textbook, the goals of psychology are to _____.
describe, explain, predict, and change behavior

In your text, psychology is defined as the _____.
scientific study of behavior and mental processes