Chapter 1 Exercises 1-1; all
1. What is an argument?
An argument consist of 2 concepts:
one part of which the premise(s) is intended to provide a reason for accepting the other part (the conclusion).
A claim is what you use to state an opinion or a belief?
claim = when a belief (judgement, opinion) is asserted in a declarative sentence, the result is a claim or statement.
(beliefs are the same as judgments and
Critical thinking consists in attacking other people’s ideas.
Whether a passage contains an argument depends on how long it is.
All arguments have a premise.
All arguments have a premise!
But an argument also needs at least ONE premise.
Without a premise, you have NO SUPPORT for the conclusion and so you don’t have an argument.
All arguments have a conclusion
True! Arguments ALWAYS have a conclusion!
You can reach a conclusion without believing it is true.
Beliefs, judgments, and opinions are the same thing.
All opinions are subjective.
SOME opinions are NOT SUBJECTIVE
because their truth or falsity is INDEPENDENT of what people think.
All factual claims are true.
12. “There is nothing either good or bad or bad but that thinking makes it so” expresses a doctrine known as _____________?
13. The first order of business when it comes to thinking critically about an issue:
(a) to determine whether the issue is subjective or objective
(b) to determine whether the issue can be resolved
(c) NEITHER OF THESE
Answer: C neither of these
To determine what the issue is
14. T/F? The conclusion of an argument states a position on an issue.
**The premise of an argument does!
Issues can be resolved only through scientific testing.
Critical thinking is a foolproof way of avoiding errors in thinking.
The claim “Death Valley is an eyesore” is subjective.
Every issue requires an argument for a resolution.
19. Which one of thee doesn’t belong?
(d) SINCE; does not belong
It is not possible to reason correctly if you do not think critically.
Exercise 1-5 (chapter 1); 1,4,7,8
Some of these items are arguments, and some are not. divide them up correctly!
1. Federer is unlikely to win the U.S. Open this year. He has a nagging leg injury, plus he just doesn’t seem to have the drive he once had.
This is an argument!
4. Everybody is saying the president earned the Nobel Prize. What a stupid idea! He hasn’t earned it all. There’s not a lick of truth in that notion.
7. professor X: well, I see where the new chancellor wants to increase class sizes.
Professor Y: Yeah, another of his bright idea
did not finish..
No argument here!
8. Yes, I charge a little more than other dentists. But I fell I give better service. So I think my billing practices are justified.
I don’t think its an argument??
it is subjective
Excersise 1-6 (chapter 1); 1,4,7
*identify arguments conclusion
1. The directory of Intentional communities lists more than 200 groups across the country organized around a variety of purposes, including environmentally aware living.
4. Computers will never be able to converse intelligently through speech. A simple example proves this. The sentences “How do you recognize speech?” and “How do you wreck a nice beach?” have different meanings, but they sound similar enough that a computer could not distinguish between the two.
whose conclusion is that computers will never be able to converse intelligently through speech.
7. Fears that chemicals in teething rings and soft plastic toys may cause cancer may be justified. Last week, the consumer product safety commissioner issued a report confirming that low amounts of DEHP, known to cause liver cancer in lab animals, may be absorbed from certain infant products.
whose conclusion is that chemicals in teething rings and soft plastic toys cause cancer.
Exercise 1-7 (chapter 1); 1, 4 ,7 9
identify which letter item best states the primary issue
(a) whether Hank ought to take the math
(c) whether the mainstream media have lost interest in classical music.
(b) whether the defeat of the school voucher initiative was bad for the country.
(b) whether what we believe is agreeable to reason.
Exercise 1-12 (chapter1); 1,4,5,7
Which best states the PRIMARY ISSUE.
Why do you think it is the correct one?
(a) whether the catholic church;s influence was greater on women than on men in pre-civil war Spain.
(e) None of the above
the issue is whether the US should realize that reliance on imprisonment is not an effective method of reducing crime.
(reliance = certainty based on past experience)
(b) whether the fact that 100 deaths have been linked to tasers shows that the superintendent did the right thing by asking the police to not use tasers on children.
(e) non of the above
the issue is whether it is surprising that the winner of this year’s spelling bee is a straight A student whose favorite subject is science.
Exercise 1 -13 (chapter 1); 1,3,4
on what issue is the speaker taking a position in each of these?
whether Police brutality happens often.
whether (gender) women of a supreme court justice handle cases differently due to their gender bias.
Whether we have good reason to believe the would is independent of our minds.
Whether it is the case that you should sign up for lessons on how to use a synthesizer if you buy one.