In 1864, France established an empire in Mexico that lasted until around 1867. The United States intervened by threatening to send troops against the French. From 1910 to 1915, there was intense fighting during the Mexican Revolution, which marked the beginning of significant social changes leading to the formation of the Mexican Constitution in 1917. Following this, Mexico experienced industrial expansion, rapid population growth, and political domination for about 60 years. However, these trends started slowing down around 1980.
Since then, the Mexican government has been working towards transforming the country into a prosperous developed nation but has faced challenges due to unexpected political and economic events. Geographically speaking, Mexico is located in North America and shares borders with Belize and Guatemala to the south. It also shares borders with several U.S. states - Califo...
rnia, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas - to the north. The western side of Mexico is bordered by the North Pacific while its eastern side is bordered by Gulf of Mexico.
Mexico covers an area of approximately 761,601 square miles with its capital city being Mexico City situated in the south-central part of the country. The climate in Mexico varies depending on region;In southern areas, the climate is tropical while in northern areas it is temperate. The winters in the northern states are cooler than the more consistent temperatures experienced year-round in the southern states, although temperature variations occur based on elevation. In the southern region, areas with elevations up to 3,281 feet have an average temperature of around 78 degrees Fahrenheit. Between elevations of 3,281 Ft. and 6,562 Ft., the average temperature is approximately 64.4°F with larger temperature fluctuations in the north
However, the southern regions experience more consistent temperatures. Above 6,562 Ft., the average temperature drops to about 46.9°F.
Despite its elevation of 7,546 Ft., Mexico City maintains an average temperature of around 59°F and enjoys pleasant summers and mild winters. The rainy season in Mexico City occurs from June to mid-October with varying amounts of rainfall depending on the season and location.Most parts of southern Mexico receive between 23.6 and 39.4 inches of rainfall annually, including Mexico City itself which falls within this range.Tobacco in southern Mexico receives about 78.7 inches of rainfall each year on average making it the wettest area.Hurricanes are common in Mexico between June and NovemberHowever, hurricanes on the Pacific Coast are generally less severe than those on the east coast. The main geographical feature in Mexico is a central plateau with an elevation range of approximately 4,000 -8 ,000 ft. This passage describes a plateau flanked by two mountain ranges: Sierra Madder Oriental on the east side and Sierra Madder Occidental on the west side. These mountain ranges are respectively over 840 miles and 780 miles long, with heights reaching about 10,000 ft and some peaks surpassing 16,400 ft in elevation. According to Jacobson (2011), ROI Grandee is an important inland waterway spanning approximately 1,300 miles. Samuel (2011) asserts that Lake Chapel in Calico state is the largest lake in the country, covering an area of 651 square miles. Bart (2008) acknowledges that nuclear families make up around 75% of family households in 1995 with about five members—a common household unit—while poor urban families often include parents, children, grandparents, and other relatives. In rural areas, it's typical for different nuclear families
to live close together and share resources. Extended family members gather for meals or religious purposes when they live far apart from each other. Both nuclear and extended families serve as sources of trust, solidarity, and support.
According to Bart (2008), traditional gender roles in Mexico dictate that men are the heads of the family and responsible for work and discipline, while women stay at home taking care of children, husbands, and household chores. However, these roles are not legally enforced, and Mexicans have the freedom to choose their own marriage partners. Typically, couples marry after an extended engagement period, with men averaging around 24 years old and women around 22 years old.
Within Mexican society, there are distinct gender roles. Men generally hold positions of authority both in the workplace and within households, while women are responsible for childcare, housekeeping, and tending to their husbands. This traditional role often associates men with bossy and controlling behavior known as machismo. However, nowadays men tend to be less domineering compared to the past while still maintaining their status as heads of households.
Education holds significance in Mexican society but is not given as much importance as it is in the United States. The type of school attended can indicate a family's social class; private schools are expensive and mainly accessible to wealthy families while public schools often lack resources, teachers, and organization. Basic education in Mexico consists of three levels: Primary School (grades 1-6), Junior High (grades 7-9), and High School (grades 10-12).Some schools offer bilingual education, where subjects are taught in Spanish for half of the day and another language for the remaining half. Primary School focuses primarily
on Spanish, mathematics, and geography. Unfortunately, there is a high dropout rate among students at the primary level, especially in rural areas due to work obligations or a lack of emphasis on education. In junior high (grades 7-9), specialized subjects like Physics, Chemistry, and World History are introduced. Some students choose to drop out of high school for various reasons while others enroll in vocational programs instead.
High school offers two options: a traditional three-year program that prepares students for college and a vocational program that provides training and education for 2-3 years leading directly into a job. By the end of high school, students typically specialize in a specific subject.
Over the past decade, literacy rates in Mexico have significantly increased. The chart below displays literacy rates according to age and gender demographics.
In 2000, Mexico achieved true democracy with Vincente Fox's election as president, breaking away from the previously dominant Authoritarian Party Revolutionary Institutional (PRI). Mexico operates under a Presidential system with Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches. The President is elected for one non-renewable term of six years.
Mexico's Chamber of Deputies is comprised of 500 members who serve 3-year terms. Out of these, 300 are elected through majority vote in single member districts and the remaining 200 are elected via proportional representation. The Senate, on the other hand, consists of 128 members serving six-year terms. In Mexico, each state elects three senators, with an additional 32 senators chosen through proportional representation. It should be noted that federal deputies and senators cannot be re-elected.
Mexico operates as a federation made up of 31 states and one Federal District. Each state has the authority to elect its
own governor and legislature (Myers, 2007). The political landscape includes more than two dominant parties such as PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional), PAN (Partido Accion Nacional), and PROD (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica). Smaller independent parties or local alliances also exist alongside these major ones. Following the 2003 election, six political parties gained nationwide recognition based on their congressional representation. Currently, only PRD, PAN, and PRI hold congressional seats and a share of the national vote (Myers, 2007).
However, a significant challenge to the stability of the Mexican government arises from drug cartels which have the potential to exert greater influence than the government itself (Hernandez, 2008).
Mexico is currently facing challenges due to the significant growth of drug cartel control in various regions (Hawley, 2010). In order to align its tax system with trading partners and countries competing for foreign investment, Mexico implemented comprehensive tax reform legislation in 1986. The federal government imposes income taxes, import/export taxes, and payroll taxes on individuals and corporations. Local governments also impose taxes on real property, employer salaries, and the acquisition of real property. Corporate income tax in Mexico consists of a federal rate of 35% with a minimum rate of 2%, while no sales tax is applied to corporate net income. Other notable taxes include the value-added tax (VAT) and compulsory profit sharing at 10%. Each state in Mexico has its own constitution, an elected governor serving for six years, and a unicameral legislature that elects representatives based on district vote proportionate to population size. Legislative sessions occur annually but can be called upon by the governor or permanent committee. Legislators, the governor themselves, the state supreme court, and
municipalities all have authority to introduce bills. The capital city of Mexico City operates as a federal district with its own governor who serves as a member of the cabinet.Many state services receive support through federal sponsorships. Municipalities in Mexico are the primary unit of government, with 2,378 governed by municipal presidents and councils. State budgets require approval from their respective governors. Mexico's legal system has its foundations in the 1910 revolution and incorporates distinct Mexican elements. Influenced by Spain, France, and the United States, Mexico has its own legal system. Within this system is the institution of "Impart," which protects constitutional rights against violations by public authorities.
Article 123 of the Constitution includes the concept of "social rights," outlining the rights of workers as a social class. Another unique feature is the collective land tenure system called "Oxide." Originally designed for a specific purpose, it was modified through an amendment to Article 27 in 1994.
Unlike the United States, jury trials and the principle of stare decides are absent in Mexico's legal system. Class action suits are not allowed, and there is no Bar Exam for attorneys. Lawyers are not professionally regulated by state or local Bar Associations either.
Additionally, Mexico lacks a discovery process, elected Judges, and advanced legal education beyond undergraduate studies lasting five years.Mexico's legal system is unique due to the involvement of "notaries" (Notaries Publicos). Currently, Mexico is modernizing its legal framework in areas such as foreign investment, commercial transactions, and international trade. This update has been motivated by increased business and trade between Mexico and the United States since NAFTA took effect in 1994. The Mexican legal system is considered "Americanized" because
of its close commercial relationship with the US. Operating as a Federal Republic, Mexico has three branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial powers.
In 1991, the Industry Property Law (LIP) and Copyright Law (LAD) were implemented to ensure Mexico's participation in Intellectual Property conventions involving patents and trademarks. These laws offer foreign investors a level of protection similar to that found in developed and many developing countries. The LIP specifically encourages research, development, innovation, and technology transfer by attracting foreign investors. It provides specialized protection for patents, trademarks, trade secrets, industrial designs, sound recordings, commercial names, and appellations of origin.Patents in Mexico have a validity of 20 years from the date of filing and cover various types of inventions, including products and microbiological innovations. Different processes and products, such as chemicals, alloys, pharmaceuticals, foods beverages biotechnology, and plant varieties can all be patented. Even if an invention is already patented in another country but has not been produced or imported into Mexico yet, it still may qualify for national patent protection.
Trademarks in Mexico are protected for 10 years initially with the option to renew them for successive 10-year terms. Renewal does not require previous use in commerce; a simple document serves as sufficient proof.
Franchise agreements that involve the transfer of technical and managerial know-how no longer need formal approval. Collective trademarks are recognized by their distinct form as a trademark.
The Law of Author's Rights (LAD), amended in December 1996, recognizes copyright protection for various works including literary, scientific, technical, juridical, pedagogical photographic,pictorial,musical , architectural,and cinematographic works. Computer software specifically receives copyright recognition.
Mexico is a signatory to both the Universal Copyright Convention and the Bern
Convention. There is no requirement to register works in Mexico to receive copyright protection.The text highlights the significance of comprehending and respecting Mexican customs in business dealings. It acknowledges that rural businesses may have varying operating hours and emphasizes the importance of punctuality. The text stresses the value placed on building personal relationships, trust, and rapport before discussing business matters. Gift-giving is seen as a way to strengthen these relationships. When negotiating, it is advised to be patient and avoid excessive aggression. It is customary to address business partners using their formal title and last name. Ultimately, understanding Mexican customs is vital for successful business interactions. However, there is an optional registration procedure available for computer software with the Copyright Office, which requires depositing specific pages from either source or object code documentation. There are significant disparities in wealth, social status, and educational levels across different regions in Mexico. In the past, an educated and affluent elite emerged who distinguished themselves from the majority of impoverished individuals living in rural and urban areas facing socio-economic challenges. The middle class exists between these two classes but has experienced relatively unchanged conditions even within urban areas. Operating hours from Monday to Friday are 8:00 a.m.to 2:00 p.m., with a break from 2:00 p.m.to 4:00 p.m.
Note: were not provided in the original textThe text discusses the disparity between wealthy farmers who own agricultural land and resources and the rural landless poor who rely on low daily wages in Mexico's agricultural sector. This income inequality is evident as most profits go to the wealthy farmers. The rural landless poor face economic challenges due to limited access to resources
and opportunities for socio-economic advancement.
In addition, Mexico has various clubs and organizations that provide support for newcomers adapting to life in a new country. These include athletic clubs and networking groups. Work hours in northern regions, particularly Monterrey, follow U.S. practices with early factory start times.
There are certain cultural norms regarding meals in Mexico. Breakfast meetings are popular but usually last no more than an hour. Lunch is the main meal of the day, longer and more social in nature, with important business lunches sometimes extending into the early evening. Dinner is typically eaten after 9:00 p.m., considered a lighter meal not suitable for business discussions.
Mexicans often have three names, presented on a business card in this order: first name, paternal family name, and maternal family name. It is customary to address someone using their paternal family name; for example, Sir Pablo Gomez Ortega would be addressed as Sir Gomez. Nowadays, Mexicans are increasingly using abbreviations for their maternal family namesIn some cases, the name would be Sir Pablo Gomez O.. In other situations, the maternal name may be omitted. Before transitioning to a first-name basis, it is recommended to seek guidance from your Mexican contacts. Many first-time visitors to Mexico tend to schedule too many appointments in one day. As a general rule, it is advised to limit appointments to four per day. It is crucial not to immediately jump into business discussions. Engaging in "small talk" is essential as it shows that you are not rushing and genuinely interested in your Mexican counterparts. Moreover, it can help foster lasting friendships and business relationships. Mexican companies often adhere to a strict hierarchy where decision-making
authority is typically not delegated due to many being family-owned businesses. Therefore, it is vital to identify the true decision-maker within an organization.
Religion holds immense significance in Mexican culture, with most of the population following Roman Catholicism. The Muenster Senora De Guadalupe, which depicts the Virgin Mary with dark skin, serves as a prominent symbol of the Mexican Catholic Church. It appeared before a Mexican Indian near Mexico City in 1531 and continues to be revered during religious ceremonies, political speeches, and literature. The successful conversion of indigenous people by early missionaries enabled the merging of Indian beliefs with Christianity.In traditional Indian customs, there is a spiritual connection to almost everything, including animals, trees, rivers, wind, rain, sun, and hills. Each religion in Mexico has its own deities or spirits that can be invoked during ancient ceremonies for various purposes. According to Paulsen (2008), Roman Catholicism is the dominant religion in Mexico with 77.7% of the population identifying as Catholic. However, other religions such as Protestantism and Judaism are also practiced but with smaller percentages. Mexico is renowned for its folk art traditions which reflect aesthetics deeply rooted in its history. Pre-Columbian art thrived from 1800 BC to AD 1500 and featured angular patterns, linear designs, and three-dimensional ceramics. Notable handicrafts include clay pottery from the alley of Cacao and Tonal village. The country's vibrant arts and culture encompass a variety of colorful garments, baskets, and rugs.
Mexican art was influenced by European traditions during the colonial era and early 20th century; however after the Revolution a new generation of artists emerged who incorporated political, historic, and folk themes into their work. Renowned painters like Diego
Rivera gained worldwide recognition for their murals conveying social messages while artists such as Rufino Tamayo and Frida Kahlo created more personal works with abstract elements.
Manuel Alvarez Bravo played a significant role in promoting Mexican art photography. Music is also an important part of Mexican culture, blending traditional elements with colonial influences and evolving over time. Corridos, which are ballads about heroes and historical legends, have been popular since colonial times. Ranchera music and mariachi are other prevalent styles that also influence modern pop music.
The literary history of Mexico is closely tied to its political and colonial past, encompassing the myths of the Maya and Aztec civilizations as well as the writings of Spanish settlers and missionaries during the colonial era. The 18th Century saw a decline in arts and literature due to political unrest but experienced a revival after the Mexican Revolution.
In terms of performing arts, Mexico emphasizes musicians and dancers, with live music being enjoyed in cafes and restaurants throughout the day. Native dances and rituals take place in public squares, while theater is widely practiced in churches, storefronts, and small theaters across the city.
Mexican folklore consists of numerous stories that convey valuable lessons. Each holiday has multiple narratives associated with it, while new stories and folklore symbols continue to be created to teach children specific principles.Mexico's overall quality of life, as compared to other countries based on COED index rankings, is still below average despite significant progress in improving living conditions over the past decade. The average income per person in Mexico is $11,106 dollars per year, lower than the COED average of $22,387. Income inequality also persists with the top 20%
of the population earning thirteen times more than the bottom 20%. Although Mexico has a lower percentage of people aged 15-64 with paid jobs compared to the average, its diet and nutrition are heavily influenced by indigenous cultures such as Aztec, Maya, and Capote. These cultures traditionally relied on vegetables and limited meat consumption from hunting wild animals like turkey, rabbit, deer, and quail. However,due to the arrival of Spanish explorers,livestock such as cattle,sheep,pigs,and goats were introduced leading to an increase in meat consumption.The dietary shift in Mexico and other Latin American countries has led to an increase in obesity rates and health issues including chronic diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases (Wolfram Alpha, 2012). The average Mexican consumes 24 pounds of beans and 40 pounds of beef per year, while the average U.S. citizen consumes over 90 pounds of beef annually - more than double Mexico's consumption. Meals in Mexico often combine elements from both American and Mexican cuisine. True authentic Mexican food in the United States is actually northern Mexican cuisine. According to Food.com, typical Mexican meals consist of various ingredients such as tortillas made from corn or flour-based substances, beans, potatoes, eggs, and cheese.
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