Marketing 330: Exam 1 (Set 2)

question

Consumer behavior
answer

the process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products/services so as to satisfy their needs and desires
question

Stages in the consumer decision-making process
answer

• Problem recognition • Information search • Alternative evaluation • Purchase decision • Post purchase evaluation
question

First step in the consumer decision-making process
answer

Problem recognition
question

Second step in the consumer decision-making process
answer

Information search
question

Third step in the consumer decision-making process
answer

Alternative evaluation
question

Fourth step in the consumer decision-making process
answer

Purchase decision
question

Fifth step in the consumer decision-making process
answer

Post purchase evaluation
question

Problem recognition
answer

Occurs when the consumer perceives a need and becomes motivated to solve the problem; Caused by a difference between the customer’s ideal state and actual state
question

Sources of problem recognition
answer

• Out of stock • Dissatisfaction • New needs/wants • Related products/purchases • Marketer-induced problem recognition (novelty seeking behavior) • New products
question

Hierarchy of needs
answer

the five basic levels of human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, self actualization
question

Psychoanalytic theory
answer

Sigmund Freud; strong influence on the development of modern psychology; studied underlying motivations for human behavior as well as structure and development of personality; MOTIVATION LIVES IN THE SUBCONSCIOUS
question

Internal search
answer

Scan of information stored in memory to recall the past
question

External search
answer

consumer will seek addition info from other sources (personal, marketer controlled, public sources, personal experience)
question

Perception
answer

sensation, selecting info, interpreting info
question

Selective perception process
answer

Selective exposure → selective attention→ selective comprehension → selective retention
question

Mnemonics
answer

symbols, rhymes, associations, and images that assist in the learning and memory processes are helpful
question

Alternative evaluation
answer

the process by which consumer attitudes are created, reinforced and changed; the decision rules or integration strategies consumers use to compare brands and make purchase decisions
question

Evoked set
answer

only a subset of all brands in which the consumer is aware; marketers try to create top-of-mind awareness, and reminder advertising
question

Heuristics
answer

consumers make their purchase decisions using more simplified decision rules
question

Affect referral decision rule
answer

consumers make a selection based on the basis of overall impression or summary evaluation of the various alternatives under consideration
question

Purchase intention
answer

predisposition to buy a certain brand; based on matching of purchase motives with attributes or characteristics of brands under consideration
question

Behavioral learning theory
answer

Emphasizes the role of external, environmental stimuli in causing behavior; Based on stimulus-response orientation (S-R)
question

Classical conditioning
answer

assumes that learning is an associative process with an already existing relationship between a stimulus and a response; passive participant
question

Operant conditioning
answer

The individual must actively operate or act on some aspect of the environment for learning to occur
question

Cognitive learning theory
answer

pays attention to internal psychological processes such as motivation, thinking and perception
question

Communication
answer

the passing of information, the exchange of ideas, or the process of establishing a commonness or oneness of through between a sender and a receiver
question

Communication Process Steps:
answer

Source/sender -> encoding -> channel/message -> decoding -> receiver
question

Sender/source
answer

the person that has all the information to share with another person; direct or indirect
question

encoding
answer

putting thoughts, ideas, or information into a symbolic form
question

Marketers must be careful to select a sender the receiver believes to be:
answer

knowledgeable and trustworthy
question

Message
answer

Contains the info or meaning the source hopes to convey; Verbal or nonverbal, written or oral, or symbolic
question

Semiotics
answer

study of the nature of meaning and asks how our reality: words, gestures, myths, signs, symbols, products, services, theories: acquire meaning
question

Counter arguments
answer

thoughts that the recipient has that are opposed to the position taken in the message
question

Channel
answer

the message is delivered in; method by which the communication travels from the source or sender to the receiver
question

Receiver/decoding
answer

dissecting the message
question

Recevier
answer

person with whom the sender shares thoughts or information
question

Decoding
answer

Process of transformation the sender’s message back into
question

Noise
answer

Unplanned distortion or interference; problems that occur in the encoding of a message
question

Response
answer

receivers set of reactions after seeing, hearing, or reading the message
question

Feedback
answer

receiver’s response that is communicated back to the sender
question

AIDA model
answer

developed to represent the stages a sales person must take a consumer through in the personal selling process; attention, interest, desire, action
question

Hierarchy of effects
answer

shows the process in which advertising works; It assumes that consumer passes through a series of sequential steps from initial awareness to actual purchase
question

Innovation adoption model
answer

represents the stages a consumer passes through in adopting a new product or service; Awareness, interest, evaluation, and trial
question

Information processing model
answer

assumes that the receiver is in a persuasive communication situation like advertising is an information processor or problem solver
question

Cognitive stage
answer

what the receiver knows or perceives about the particular brand
question

Affective stage
answer

receiver’s feelings or affect level (like or dislike) for the particular brand
question

Behavioral stage
answer

the consumer’s action toward the brand: trial, purchase, adoption or rejection
question

The Standard Learning Hierarchy:
answer

• Learn → feel → do • Information and knowledge are learned about the various brands are the basis for developing feelings, that will guide what the consumer will do • Likely when the consumer is highly involved in purchase process
question

The Dissonance/Attribution Hierarchy:
answer

• First consumers purchase, then develop attitudes or feelings as a result • Do → feel → learn • Occurs when consumers must choose between two alternatives that are similar but have hidden attributes • Reduces post purchase dissonance • Low involvement purchases
question

The Low-Involvement Hierarchy:
answer

• Learn → do → feel • Happens in low consumer involvement
question

The FCB Planning Model: • Informative strategy:
answer

o highly involved purchases o rational thinking o standard learning hierarchy
question

The FCB Planning Model: • Affective strategy:
answer

o Highly involving/feeling purchases o Advertising should stress psychological and emotional motives
question

The FCB Planning Model: • Habit formation strategy:
answer

o Low involvement thinking o Learning by doing model o Everyday purchases, etc.
question

The FCB Planning Model: • Self-satisfaction strategy:
answer

o Low involvement/feeling products o Appeals to sensory pleasures and social motives
question

Cognitive responses
answer

the thoughts that occur while reading, viewing or hearing communication
question

Source derogations
answer

negative thoughts about the spokesperson or company claims
question

Source bolsters
answer

receivers who act favorably
question

Central route to persuasion:
answer

o receiver is viewed as very active o ability and motivation to attend, comprehend, and evaluate message are high
question

Peripheral route to persuasion:
answer

o Receiver is viewed as lacking the motivation or ability to process info o Not likely to engage
question

Persuasion matrix
answer

helps marketers see how each controllable element interacts with the consumer’s response process
question

Direct source
answer

spokesperson who delivers a message and/or demonstrates a product or service
question

Indirect source
answer

doesn’t deliver a message but draws attention to or enhances the appearance of the ad
question

In order for a source to be credible they must have
answer

trust and expertise
question

internalization
answer

occurs when the receiver adopts the opinion of the credible communicator since he or she believes information from this source is accurate
question

Sleeper effect
answer

the persuasiveness of a message increases with the passage of time
question

In order for a source to be attractive they must
answer

be similar and familiar
question

Similarity
answer

supposed resemblance between the source and receiver
question

Familiarity
answer

knowledge of the source through exposure
question

Primacy effect
answer

presenting the strongest message at the beginning of the message
question

Recency effect:
answer

the last argument is the most persuasive
question

Refutation appeal
answer

the communicator presents both sides of an issue and then refutes the opposing view
question

Comparative advertising
answer

Comparative advertising: the practice of directly/indirectly naming competitors in an ad and comparing one or more attributes, 1972
question

Message appeals
answer

comparative, fear, humor
question

Clutter
answer

the amount of advertising in a medium
question

How do marketers break through clutter?
answer

Use message appeals
question

Self paced channels
answer

example: magazine
question

Externally paced channels
answer

example: tv commercial
question

Qualitative media effect
answer

influence the medium has on the message

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member