KINS3350 Exam 5

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The two major categories of the processes used by individuals for behavior change are
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cognitive and behavioral
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***Reasons for attrition from exercise programs can be classified as
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internal and uncontrollable
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***As a person moves through the stages of changes, reasons for exercise become more
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one’s mental outlook on the environment one’s emotional environment
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The setting producing the best adherence is a. worksite b. community c. hospital based d. home e. fitness club
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community
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***Which of the following is NOT a guideline for setting up an exercise program to enhance adherence?
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a and c
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Studies have shown that in terms of barriers to exercise,
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there were no differences between whites and blacks
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***Contracts to enhance exercise adherence should include
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a and b
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Which of the following statements is (are) true of the use of a decision balance sheet? a. It involves sensitizing potential exercise participants to the positive and negative outcomes of participating in an exercise program. b. It helps exercise leaders make decisions on who will adhere to an exercise program. c. It helps exercise leaders make decisions concerning the best activities for the exercisers. d. all of the above e. none of the above
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all of the above
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According to research on association and dissociation strategies and adherence,
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a and c
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Two ways to increase intrinsic motivation for exercise are to focus on one’s self and have what type of orientation? a. product b. outcome c. process d. performance e. none of the above
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process
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Building rapport with an injured athlete can be accomplished by a. being there b. showing empathy c. being overly optimistic d. all of the above e. a and b
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a and b
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Which of the following is NOT one of the procedures used in the rehabilitation process? a. educating individuals relative to the injury and recovery process b. fostering social support c. being overly optimistic d. building rapport with the injured individual e. preparing the individual to cope with setbacks
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being overly optimistic
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Which is the first stage of the grief reaction response? a. anger b. acceptance and reorganization c. rationalization d. depression e. denial
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Denial
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***In a study by Smith, Smoll, and Ptacek examining the relationship between life stress, social support, coping skills, and injury, the researchers found that In a study by Smith, Smoll, and Ptacek examining the relationship between life stress, social support, coping skills, and injury, the researchers found that a. athletes with high levels of life stress had the highest injury rates b. athletes with high levels of life stress and low levels of social support and coping exhibited the highest injury rates c. athletes with low levels of social support, high levels of life stress, and high coping skills exhibited the highest injury rates d. athletes with high levels of life stress and high levels of social support exhibited the highest injury rates e. there was no relationship between life stress, social support, coping skills, and injury rates
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Wrong: D, B
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Which of the following is NOT one of the five stages of grief reaction?
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rationalization
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A variety of studies investigated the effects of psychological training on adherence to injury rehabilitation protocols. Which of the following psychological factors was (were) found to be related to rehabilitation adherence?
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a and b
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The three phases of injury recovery as expressed in the model by Bianco, Malo, and Orlick (1999) include which of the following? a. injury or illness phase b. injury and pain management phase c. rehabilitation and recovery phase d. a and b e. a and c
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a and c
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***According to Cupal and Brewer’s (2001) study on effects of imagery and relaxation on recovery from injury, relaxation plus imagery versus a control or placebo control condition produced
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a and b
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Which of the following is (are) a psychological skill employed during the rehabilitation process? a. goal setting b. self-talk c. relaxation d. all of the above e. a and c
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all of the above
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From a study of injured elite skiers, which of the following was NOT a recommendation to other athletes for coping with season-ending injuries and facilitating rehabilitation? a. Set goals. b. Use imagery. c. Focus on quantity training. d. Use social resources. e. Work on mental skills training.
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Focus on quantity training.
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Which of the following is (are) common among the side effects of ingesting anabolic steroids? a. increased risk of liver disease b. increased aggression c. loss of coordination d. premature heart disease e. all of the above
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all of the above
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Research suggests that people are less likely to take drugs if they have a. a low level of anxiety b. high self-esteem c. a low level of aggression d. a highly competitive nature e. all of the above
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high self-esteem
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The major categories of drugs in sport and exercise are performance-enhancing and recreational drugs. Performance-enhancing drugs include
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a and b
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Which of the following is (are) a symptom of a person who is negatively addicted to exercise? a. increased tolerance to the amount of exercise performed b. exercise given increased priority over other activities c. relief or withdrawal of symptoms by further exercise d. all of the above e. a and b
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a and b
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***According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which of the following is (are) characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
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b and c
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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) states that one of the criteria for psychoactive substance abuse is that the disturbance has persisted for at least
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one month
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***Which of the following personality traits is (are) related to eating disorders in athletes?
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a and c
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Which of the following is (are) characteristic of bulimia? a. Eating behavior results in significant weight loss. b. Eating behavior is excessive in an effort to feel better. c. Feelings of guilt from eating result in purging. d. all of the above e. b and c
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b and c
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The two most abused substances in the United States are
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alcohol and tobacco
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Unusual eating patterns are often one of the best indicators of an eating disorder. If a person hides food and disappears after eating, this can be a sign of
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bulimia
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According to the research on gender and coaches’ burnout,
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no conclusive results have been found
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Overtraining refers to a training cycle of approximately a. a few days to a few weeks b. a few weeks to two months c. a few days to one year d. a few days to six months e. six months to one year
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a few days to a few weeks
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In a series of studies involving competitive youth tennis players, Gould and colleagues found that burnout involved a. logistical concerns b. social and interpersonal concerns c. physical concerns d. all of the above e. b and c
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all of the above
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Increased burnout among athletes in recent years is due to which of the following factors?
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all of the above
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***The factor that youth tennis players note most often regarding their reasons for burnout is
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physiological
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Which of the following is NOT a symptom of burnout?
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elevated resting heart rate
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Which of the following is NOT a component of Smith’s model of burnout? a. situational demands b. cognitive appraisal of demands c. cognitive responses d. physiological responses e. coping behaviors
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cognitive responses
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According to Silva’s study, which of the following was identified as a cause of overtraining? a. too much physical training b. too much pressure c. constant negative feedback from the coach d. all of the above e. a and b
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a and b
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Raedeke argues that burnout can be studied within a sport commitment approach. In essence, many athletes feel burned out but nevertheless continue to participate in their sport because of
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all of the above
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Recent research by Meehan and colleagues has indicated that feelings of overtraining can occur because of
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nonsport stress
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***The goal most often given by exercisers was
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to lose weight
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Which of the following statements is (are) TRUE?
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a and b (10% to 15% of all adults participate in vigorous and frequent physical activity, 50% of adults are sedentary)
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The theory of planned behavior extends the theory of reasoned action by including the factor of
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perceived behavioral control
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According to research on adherence to exercise programs, what percentage of individuals starting an exercise program will likely drop out after six months?
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50%
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According to charting attendance and participation approaches, charts can be important in a. maintaining interest b. keeping people constantly informed c. enhancing the effects of social facilitation d. all of the above e. a and b
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all of the above
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The premise of the health belief model is that individuals will engage in preventive health behaviors depending on the individual’s perception of the a. severity of possible illnesses b. time available to exercise c. social support network d. exercise history e. none of the above
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severity of possible illnesses
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In a research study, exercise adherence in a walking program was maximized when participants were called _______ to prompt them to walk. a. once a week b. once a month c. once every other week d. every day e. none of the above
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Once a week
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Which of the following findings using behavior modification approaches to exercise adherence is (are) true? a. A poster encouraging stair climbing instead of taking the elevator immediately increased people’s incidences of taking the stairs from 6% to 34%. b. People willing to sign a statement of intent to comply with the exercise program had significantly better attendance than those refusing to sign such a statement. c. Individuals given a choice concerning the activities they participated in had higher levels of adherence than individuals who were not given a choice. d. a and b e. b and c
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B and C
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Studies on social support as a strategy to help adherence have indicated that a. social support, compared to a lack of it in control groups, produces increases in adherence b. social support does not increase adherence c. social support works only with support from spouses and family d. social support works only with support from close friends e. none of the above
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social support, compared to a lack of it in control groups, produces increases in adherence
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Exercise can be beneficial in which of the following ways? a. weight control b. building self-esteem c. reducing the risk of hypertension d. all of the above e. a and c
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All of the above
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rregular exercisers, compared to regular exercisers, place more significance on a. goals that are more difficult b. goals that are too easy c. goals that are interfering d. goals that are specific e. goals that are general
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Goals that are interfering
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Based on research findings, which of the following statements is (are) true? a. Attendance contracts and lotteries are successful in improving adherence rates. b. Individual feedback produces more adherence than group feedback. c. Self-reward increases adherence rates. d. all of the above e. a and b
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All of the above
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Which of the following has NOT been identified as a sign of potential problematic adjustment to athletic injury? a. rapid mood swings b. withdrawal from significant others c. high levels of anxiety d. feelings of anger and confusion e. exaggerated bragging about accomplishments
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High levels of anxiety
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n interviews with fast- and slow-healing athletes, Ievleva and Orlick found that fast healers used more a. goal setting b. positive self-talk c. relaxation d. all of the above e. a and b
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a and b
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In a study by Gould and colleagues (1997), the greatest sources of stress for individuals rehabilitating from injury were a. psychological and physical b. psychological and social c. physical and social d. physical and emotional e. emotional and behavioral
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psychological and social
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According to Hardy and Crace, social support may take the form of a. emotional support b. informational support c. qualitative support d. all of the above e. a and b
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a and b
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Research by Perna and colleagues using cognitive-behavioral stress management on rowers found a. a decrease in days lost due to injury over the season b. fewer rowers got injured throughout the season c. there was no effect on days lost due to injury over the season d. injury actually increased in rowers across the season e. none of the above
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a decrease in days lost due to injury over the season
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Based on research by Petitpas and Danish, which of the following is (are) psychological reaction(s) associated with injury? a. identity loss b. lack of confidence c. fear and anxiety d. all of the above e. a and c
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all of the above
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Which of the following is (are) a psychological reason(s) for athletes to use drugs? a. build confidence b. reduce anxiety c. increase extroversion d. a and b e. none of the above
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build confidence
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The rate of steroid use in high schools has increased from 1 in 27 in 1999 to what in 2003? a. 1 in 10 b. 1 in 16 c. 1 in 20 d. 1 in 7 e. 1 in 22
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1 in 16
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Which of the following is NOT a sign or symptom of people who are substance abusers? a. major change in personality b. poor hygiene and grooming c. very little sweating d. impaired judgment e. muscle twitches
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very little sweating
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According to Thompson, eating disorders are likely to appear in individuals with a. low self-esteem b. high stress levels related to pleasing others c. high levels of aggression d. all of the above e. a and b
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a and b
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Which of the following major professional sports does NOT have a mandatory drug policy? a. baseball b. basketball c. hockey d. football e. none of the above
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hockey
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When discussing the effects of anabolic steroids with athletes, coaches should a. discuss the health risks involved in taking anabolic steroids b. deemphasize the performance gains of anabolic steroids c. inform the athletes of the policy of the organization in cases of drug use d. all of the above e. a and c
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a and c
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Which of the following is (are) NOT among guidelines for preventing eating disorders in athletes and exercisers? a. Promote proper nutritional practices. b. Focus on body weight to prevent overeating. c. Be sensitive to weight issues. d. all of the above e. a and c
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Focus on body weight to prevent overeating
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Thompson and Garner and Rosen list some dos and don’ts for dealing with eating disorders. Which of the following are don’ts? a. Get help and advice from a specialist. b. Emphasize the importance of good long-term nutrition. c. Recommend weight loss in order to improve performance. d. Hold team weigh-ins. e. c and d
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c and d
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Which of the following has research shown to be predictive of athletic injury? a. personality b. self-esteem c. life stress d. independence e. self-concept
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Life stress
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Which of the following is (are) a potential explanation for the relationship between stress and injury? a. Stress disrupts an athlete’s attention by causing a decline in peripheral vision. b. Stress causes muscle tension, which disrupts coordination. c. Stress causes loss in confidence, which changes movement patterns. d. all of the above e. a and b
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a and b
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Based on Silva’s study on burnout and staleness, which of the following statements is (are) FALSE? a. 42% of athletes experience overtraining. b. 25% of athletes experience burnout at some point in their careers. c. More than 70% of athletes reported some staleness during their sport seasons. d. a and b e. b and c
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a and b
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In various research studies investigating staleness in athletes, at least _____ of athletes reported staleness as occurring at least one time in their careers. a. 5% b. 10% c. 15% d. 20% e. 30%
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30%
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Which of the following is NOT a stage of burnout? a. depersonalization b. cognitive dissociation c. decreased feelings of personal accomplishment d. isolation e. emotional and physical exhaustion
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cognitive dissociation
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Recent research indicates that burnout is due to a. stress b. a variety of factors c. coping skills d. social support e. coach behavior
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A variety of factors
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According to Morgan’s research, top-level athletes form a psychological profile known as the a. iceberg profile b. inverted-U profile c. U-shaped profile d. peak performance profile e. Morgan profile
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iceberg profile
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Recent cross-cultural research has revealed that staleness is a problem for approximately what percentage of adolescents? a. 30% to 40% b. 10% to 20% c. 50% to 60% d. 20% to 30% e. 40% to 50%
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30% to 40%
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According to the latest research on overtraining, if the source of the stressor is psychological, then the recovery strategy should focus on a. nutrition b. thought management strategies c. active rest d. rest e. hydration
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thought management strategies
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A new sport-specific burnout scale developed by Raedeke and Smith has three burnout subscales including which of the following? a. reduced sense of accomplishment b. sport devaluation c. detachment with others d. all of the above e. a and b
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a and b

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