HIST 122 Study Quiz’s Ch 23-28 2015 – Flashcards

question
(Ch 23) Week 5 "The United States and the Cold War", The first confrontation of the Cold War took place in: a) Vietnam, when the French attempted to reestablish colonial rule. b) Japan, when Soviet troops tried to establish Tokyo as a joint occupational zone. c) North Korea, where Chinese communists imposed a strict authoritarian regime. d) the Middle East, when Soviet troops occupied northern Iran seeking access to oil fields. e) Latin America, where agrarian revolutionaries gained the upper hand thanks to Soviet aid.
answer
d) the Middle East, when Soviet troops occupied northern Iran seeking access to oil fields.
question
The "Iron Curtain": a) separated the free West from the communist East. b) divided East and West Germany. c) separated the United States from the Soviet Union. d) separated Japan from the rest of Asia. e) divided North and South Korea.
answer
a) separated the free West from the communist East.
question
In 1948, Eleanor Roosevelt chaired a committee to draft the: a) GI Bill of Rights. b) Economic Bill of Rights. c) Declaration of the Rights of Man. d) Universal Declaration of Human Rights. e) Civil Rights Act.
answer
d) Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
question
NSC-68: a) was directed at communist China. b) called for a massive reduction in U.S. military forces. c) called for a massive increase in U.S. military forces. d) was only suggested and never implemented. e) addressed the threat of communism at home.
answer
c) called for a massive increase in U.S. military forces.
question
All of the following statements about the Cold War's impact on American life are true EXCEPT: a) the Cold War reshaped immigration policy. b) the Cold War promoted the rapid expansion of higher education. c) Cold War policy supported scientific research in medicine and computers. d) the Cold War contributed to the dismantling of segregation. e) Cold War military spending weakened the economy.
answer
e) Cold War military spending weakened the economy.
question
Joseph McCarthy's downfall came as a result of: a) his speech in Wheeling, West Virginia. b) his claim of 205 communists working in the State Department. c) his hearings on the Defense Department. d) televised hearings involving the Army. e) the release of his fabricated war record.
answer
c) his hearings on the Defense Department.
question
The impact of the Cold War on the civil rights movement: a) was quite limited at the time. b) was beneficial because the Urban League accepted communists into its ranks. c) included government action against black leaders. d) caused the NAACP to enlist the aid of the Soviets. e) brought wider support for civil rights from southern Democrats who wanted to fight communism.
answer
c) included government action against black leaders.
question
Organized labor emerged as: a) a vocal critic of McCarthyism. b) a major supporter of the foreign policy of the Cold War. c) a radical wing of the Communist Party. d) a militant group willing to fight the Red Scare. e) the best informants for the FBI and HUAC.
answer
b) a major supporter of the foreign policy of the Cold War.
question
What reason did the Hollywood Ten give for not cooperating with the HUAC hearings? a) They were all communists and did want to indict themselves. b) Ronald Reagan had threatened that they would lose their jobs if they cooperated. c) They were all busy making movies and did not have time to attend the hearings. d) They felt the hearings were a violation of the First Amendment. e) As Republicans, they were insulted that their loyalty was being questioned.
answer
d) They felt the hearings were a violation of the First Amendment.
question
After World War II ended, Japan: a) did not receive aid from the United States. b) received economic assistance from the Soviets. c) returned to its prewar political structure. d) received economic assistance from the United States. e) never recovered economically.
answer
d) received economic assistance from the United States.
question
In 1948, the Soviets began the Berlin Blockade: a) in response to the outbreak of disease. b) in response to the return of fascism. c) because the United States threatened to invade the Soviet Union. d) in response to the creation of East Germany. e) in response to the creation of West Germany.
answer
e) in response to the creation of West Germany.
question
The impact of the Cold War on American culture was: a) especially evident in the movies. b) limited in scope. c) discouraged in the public schools. d) widely criticized by the news media. e) felt mostly in the cities.
answer
a) especially evident in the movies.
question
The Marshall Plan: a) provided economic assistance to the Soviets. b) was a U.S.-Soviet program to rebuild Europe. c) offered economic assistance to noncommunist governments. d) was limited in scope and focused on West Germany. e) was largely unsuccessful for lack of support from Congress.
answer
c) offered economic assistance to noncommunist governments.
question
The Taft-Hartley Act: a) outlawed the closed shop. b) legalized sympathy strikes. c) strengthened the rights of organized labor. d) banned right-to-work laws. e) was supported by President Truman.
answer
a) outlawed the closed shop.
question
Which statement is true about the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)? a) It was established in 1945, immediately after the war. b) The members refused to let West Germany join. c) The Soviet Union had tried in vain to be a member of NATO. d) This was one of many long-term military alliances between the United States and Europe. e) All the members pledged mutual defense against any future Soviet attack.
answer
e) All the members pledged mutual defense against any future Soviet attack.
question
The Truman Doctrine: a) advocated a return to isolationism. b) was an alliance between the United States and Great Britain. c) called for more cordial relations with the Soviet Union. d) committed the United States to fighting communism only in Asia. e) committed the United States to fighting communism anywhere.
answer
e) committed the United States to fighting communism anywhere.
question
After World War II, the only nation that could rival the United States was: a) the Soviet Union. b) Germany. c) Japan. d) Great Britain. e) France.
answer
a) the Soviet Union.
question
The McCarran-Walter Act: a) removed immigration quotas based on nationality. b) made immigration law much more flexible for Asians and Latinos. c) recognized the need for political asylum for refugees from South Africa. d) authorized the deportation of communists, including naturalized citizens. e) was supported by President Truman.
answer
d) authorized the deportation of communists, including naturalized citizens.
question
All of the following statements are true of the Fair Deal EXCEPT: a) the Fair Deal included a provision to expand public housing. b) Congress passed Truman's Fair Deal to raise the standard of living for Americans. c) the Fair Deal included a provision to increase the minimum wage. d) the Fair Deal included a provision to create a national health insurance program. e) the Fair Deal included a provision to expand Social Security coverage.
answer
b) Congress passed Truman's Fair Deal to raise the standard of living for Americans.
question
President Truman's civil rights plan called for all of the following EXCEPT: a) a permanent federal civil rights commission. b) national laws against lynching and the poll tax. c) equal access to jobs. d) reparations. e) equal access to education.
answer
d) reparations.
question
All of the following are enactments of the policy of containment EXCEPT: a) The Truman Doctrine. b) The Marshall Plan. c) The Berlin Airlift. d) The Korean War. e) The Warsaw Pact.
answer
e) The Warsaw Pact.
question
The Korean War: a) was a decisive victory for the United States. b) was a decisive victory for the North Koreans. c) demonstrated the strength of the United Nations. d) ended in a stalemate. e) highlighted the limited nature of the Cold War.
answer
d) ended in a stalemate.
question
The Dixiecrats: a) opposed segregation in the South. b) opposed desegregation in the South. c) dominated the Democratic Party in 1948. d) were led by Hubert Humphrey. e) supported Harry Truman in 1948.
answer
b) opposed desegregation in the South.
question
According to the policy of containment, as laid out by George Kennan, the: a) Soviets could have a free hand in international affairs. b) United States should invade the Soviet Union. c) United States was committed to preventing the spread of communism. d) United States was committed to preventing the spread of democracy. e) United States accepted the right of communism to exist anywhere.
answer
c) United States was committed to preventing the spread of communism.
question
The McCarran Internal Security Act: a) removed immigration quotas based on nationality. b) made immigration law much more flexible. c) recognized the need for political asylum. d) barred "totalitarians" from entering the United States. e) barred Mexican immigration.
answer
d) barred "totalitarians" from entering the United States.
question
(Ch 24) "An Affluent Society" During the Eisenhower administration, U.S.-Soviet relations: a) were made worse with the introduction of the policy of massive retaliation. b) improved somewhat after the end of the Korean War and the death of Stalin. c) stayed about the same as those experienced during the Truman years. d) worsened considerably after the death of Stalin. e) improved immensely after the end of the Korean War.
answer
b) improved somewhat after the end of the Korean War and the death of Stalin.
question
During the 1950s, television: a) effectively spread images of working-class life to a growing number of Americans. b) tried to replace newspapers as the most common source of information but failed. c) became the nation's least favorite form of leisure activity. d) became an effective advertising medium. e) presented shows that were controversial.
answer
d) became an effective advertising medium.
question
Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president in 1952 in part because he: a) pledged to use nuclear weapons in the Korean War. b) promised to dismantle the New Deal. c) supported civil rights. d) manifested a public image of fatherly warmth. e) promised to cut highway construction spending.
answer
d) manifested a public image of fatherly warmth.
question
William Levitt, with the help of the GI Bill, gave many Americans the opportunity to a) get an education. b) buy a home. c) buy a gray flannel suit. d) buy a car. e) advance within the military.
answer
b) buy a home.
question
President Eisenhower used the CIA to overthrow which Middle Eastern government in the early 1950s, in large part because this government attempted to nationalize British-owned oil fields? a) Iraq. b) Egypt. c) Israel. d) Iran. e) Saudi Arabia.
answer
d) Iran.
question
All of the following contributed to the emergence of the civil rights movement of the 1950s EXCEPT: a) the mass migration out of the South to the North beginning in World War I. b) the destabilization of the racial system during World War II. c) the Cold War, which demanded that the rhetoric of democracy be practiced in America. d) the rise of independent states in the Third World. e) President Truman's refusal to desegregate the military.
answer
e) President Truman's refusal to desegregate the military.
question
Which Supreme Court decision did Brown overturn? a) Plessy v. Ferguson. b) Muller v. Oregon. c) Yick Wo v. Hopkins. d) Roe v. Wade. e) Lochner v. New York.
answer
a) Plessy v. Ferguson.
question
The Montgomery Bus Boycott: a) was sparked when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give her seat up to a white man. b) did not succeed in desegregating the public buses. c) propelled Thurgood Marshall into the national spotlight as a leader in the civil rights movement. d) marked the end of the civil rights movement. e) lasted less than two weeks.
answer
a) was sparked when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give her seat up to a white man.
question
After World War II, the automobile: a) declined in use, and the Midwest suffered economically. b) became a status symbol only for the wealthy. c) remained a luxury, not a necessity of life. d) altered the American landscape. e) was replaced by the train as the preferred method of transportation.
answer
d) altered the American landscape.
question
In response to the court-ordered desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas: a) violence broke out, but President Eisenhower refused to send federal troops. b) violence broke out, and President Eisenhower sent in federal troops. c) high schools across the South became desegregated immediately. d) Governor Orval Faubus used the National Guard to protect the black students from angry whites. e) Governor Orval Faubus requested that federal troops be sent into Little Rock to end the violence.
answer
b) violence broke out, and President Eisenhower sent in federal troops.
question
To libertarian conservatives, freedom meant: a) first and foremost a moral condition. b) individual autonomy, limited government, and unregulated capitalism. c) using government as a vehicle for social reform, ensuring an equal distribution of wealth. d) what it did in the late eighteenth century—the right to own property and to vote. e) racial equality and the end of a segregated society.
answer
b) individual autonomy, limited government, and unregulated capitalism.
question
The Southern Manifesto: a) rejected massive resistance. b) argued that southern states should not fly the Confederate flag over state capitol buildings. c) repudiated the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education. d) argued that the Brown v. Board of Education decision reinforced southern customs and traditions. e) argued that the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson was unconstitutional.
answer
c) repudiated the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.
question
Which statement best describes how the white South reacted to the Brown v. Board of Education decision? a) In opposition to integration, white southerners often burned down schools. b) While the general public was outraged, southern congressional politicians supported the Supreme Court's decisions. c) Southerners worked closely with the NAACP, cooperating when they could to integrate schools. d) Some states closed the public schools rather than integrate, and offered white children the choice to opt out of integrated schools. e) Southerners took it in stride, recognizing that the time had come for change.
answer
d) Some states closed the public schools rather than integrate, and offered white children the choice to opt out of integrated schools.
question
As a result of the Montgomery boycott in 1955-1956: a) blacks won the right to attend the school of their choice. b) the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public transportation was legal. c) the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public transportation was illegal. d) African-American women became less involved in the civil rights movement. e) Rosa Parks was sent to jail for over a year.
answer
c) the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public transportation was illegal.
question
After World War II, suburban growth: a) declined. b) increased dramatically, especially in California. c) occurred primarily in the South. d) was dominated by expensive housing. e) was discouraged by state and federal government policies.
answer
b) increased dramatically, especially in California.
question
In Brown v. Board of Education, what was Thurgood Marshall's main argument before the Supreme Court? a) That segregation did lifelong damage to black children, undermining their self-esteem. b) That Plessy v. Ferguson was an outdated ruling that needed to be updated. c) That the time had come to implement the promises of Reconstruction. d) That the white, southern politicians did not adequately provide for black schools, thereby violating the "but equal" part of the Plessy ruling. e) That children ought to attend the school that is closest to them, and Linda Brown lived within a mile of the "white" school and should be able to attend that school.
answer
a) That segregation did lifelong damage to black children, undermining their self-esteem.
question
The Housing Act of 1949: a) set a high income ceiling for eligibility. b) reinforced the concentration of poverty in nonwhite urban neighborhoods. c) ended the concentration of poverty in nonwhite urban neighborhoods. d) allowed growing numbers of blacks to move to the suburbs. e) paired with urban renewal programs, made American cities more diverse and prosperous.
answer
b) reinforced the concentration of poverty in nonwhite urban neighborhoods.
question
During the postwar suburban boom, African-Americans: a) experienced little, if any, discrimination, especially in the North. b) were encouraged to move into communities like Levittown, New York. c) were discriminated against only in the South. d) received special treatment if they were veterans. e) were often unable to receive financing for housing.
answer
e) were often unable to receive financing for housing.
question
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles's policy of massive retaliation: a) was part of the effort to rely more on conventional forces. b) eased tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. c) calmed the American public's fear of nuclear war. d) applied only to communist China. e) declared that any Soviet attack would be countered by a nuclear attack.
answer
e) declared that any Soviet attack would be countered by a nuclear attack.
question
In his 1961 farewell address, President Eisenhower warned Americans about: a) the military-industrial complex. b) the rise of organized crime. c) the increase in juvenile delinquency. d) environmental hazards. e) the slow pace of the civil rights movement.
answer
a) the military-industrial complex.
question
Between 1946 and 1960, the American gross national product: a) more than doubled, and wages increased. b) declined as wages stagnated. c) stayed about the same. d) returned to prewar levels. e) increased so dramatically that poverty was completely eliminated.
answer
a) more than doubled, and wages increased.
question
The 1960 presidential debate between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon: a) was broadcast only on the radio. b) allowed Nixon to demonstrate his best qualities, thus winning the debate. c) showed Kennedy to be an ineffective speaker, and thus he lost. d) highlighted the impact of television on political campaigns. e) was little noticed at the time.
answer
d) highlighted the impact of television on political campaigns.
question
Why did Eisenhower intervene in Vietnam? a) To prevent the Japanese from colonizing Vietnam. b) To support Ho Chi Minh's nationalist movement. c) To prevent the French from restoring colonial rule. d) To support the Vietnamese people in their opposition to colonial rule. e) To prevent Vietnam from becoming a communist nation.
answer
e) To prevent Vietnam from becoming a communist nation.
question
The ability to influence the world with American goods and popular culture is called: a) hard power. b) coercive power. c) persuasive power. d) cultural power. e) soft power.
answer
e) soft power.
question
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference: a) was a coalition of white southerners who resisted desegregation. b) was a coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists who fought for desegregation. c) worked primarily on the local level. d) did not seek federal assistance. e) had the support of all southern congressmen.
answer
b) was a coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists who fought for desegregation.
question
(Ch 25) Week 6 "The Sixties" The Cuban Missile Crisis: a) brought the United States and the Soviets to the brink of nuclear war. b) brought the United States into Vietnam. c) revolved around the placement of missiles in the Soviet Union. d) revolved around the placement of missiles in the United States. e) occurred when Cuba threatened to attack the United States.
answer
a) brought the United States and the Soviets to the brink of nuclear war.
question
Chicano farm workers found a powerful advocate in: a) the bracero program. b) Cesar Chavez. c) Mario Savio. d) Carlos Bulosan. e) the Border Patrol.
answer
b) Cesar Chavez.
question
During the Bay of Pigs invasion: a) the CIA failed in its mission. b) Eisenhower suspended trade with Cuba. c) the CIA restored Fulgencio Batista to power. d) a popular uprising of anti-Castro Cubans toppled Castro's regime. e) Fidel Castro took over American landholdings.
answer
a) the CIA failed in its mission.
question
The legacies of the 1960s include: a) fewer personal freedoms. b) a transformation in the status of women. c) the return of school prayer. d) an end to the welfare state. e) mass conformity.
answer
b) a transformation in the status of women.
question
The Gulf of Tonkin resolution: a) authorized the president to take "all necessary measures to repel armed attack" in Vietnam. b) authorized the president to take "all necessary measures to repel armed attack" in Cuba. c) was a formal declaration of war. d) called for an immediate end to the hostilities in Southeast Asia. e) had little Senate support at the time.
answer
a) authorized the president to take "all necessary measures to repel armed attack" in Vietnam.
question
On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated: a) while in Memphis, supporting a garbage workers' strike. b) as he launched the Poor People's Campaign in Dallas. c) and while the nation mourned his death, there was no violence. d) and congressional support for the Open Housing Act declined. e) and no one was ever charged for the crime.
answer
a) while in Memphis, supporting a garbage workers' strike.
question
During Freedom Summer: a) very few white college students participated. b) only black activists participated in the voter registration campaign. c) signers of the Southern Manifesto launched a campaign against integration. d) a coalition of civil rights groups launched a voter registration drive in Mississippi. e) there was little violence.
answer
d) a coalition of civil rights groups launched a voter registration drive in Mississippi.
question
The Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision: a) created a woman's constitutional right to an abortion. b) was the least controversial piece of the rights revolution. c) provoked little opposition. d) declared school prayer was unconstitutional. e) legalized birth control.
answer
a) created a woman's constitutional right to an abortion.
question
In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which: a) prohibited both racial and sexual discrimination in employment and public institutions. b) prohibited racial discrimination in private organizations. c) prohibited only sexual discrimination in the armed forces. d) was passed over President Johnson's veto. e) had the full support of Congress.
answer
a) prohibited both racial and sexual discrimination in employment and public institutions.
question
The free speech movement: a) failed in its efforts to establish free speech on college campuses. b) began in Berkeley to protest a campus ban on political groups convening and distributing literature at a central meeting place. c) began in Los Angeles to protest a campus ban on political literature. d) began in Port Huron to protest a campus ban on political literature. e) had little support among college-age students at the time.
answer
b) began in Berkeley to protest a campus ban on political groups convening and distributing literature at a central meeting place.
question
By 1968, the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam: a) was less than in 1965. b) was decreasing as the peace process accelerated. c) exceeded half a million as the war became more brutal. d) was reduced, as President Johnson considered running for another term. e) was of little concern to most Americans.
answer
c) exceeded half a million as the war became more brutal.
question
The Great Society: a) included Lyndon Johnson's crusade to end poverty in America. b) was John F. Kennedy's initiative to end poverty in America. c) promised a guaranteed income for all Americans. d) was seen as impossible to achieve. e) included a national health insurance plan for all Americans.
answer
a) included Lyndon Johnson's crusade to end poverty in America.
question
In his 1968 election campaign, Richard Nixon appealed to the: a) moral majority. b) New Left. c) Progressive Republicans. d) new feminists. e) silent majority.
answer
e) silent majority.
question
Malcolm X: a) supported integration efforts. b) worked with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. c) insisted that blacks have economic and political autonomy. d) felt that the Black Power movement went too far. e) was inspired by the efforts of Booker T. Washington.
answer
c) insisted that blacks have economic and political autonomy.
question
In 1966, the Supreme Court ruled in Miranda v. Arizona that: a) suspects could not refuse to cooperate with police. b) local elections could be monitored by federal officials. c) states must permit interracial marriage. d) those in police custody had certain rights. e) school prayer was unconstitutional.
answer
d) those in police custody had certain rights.
question
Which event marked the turning point in the Vietnam conflict, forcing Lyndon Johnson to change course and pull out of the upcoming presidential race? a) The Tet offensive. b) Operation Rolling Thunder. c) The invasion of Cambodia. d) The Gulf of Tonkin. e) Revelations about the My Lai massacre.
answer
a) The Tet offensive.
question
When Birmingham police chief Bull Connor used nightsticks, high-pressure hoses, and attack dogs on young civil rights protesters: a) there was little public response. b) there was a public outcry only in the North. c) there was a wave of revulsion globally. d) President Kennedy abandoned his support for the civil rights movement. e) U.S. attorney general Robert Kennedy asked Martin Luther King Jr. to stop the protests.
answer
c) there was a wave of revulsion globally.
question
The Freedom Rides: a) were launched by CORE to desegregate interstate bus travel. b) were ignored by law enforcement and the public in the South c) had little effect on segregation in the South. d) were successful only in the North. e) were the journeys made by blacks as part of their mass migration to the North.
answer
a) were launched by CORE to desegregate interstate bus travel.
question
The 1965 Voting Rights Act: a) banned discrimination at national party conventions. b) empowered local officials to supervise voter registration. c) empowered federal officials to oversee voter registration. d) was vetoed by President Johnson. e) was proposed but never passed by Congress.
answer
c) empowered federal officials to oversee voter registration.
question
The National Organization for Women (NOW) campaigned for all of the following EXCEPT: a) an end to the mass media's false image of women. b) equal job opportunities for women. c) equal educational opportunities. d) equal opportunities in politics. e) an end to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
answer
e) an end to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
question
In 1967, the Supreme Court ruled in Loving v. Virginia that: a) suspects could refuse to cooperate with police. b) local elections could be monitored by federal officials. c) state laws prohibiting interracial marriage were unconstitutional. d) those in police custody had certain rights. e) school prayer was unconstitutional.
answer
c) state laws prohibiting interracial marriage were unconstitutional.
question
Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail" declared that: a) the civil rights movement had become too violent and had to stop. b) the white moderate had to put aside his fear of disorder and commit to racial justice. c) the federal government was solely responsible for the violence in the South. d) the white clergy in the South had done a tremendous job at fighting Jim Crow. e) he was abandoning his policy of civil disobedience and peaceful demonstration.
answer
b) the white moderate had to put aside his fear of disorder and commit to racial justice.
question
Johnson's War on Poverty included all of the following programs EXCEPT: a) Head Start. b) A jobs program for unemployed Americans. c) VISTA, a domestic Peace Corps. d) The Office of Economic Opportunity. e) Food stamps.
answer
b) A jobs program for unemployed Americans.
question
After the Stonewall riot: a) gay men and lesbians divided into two separate political movements. b) the gay liberation movement came to an end. c) prejudice against lesbians ended. d) a militant gay liberation movement was born. e) prejudice against gay men increased.
answer
d) a militant gay liberation movement was born.
question
The counterculture of the 1960s can best be described as: a) a rejection of mainstream values. b) a quest for group identity. c) a movement in search of purity. d) a movement that emphasized the ideal of homogeneity. e) a movement that rejected consumer culture.
answer
a) a rejection of mainstream values.
question
(Ch 26) "The Triumph of Conservatism" The Iran-Contra affair: a) had the approval of Congress and the American public. b) was the greatest achievement of the Reagan administration. c) was the greatest scandal of the Reagan administration. d) resulted in impeachment charges against Ronald Reagan. e) refers to the U.S. efforts to overthrow the shah of Iran.
answer
c) was the greatest scandal of the Reagan administration.
question
When he assumed the presidency, Richard Nixon announced a new policy regarding the Vietnam War known as: a) DĂ©tente. b) Americanization. c) Vietnamization. d) Massive retaliation. e) The New Look.
answer
c) Vietnamization.
question
The election of 1980 reflected: a) the end of conservatism. b) the validation of big government. c) a return to progressivism. d) growing frustration over America's condition. e) a referendum for the ERA.
answer
d) growing frustration over America's condition.
question
In response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, President Carter pursued all of the following policies EXCEPT: a) boycotting the Moscow Olympics. b) breaking off diplomatic relations with Pakistan. c) placing an embargo on grain exports to the Soviet Union. d) funneling aid to fundamentalist Muslims in Afghanistan who fought a guerilla war against the Soviets. e) dramatically increased American military spending.
answer
b) breaking off diplomatic relations with Pakistan.
question
By the end of Reagan's second term in office, he viewed the Soviet Union: a) as an evil empire. b) with great disdain. c) as an expansionist power. d) as a strong ally. e) with much less suspicion.
answer
e) with much less suspicion.
question
President Carter's foreign policy emphasized: a) the need to fight communism around the world. b) the policy of containment. c) the right of the United States to intervene in Latin America. d) an increased military presence in Southeast Asia. e) human rights as a diplomatic priority.
answer
e) human rights as a diplomatic priority.
question
The 1971 ruling Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education led to the: a) use of busing as a tool to achieve school integration. b) implementation of affirmative action in higher education. c) first female students admitted into Yale and Harvard. d) reversal of the Brown v. Board of Education decision. e) firing of suspected communist professors in universities.
answer
a) use of busing as a tool to achieve school integration.
question
Which nation held fifty-three Americans hostage from November 1979 until January 1981? a) Saudi Arabia. b) Nicaragua. c) El Salvador. d) Iran. e) Libya.
answer
d) Iran.
question
Reagan's economic program, known as "supply-side economics" relied on: a) tax cuts and high interest rates. b) tax increases and low interest rates. c) tax cuts specifically for low-income Americans. d) increased environmental regulations. e) increased regulation of workplace safety.
answer
a) tax cuts and high interest rates.
question
Richard Nixon's New Federalism: a) proposed a decrease in funding for Social Security. b) called for a reduction in all government spending and a balanced budget. c) proposed that a system of block grants be assigned to states to spend as they saw fit. d) demanded that the federal government administer all aid, even on the local level. e) proposed that no new federal agencies be created.
answer
c) proposed that a system of block grants be assigned to states to spend as they saw fit.
question
In a historic move, in 1972 President Nixon opened diplomatic relations with: a) Taiwan. b) China. c) The Soviet Union. d) Cuba. e) North Vietnam.
answer
b) China.
question
The Equal Rights Amendment: a) passed Congress but failed ratification. b) passed Congress and was ratified by the required 38 states. c) had the support of all American women. d) had little support from American men. e) was supported by Phyllis Schlafly.
answer
a) passed Congress but failed ratification.
question
The opponents of the ERA defined freedom for women as: a) being within the public sphere. b) the right to control their own bodies. c) residing in the roles of wife and mother. d) economic opportunity. e) the right to an easy divorce.
answer
c) residing in the roles of wife and mother.
question
Under the Nixon administration, the United States: a) supported the government of Salvador Allende in Chile. b) boycotted South Africa to protest apartheid. c) supported democratic reforms in Iran. d) continued to undermine Third World governments. e) focused its foreign policy on Southeast Asia.
answer
d) continued to undermine Third World governments.
question
Domestically, President Gerald Ford: a) was successful at reviving the American economy. b) introduced programs that encouraged growth in the manufacturing sector. c) reversed the economic policies of his predecessor. d) restored Americans' confidence in their nation, as business boomed. e) failed to revive the economy.
answer
e) failed to revive the economy.
question
The handling of the Iranian hostage crisis: a) was a diplomatic achievement for President Carter. b) restored Americans' confidence in their nation. c) made Jimmy Carter appear weak and inept. d) made Ronald Reagan appear weak and inept. e) ended with the signing of the Camp David Accords.
answer
c) made Jimmy Carter appear weak and inept.
question
When they were arrested, the burglars at the Watergate apartment complex were breaking into: a) the psychiatrist Daniel Ellsberg's office. b) the Washington Post's headquarters. c) the Democratic Party headquarters. d) George McGovern's apartment. e) the Committee to Reelect the President's (CREEP's) headquarters.
answer
c) the Democratic Party headquarters.
question
Reagan's economic policies: a) expanded food stamps and school lunch programs. b) enlarged government revenue. c) decreased the national debt. d) strengthened labor unions. e) resulted in a rise in economic inequality.
answer
e) resulted in a rise in economic inequality.
question
In 1972, Congress passed Title IX, which: a) was passed over President Nixon's veto. b) banned racial discrimination in higher education. c) banned gender discrimination in higher education. d) banned gender discrimination in the workplace. e) guaranteed women equal access to pay.
answer
c) banned gender discrimination in higher education.
question
In foreign policy, Reagan: a) opposed "authoritarian" noncommunist regimes. b) embraced Carter's emphasis on human rights. c) decreased military spending. d) called for a halt to the development of nuclear weapons. e) initiated the largest military buildup in American history.
answer
e) initiated the largest military buildup in American history.
question
During the 1970s, conservatives: a) continued their overt opposition to the black struggle for racial justice. b) insisted on more local control and resisted the power of the federal government. c) employed the fiery rhetoric and direct confrontation tactics of Bull Connor and George Wallace. d) made little progress. e) appealed primarily to urban Americans.
answer
b) insisted on more local control and resisted the power of the federal government.
question
Voters approved Proposition 13 in California, a law that banned: a) Mexican immigration. b) bilingual education in public schools. c) abortions. d) further increases in property taxes. e) issuing drivers licenses to illegal aliens.
answer
d) further increases in property taxes.
question
Richard Nixon's appointments to the Supreme Court were intended to: a) continue the liberal trend set by the Warren Court. b) be balanced with conservatives and liberals. c) lead the court in a conservative direction. d) break gender barriers by his appointment of the first female justice. e) appease the Democrats, since he had to work with them in Congress on other issues.
answer
c) lead the court in a conservative direction.
question
The Reagan Revolution: a) included an emphasis on global human rights. b) introduced an expanded welfare state. c) strengthened the labor movement. d) included cuts to government programs. e) had little appeal for most Americans.
answer
d) included cuts to government programs.
question
Nixon's Family Assistance Plan: a) proposed to guarantee a minimum income for all Americans. b) won approval by Congress. c) was seen as too radical by liberals. d) replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children. e) was seen as inadequate by conservatives.
answer
a) proposed to guarantee a minimum income for all Americans.
question
(Ch 27) Week 8 "Globalization and Its Discontents" The third-party candidate Ross Perot: a) received few votes in the 1992 presidential election. b) criticized only President Bush's foreign policy. c) ran as a Progressive Party candidate. d) received the least votes for a third-party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt. e) received the most votes for a third-party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt.
answer
e) received the most votes for a third-party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt.
question
What is a visible sign of Native American quasi-sovereignty? a) Casinos. b) Reservations. c) Citizenship. d) Increase in professional jobs. e) Political participation.
answer
a) Casinos.
question
By the start of the twenty-first century, the largest minority group in the United States was: a) Cambodian. b) Filipino. c) Chinese. d) African-American. e) Latino.
answer
e) Latino.
question
By the start of the twenty-first century, dot coms symbolized the: a) continued economic vitality of the computer revolution. b) lasting positive social impact of the computer revolution. c) negative impact of stock speculation among technology companies. d) stabilization of the stock market. e) potential increase in manufacturing jobs in the United States.
answer
c) negative impact of stock speculation among technology companies.
question
By the year 2000, the AIDS epidemic: a) affected only homosexuals and transgender Americans. b) affected only drug users and hemophiliacs. c) was spreading less rapidly among gay Americans. d) brought an end to the gay rights movement. e) had been brought under control around the world.
answer
c) was spreading less rapidly among gay Americans.
question
Casey v. Planned Parenthood of Pennsylvania: a) upheld the view that those who used violence against abortion clinics had to be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. b) ruled that a woman had to inform her husband before getting an abortion. c) overturned Roe v. Wade. d) repudiated the centuries-old claim that a husband had a legal claim to control the body of his wife. e) was a triumph for supporters of the pro-life position.
answer
d) repudiated the centuries-old claim that a husband had a legal claim to control the body of his wife.
question
By the end of the 1990s, the American economy: a) was characterized by rising employment rates and declining income for poor and middle-class Americans. b) went into a deep depression as the federal deficit forced up interest rates. c) boomed as workers' wages rose and the savings rate of Americans increased. d) thrived as union membership increased and the labor market grew more "sticky." e) was strongest in rural areas as computer technologies allowed companies to move into more remote locations.
answer
a) was characterized by rising employment rates and declining income for poor and middle-class Americans.
question
Countless corporate scandals and stock frauds stemmed directly from the 1999 repeal of which New Deal measure? a) The Glass-Steagall Act. b) The Federal Communications Act. c) The Securities and Exchange Act. d) The Reconstruction Finance Corporation. e) The Bank Holiday Act.
answer
a) The Glass-Steagall Act.
question
What were the student protesters who occupied Tiananmen Square in Beijing in June 1989 demanding? a) Fair wages and better working conditions. b) Suspension of martial law imposed earlier that year. c) An end to communism in China. d) Freedom for Taiwan. e) Greater democracy.
answer
e) Greater democracy.
question
Militia groups arose in America during the 1990s: a) to protest the increasing influence of the Christian Coalition. b) and engaged in acts of domestic terrorism. c) but were quickly eliminated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). d) but posed no immediate threat to the nation. e) and were based primarily in the Northeast.
answer
b) and engaged in acts of domestic terrorism.
question
What spurred the new economy? a) The automobile. b) Housing. c) NAFTA. d) Television. e) The computer.
answer
e) The computer.
question
By the end of 1991, Soviet attempts at economic reform had created chaos, and the: a) Soviet military staged a successful coup. b) Soviet Union dissolved, ending the Cold War. c) United States had to intervene with financial aid. d) Soviets sought U.S. assistance. e) Soviets turned to the United Nations for help.
answer
b) Soviet Union dissolved, ending the Cold War.
question
____________ has been called "the concept of the 1990s." a) Liberty b) Money c) Technology d) Globalization e) Liberalism
answer
d) Globalization
question
Bill Clinton's foreign policy centered on: a) elevating human rights to a central place in international relations. b) defeating the few pockets of communism left in the world. c) taking a hard line against economic competitors like Mexico and Canada. d) building what he called a New World Order. e) preemptive strikes to weed out dictatorial leaders that posed a threat to American security.
answer
a) elevating human rights to a central place in international relations.
question
Operation Desert Storm: a) quickly drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait. b) ousted Saddam Hussein from power. c) lacked a clear strategic political goal. d) was criticized by the United Nations. e) quickly drove the Iraqi army out of Iran.
answer
a) quickly drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait.
question
Whose election campaign director was fond of the saying "It's the economy, stupid"? a) Bob Dole's. b) George H. W. Bush's. c) Pat Buchanan's. d) John Anderson's. e) Bill Clinton's.
answer
e) Bill Clinton's.
question
President Bill Clinton: a) abolished child poverty. b) terminated the food stamp program. c) ended public housing programs. d) replaced welfare with state grants. e) initiated diplomatic ties with China.
answer
d) replaced welfare with state grants.
question
The 1995 truck bombing of the federal building in Oklahoma City was organized by: a) militant African-American separatists. b) a left-wing paramilitary group. c) a far-right private militia group. d) Islamic fundamentalists. e) Osama bin Laden.
answer
c) a far-right private militia group.
question
The term "pay gap" refers to the difference in: a) pay differences between workers and CEOs. b) pay rates for skilled and unskilled workers. c) pay rates between men and women. d) pay gaps between new hires and senior employees. e) the difference between gross income and take-home pay.
answer
c) pay rates between men and women.
question
The 2000 presidential race between George W. Bush and Al Gore was: a) finally decided by the Supreme Court. b) decided by the Florida Attorney General. c) in question because of voter fraud in Florida. d) a landslide victory for Bush. e) finally decided by the U.S. Senate.
answer
a) finally decided by the Supreme Court.
question
In the 1990s, school segregation: a) declined as the nation became more diverse. b) was on the rise. c) was less widespread than it had been in 1970. d) declined because the Supreme Court ruled that school funding could no longer rest on property taxes. e) was not a problem in the North.
answer
b) was on the rise.
question
In 1992, Bill Clinton secured the Democratic nomination for president because he: a) promised to expand welfare. b) pledged to continue the policies of President Bush in the Middle East. c) combined social liberalism with elements of conservatism. d) promised to restrict access to abortion. e) did not support gay rights.
answer
c) combined social liberalism with elements of conservatism.
question
During the 1990s, twenty-three states passed laws: a) legalizing gay marriage. b) limiting the rights of gay, lesbian, and bisexual Americans. c) banning all abortions except for medical emergencies. d) making English the official language. e) raising the drinking age to twenty-one.
answer
d) making English the official language.
question
At the end of the twentieth century, the Christian Coalition: a) was a major force in Republican Party politics. b) reversed its long-standing opposition to abortion. c) declined in numbers but grew more vocal at the same time. d) campaigned for the introduction of a national tax funding community churches. e) dominated the Democratic Party.
answer
a) was a major force in Republican Party politics.
question
The abortion rate declined throughout the 1990s, largely because: a) of the successful efforts of the pro-life campaign. b) there are few doctors who will perform abortions. c) of the success of abstinence campaigns. d) teenagers had increasing access to contraception. e) there was a large conversion to Catholicism.
answer
d) teenagers had increasing access to contraception.
question
(Ch 28) Who among the cabinet members strongly urged President Bush to ban torture in the war on terror—with certain exceptions provided? a) Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. b) Secretary of State Colin Powell. c) National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice. d) Vice President Dick Cheney. e) Central Intelligence Director George Tenet.
answer
b) Secretary of State Colin Powell.
question
President George W. Bush insisted that the war on terror was: a) not a war on crime. b) not a war on Islam. c) not a war on women. d) not a war against Afghanistan. e) not related to the war in Iraq.
answer
b) not a war on Islam.
question
All of the following statements about President Obama's first year in office are true EXCEPT: a) The Obama administration abolished the military tribunals Bush had established. b) The Obama administration barred the use of torture. c) The Obama administration passed a "stimulus" package amounting to nearly $800 billion in new government spending. d) The Obama administration poured taxpayer money into failing banks and assumed responsibility for the banks' debts. e) The Obama administration dispatched more American troops to Afghanistan.
answer
a) The Obama administration abolished the military tribunals Bush had established.
question
Early in 2003, President Bush announced that the United States would go to war against Iraq: a) with the full support of the United Nations. b) because its dictator Saddam Hussein had ordered the terrorist attacks on September 11. c) because it was believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. d) with the full support of the international community. e) and unlike during the Vietnam War, an antiwar movement did not develop.
answer
c) because it was believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.
question
Operation Enduring Freedom was launched in October 2001: a) against Afghanistan, because the nation was harboring Osama bin Laden. b) against Saudi Arabia, because they were harboring Osama bin Laden. c) against Afghanistan, because the United States did not approve of the Taliban's treatment of women. d) against Afghanistan, because the Afghan government had ordered the terrorist attacks of September 11. e) as a way to combat rising unemployment.
answer
a) against Afghanistan, because the nation was harboring Osama bin Laden.
question
In 2001-2002, all of the following policymakers were determined to oust Hussein from power EXCEPT: a) Dick Cheney. b) Donald Rumsfeld. c) Colin Powell. d) Paul Wolfowitz. e) George W. Bush.
answer
c) Colin Powell.
question
In the midst of the stock market crash of 2008 and the housing crisis, most Americans: a) cut back on spending, leading to business failures and a rapid rise in unemployment. b) bought up stock in Lehman Brothers. c) invested in property as housing prices increased. d) attempted to invest in mortgage-based securities. e) were confident that the economic crisis would be short-lived.
answer
a) cut back on spending, leading to business failures and a rapid rise in unemployment.
question
After the September 11 attacks, who authorized the National Security Agency (NSA) to listen to domestic telephone conversations without a court warrant? a) Defense Secretary Rumsfeld. b) State Secretary Powell. c) National Security Advisor Rice. d) President Bush. e) Central Intelligence Director Tenet.
answer
d) President Bush.
question
By mid-2003, the American economy: a) had fully recovered from the impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11. b) was slowly recovering, as the number of new jobs increased. c) was mixed, as the recession ended but the unemployment rate rose. d) was especially strong in the technology sector. e) rebounded, as fewer jobs went overseas.
answer
c) was mixed, as the recession ended but the unemployment rate rose.
question
What happened at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq? a) American soldiers were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their conduct under tough circumstances. b) Over 100 Al Qaeda prisoners escaped in an elaborate scheme, embarrassing the United States. c) Saddam Hussein was tried and hanged by an American military tribunal. d) Under the supervision of U.S. military personnel, many prisoners were mistreated, humiliated, and tortured; some even died. e) It was blown up in an insurgency attack, killing the United Nations' chief ambassador to Iraq.
answer
d) Under the supervision of U.S. military personnel, many prisoners were mistreated, humiliated, and tortured; some even died.
question
The USA Patriot Act: a) overhauled airport security measures. b) expanded the rights of law enforcement agencies to conduct secret searches and detain suspected aliens. c) required every American to swear a loyalty oath. d) ceased all Islamic immigration into the United States. e) was vetoed by George W. Bush for violating civil liberties, but his veto was overridden by Congress.
answer
b) expanded the rights of law enforcement agencies to conduct secret searches and detain suspected aliens.
question
In a September 20, 2001 speech, President Bush announced that "freedom and ____________ are at war." a) tyranny b) communism c) Islam d) fear e) evil
answer
d) fear
question
Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee, selected Sarah Palin as his running mate: a) because she was a Washington insider with extensive political experience. b) because he sought to draw Democratic women into the Republican Party. c) because her attacks on Americans as being unpatriotic, lacking traditional values, and not representing the "real America" proved extremely popular with the Democratic Party's base. d) because she lacked familiarity with many domestic and foreign policy issues. e) because she was a third-term senator from Alaska.
answer
b) because he sought to draw Democratic women into the Republican Party.
question
The Hurricane Katrina disaster highlighted which of the following to Americans in 2005? a) The housing crisis was a minor problem compared to natural disaster. b) Global warming required immediate action and generous government funds. c) The nation and its economic recovery remained dependent on the price of oil. d) Racial segregation in the lower wards of New Orleans had not changed since the 1950s. e) A Democratically dominated Congress was as unsympathetic to the poor as a Republican one.
answer
c) The nation and its economic recovery remained dependent on the price of oil.
question
In the 2008 election, when Barack Obama "redrew the nation's political map": a) he only won in Democratic strongholds. b) he did extremely well in cities. c) he only won in the North and West. d) he won in states that had been reliably Republican for years as well as in Democratic strongholds. e) he won 53 percent of the popular vote and a large majority in the Electoral College.
answer
d) he won in states that had been reliably Republican for years as well as in Democratic strongholds.
question
During his first year in office, George W. Bush: a) raised tax rates for wealthy Americans. b) sponsored legislation to protect the environment. c) supported the accelerated reduction of nuclear weapons. d) had the full support of Congress, which had a commanding Republican majority. e) persuaded Congress to enact the largest tax cut in American history.
answer
e) persuaded Congress to enact the largest tax cut in American history.
question
All of the following contributed to the banking crisis of 2008 EXCEPT: a) The Federal Reserve Bank had kept interest rates at unprecedentedly low levels. b) Banks and other lending institutions issued "subprime" mortgages. c) Wall Street bankers developed complex ways of repackaging and selling "subprime" mortgages to investors. d) The Federal Reserve Bank and other regulatory agencies slowed the speculative frenzy. e) Public and private policies favored economic speculation and get-rich-quick schemes.
answer
d) The Federal Reserve Bank and other regulatory agencies slowed the speculative frenzy.
question
In response to the nation's economic woes, the Bush administration: a) did nothing. b) raised taxes and interest rates. c) raised taxes but cut interest rates. d) cut taxes but raised interest rates. e) cut taxes and interest rates.
answer
e) cut taxes and interest rates.
question
In response to the terrorist attacks on Washington, D.C., and New York City on September 11, 2001, President Bush: a) appealed to the United Nations to start peace talks. b) declared a war on terrorism. c) declared war on Saudi Arabia. d) declared war on all Muslim countries. e) disbanded the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
answer
b) declared a war on terrorism.
question
How did immigrants respond to the House of Representatives bill that made it a felony to be in the country illegally and a crime to offer aid to illegal immigrants? a) They put on a series of massive popular demonstrations demanding their right to remain in the United States. b) They largely ignored it. c) They began a mass exodus out of the United States. d) They threatened major border crossings with bomb threats. e) They petitioned Bush for sympathy since he had been governor of Texas.
answer
a) They put on a series of massive popular demonstrations demanding their right to remain in the United States.
question
What did the Justice Department label the captured members of Al Qaeda in order to get around the Geneva Conventions? a) Prisoners of an insurgency. b) Detainees. c) Army regulars. d) Rebel forces. e) Unlawful combatants.
answer
e) Unlawful combatants.
question
What made Barack Obama's presidential campaign "the first political campaign of the twenty-first century"? a) Its widespread use of the Internet to raise money and communicate directly with voters. b) Its use of televised debates. c) Its use of television advertisements. d) Its use of direct calling. e) Its use of direct mailings.
answer
a) Its widespread use of the Internet to raise money and communicate directly with voters.
question
Early in Bush's first term, his administration did which of the following? a) Signed a new Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union. b) Rejected the Kyoto Protocol. c) Established a new international criminal court. d) Raised taxes to balance the budget. e) Banned drilling for oil in Alaska's Artic National Wildlife Refuge.
answer
b) Rejected the Kyoto Protocol.
question
Which of the following statements about Saddam Hussein turned out to be true? a) He possessed a mobile chemical weapons laboratory. b) He had hidden weapons of mass destruction in his many palaces. c) He was a horrible tyrant who ruled Iraq ruthlessly. d) He was hiding in his palace as a safe haven from the war. e) He was seeking to acquire uranium in Africa to build nuclear weapons.
answer
c) He was a horrible tyrant who ruled Iraq ruthlessly.
question
Which state's supreme court ruled that homosexual marriages must receive legal recognition, spurring a moral values debate during the 2004 presidential election? a) Vermont. b) California. c) Florida. d) Oregon. e) Massachusetts.
answer
e) Massachusetts.
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question
(Ch 23) Week 5 "The United States and the Cold War", The first confrontation of the Cold War took place in: a) Vietnam, when the French attempted to reestablish colonial rule. b) Japan, when Soviet troops tried to establish Tokyo as a joint occupational zone. c) North Korea, where Chinese communists imposed a strict authoritarian regime. d) the Middle East, when Soviet troops occupied northern Iran seeking access to oil fields. e) Latin America, where agrarian revolutionaries gained the upper hand thanks to Soviet aid.
answer
d) the Middle East, when Soviet troops occupied northern Iran seeking access to oil fields.
question
The "Iron Curtain": a) separated the free West from the communist East. b) divided East and West Germany. c) separated the United States from the Soviet Union. d) separated Japan from the rest of Asia. e) divided North and South Korea.
answer
a) separated the free West from the communist East.
question
In 1948, Eleanor Roosevelt chaired a committee to draft the: a) GI Bill of Rights. b) Economic Bill of Rights. c) Declaration of the Rights of Man. d) Universal Declaration of Human Rights. e) Civil Rights Act.
answer
d) Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
question
NSC-68: a) was directed at communist China. b) called for a massive reduction in U.S. military forces. c) called for a massive increase in U.S. military forces. d) was only suggested and never implemented. e) addressed the threat of communism at home.
answer
c) called for a massive increase in U.S. military forces.
question
All of the following statements about the Cold War's impact on American life are true EXCEPT: a) the Cold War reshaped immigration policy. b) the Cold War promoted the rapid expansion of higher education. c) Cold War policy supported scientific research in medicine and computers. d) the Cold War contributed to the dismantling of segregation. e) Cold War military spending weakened the economy.
answer
e) Cold War military spending weakened the economy.
question
Joseph McCarthy's downfall came as a result of: a) his speech in Wheeling, West Virginia. b) his claim of 205 communists working in the State Department. c) his hearings on the Defense Department. d) televised hearings involving the Army. e) the release of his fabricated war record.
answer
c) his hearings on the Defense Department.
question
The impact of the Cold War on the civil rights movement: a) was quite limited at the time. b) was beneficial because the Urban League accepted communists into its ranks. c) included government action against black leaders. d) caused the NAACP to enlist the aid of the Soviets. e) brought wider support for civil rights from southern Democrats who wanted to fight communism.
answer
c) included government action against black leaders.
question
Organized labor emerged as: a) a vocal critic of McCarthyism. b) a major supporter of the foreign policy of the Cold War. c) a radical wing of the Communist Party. d) a militant group willing to fight the Red Scare. e) the best informants for the FBI and HUAC.
answer
b) a major supporter of the foreign policy of the Cold War.
question
What reason did the Hollywood Ten give for not cooperating with the HUAC hearings? a) They were all communists and did want to indict themselves. b) Ronald Reagan had threatened that they would lose their jobs if they cooperated. c) They were all busy making movies and did not have time to attend the hearings. d) They felt the hearings were a violation of the First Amendment. e) As Republicans, they were insulted that their loyalty was being questioned.
answer
d) They felt the hearings were a violation of the First Amendment.
question
After World War II ended, Japan: a) did not receive aid from the United States. b) received economic assistance from the Soviets. c) returned to its prewar political structure. d) received economic assistance from the United States. e) never recovered economically.
answer
d) received economic assistance from the United States.
question
In 1948, the Soviets began the Berlin Blockade: a) in response to the outbreak of disease. b) in response to the return of fascism. c) because the United States threatened to invade the Soviet Union. d) in response to the creation of East Germany. e) in response to the creation of West Germany.
answer
e) in response to the creation of West Germany.
question
The impact of the Cold War on American culture was: a) especially evident in the movies. b) limited in scope. c) discouraged in the public schools. d) widely criticized by the news media. e) felt mostly in the cities.
answer
a) especially evident in the movies.
question
The Marshall Plan: a) provided economic assistance to the Soviets. b) was a U.S.-Soviet program to rebuild Europe. c) offered economic assistance to noncommunist governments. d) was limited in scope and focused on West Germany. e) was largely unsuccessful for lack of support from Congress.
answer
c) offered economic assistance to noncommunist governments.
question
The Taft-Hartley Act: a) outlawed the closed shop. b) legalized sympathy strikes. c) strengthened the rights of organized labor. d) banned right-to-work laws. e) was supported by President Truman.
answer
a) outlawed the closed shop.
question
Which statement is true about the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)? a) It was established in 1945, immediately after the war. b) The members refused to let West Germany join. c) The Soviet Union had tried in vain to be a member of NATO. d) This was one of many long-term military alliances between the United States and Europe. e) All the members pledged mutual defense against any future Soviet attack.
answer
e) All the members pledged mutual defense against any future Soviet attack.
question
The Truman Doctrine: a) advocated a return to isolationism. b) was an alliance between the United States and Great Britain. c) called for more cordial relations with the Soviet Union. d) committed the United States to fighting communism only in Asia. e) committed the United States to fighting communism anywhere.
answer
e) committed the United States to fighting communism anywhere.
question
After World War II, the only nation that could rival the United States was: a) the Soviet Union. b) Germany. c) Japan. d) Great Britain. e) France.
answer
a) the Soviet Union.
question
The McCarran-Walter Act: a) removed immigration quotas based on nationality. b) made immigration law much more flexible for Asians and Latinos. c) recognized the need for political asylum for refugees from South Africa. d) authorized the deportation of communists, including naturalized citizens. e) was supported by President Truman.
answer
d) authorized the deportation of communists, including naturalized citizens.
question
All of the following statements are true of the Fair Deal EXCEPT: a) the Fair Deal included a provision to expand public housing. b) Congress passed Truman's Fair Deal to raise the standard of living for Americans. c) the Fair Deal included a provision to increase the minimum wage. d) the Fair Deal included a provision to create a national health insurance program. e) the Fair Deal included a provision to expand Social Security coverage.
answer
b) Congress passed Truman's Fair Deal to raise the standard of living for Americans.
question
President Truman's civil rights plan called for all of the following EXCEPT: a) a permanent federal civil rights commission. b) national laws against lynching and the poll tax. c) equal access to jobs. d) reparations. e) equal access to education.
answer
d) reparations.
question
All of the following are enactments of the policy of containment EXCEPT: a) The Truman Doctrine. b) The Marshall Plan. c) The Berlin Airlift. d) The Korean War. e) The Warsaw Pact.
answer
e) The Warsaw Pact.
question
The Korean War: a) was a decisive victory for the United States. b) was a decisive victory for the North Koreans. c) demonstrated the strength of the United Nations. d) ended in a stalemate. e) highlighted the limited nature of the Cold War.
answer
d) ended in a stalemate.
question
The Dixiecrats: a) opposed segregation in the South. b) opposed desegregation in the South. c) dominated the Democratic Party in 1948. d) were led by Hubert Humphrey. e) supported Harry Truman in 1948.
answer
b) opposed desegregation in the South.
question
According to the policy of containment, as laid out by George Kennan, the: a) Soviets could have a free hand in international affairs. b) United States should invade the Soviet Union. c) United States was committed to preventing the spread of communism. d) United States was committed to preventing the spread of democracy. e) United States accepted the right of communism to exist anywhere.
answer
c) United States was committed to preventing the spread of communism.
question
The McCarran Internal Security Act: a) removed immigration quotas based on nationality. b) made immigration law much more flexible. c) recognized the need for political asylum. d) barred "totalitarians" from entering the United States. e) barred Mexican immigration.
answer
d) barred "totalitarians" from entering the United States.
question
(Ch 24) "An Affluent Society" During the Eisenhower administration, U.S.-Soviet relations: a) were made worse with the introduction of the policy of massive retaliation. b) improved somewhat after the end of the Korean War and the death of Stalin. c) stayed about the same as those experienced during the Truman years. d) worsened considerably after the death of Stalin. e) improved immensely after the end of the Korean War.
answer
b) improved somewhat after the end of the Korean War and the death of Stalin.
question
During the 1950s, television: a) effectively spread images of working-class life to a growing number of Americans. b) tried to replace newspapers as the most common source of information but failed. c) became the nation's least favorite form of leisure activity. d) became an effective advertising medium. e) presented shows that were controversial.
answer
d) became an effective advertising medium.
question
Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president in 1952 in part because he: a) pledged to use nuclear weapons in the Korean War. b) promised to dismantle the New Deal. c) supported civil rights. d) manifested a public image of fatherly warmth. e) promised to cut highway construction spending.
answer
d) manifested a public image of fatherly warmth.
question
William Levitt, with the help of the GI Bill, gave many Americans the opportunity to a) get an education. b) buy a home. c) buy a gray flannel suit. d) buy a car. e) advance within the military.
answer
b) buy a home.
question
President Eisenhower used the CIA to overthrow which Middle Eastern government in the early 1950s, in large part because this government attempted to nationalize British-owned oil fields? a) Iraq. b) Egypt. c) Israel. d) Iran. e) Saudi Arabia.
answer
d) Iran.
question
All of the following contributed to the emergence of the civil rights movement of the 1950s EXCEPT: a) the mass migration out of the South to the North beginning in World War I. b) the destabilization of the racial system during World War II. c) the Cold War, which demanded that the rhetoric of democracy be practiced in America. d) the rise of independent states in the Third World. e) President Truman's refusal to desegregate the military.
answer
e) President Truman's refusal to desegregate the military.
question
Which Supreme Court decision did Brown overturn? a) Plessy v. Ferguson. b) Muller v. Oregon. c) Yick Wo v. Hopkins. d) Roe v. Wade. e) Lochner v. New York.
answer
a) Plessy v. Ferguson.
question
The Montgomery Bus Boycott: a) was sparked when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give her seat up to a white man. b) did not succeed in desegregating the public buses. c) propelled Thurgood Marshall into the national spotlight as a leader in the civil rights movement. d) marked the end of the civil rights movement. e) lasted less than two weeks.
answer
a) was sparked when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give her seat up to a white man.
question
After World War II, the automobile: a) declined in use, and the Midwest suffered economically. b) became a status symbol only for the wealthy. c) remained a luxury, not a necessity of life. d) altered the American landscape. e) was replaced by the train as the preferred method of transportation.
answer
d) altered the American landscape.
question
In response to the court-ordered desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas: a) violence broke out, but President Eisenhower refused to send federal troops. b) violence broke out, and President Eisenhower sent in federal troops. c) high schools across the South became desegregated immediately. d) Governor Orval Faubus used the National Guard to protect the black students from angry whites. e) Governor Orval Faubus requested that federal troops be sent into Little Rock to end the violence.
answer
b) violence broke out, and President Eisenhower sent in federal troops.
question
To libertarian conservatives, freedom meant: a) first and foremost a moral condition. b) individual autonomy, limited government, and unregulated capitalism. c) using government as a vehicle for social reform, ensuring an equal distribution of wealth. d) what it did in the late eighteenth century—the right to own property and to vote. e) racial equality and the end of a segregated society.
answer
b) individual autonomy, limited government, and unregulated capitalism.
question
The Southern Manifesto: a) rejected massive resistance. b) argued that southern states should not fly the Confederate flag over state capitol buildings. c) repudiated the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education. d) argued that the Brown v. Board of Education decision reinforced southern customs and traditions. e) argued that the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson was unconstitutional.
answer
c) repudiated the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.
question
Which statement best describes how the white South reacted to the Brown v. Board of Education decision? a) In opposition to integration, white southerners often burned down schools. b) While the general public was outraged, southern congressional politicians supported the Supreme Court's decisions. c) Southerners worked closely with the NAACP, cooperating when they could to integrate schools. d) Some states closed the public schools rather than integrate, and offered white children the choice to opt out of integrated schools. e) Southerners took it in stride, recognizing that the time had come for change.
answer
d) Some states closed the public schools rather than integrate, and offered white children the choice to opt out of integrated schools.
question
As a result of the Montgomery boycott in 1955-1956: a) blacks won the right to attend the school of their choice. b) the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public transportation was legal. c) the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public transportation was illegal. d) African-American women became less involved in the civil rights movement. e) Rosa Parks was sent to jail for over a year.
answer
c) the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public transportation was illegal.
question
After World War II, suburban growth: a) declined. b) increased dramatically, especially in California. c) occurred primarily in the South. d) was dominated by expensive housing. e) was discouraged by state and federal government policies.
answer
b) increased dramatically, especially in California.
question
In Brown v. Board of Education, what was Thurgood Marshall's main argument before the Supreme Court? a) That segregation did lifelong damage to black children, undermining their self-esteem. b) That Plessy v. Ferguson was an outdated ruling that needed to be updated. c) That the time had come to implement the promises of Reconstruction. d) That the white, southern politicians did not adequately provide for black schools, thereby violating the "but equal" part of the Plessy ruling. e) That children ought to attend the school that is closest to them, and Linda Brown lived within a mile of the "white" school and should be able to attend that school.
answer
a) That segregation did lifelong damage to black children, undermining their self-esteem.
question
The Housing Act of 1949: a) set a high income ceiling for eligibility. b) reinforced the concentration of poverty in nonwhite urban neighborhoods. c) ended the concentration of poverty in nonwhite urban neighborhoods. d) allowed growing numbers of blacks to move to the suburbs. e) paired with urban renewal programs, made American cities more diverse and prosperous.
answer
b) reinforced the concentration of poverty in nonwhite urban neighborhoods.
question
During the postwar suburban boom, African-Americans: a) experienced little, if any, discrimination, especially in the North. b) were encouraged to move into communities like Levittown, New York. c) were discriminated against only in the South. d) received special treatment if they were veterans. e) were often unable to receive financing for housing.
answer
e) were often unable to receive financing for housing.
question
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles's policy of massive retaliation: a) was part of the effort to rely more on conventional forces. b) eased tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. c) calmed the American public's fear of nuclear war. d) applied only to communist China. e) declared that any Soviet attack would be countered by a nuclear attack.
answer
e) declared that any Soviet attack would be countered by a nuclear attack.
question
In his 1961 farewell address, President Eisenhower warned Americans about: a) the military-industrial complex. b) the rise of organized crime. c) the increase in juvenile delinquency. d) environmental hazards. e) the slow pace of the civil rights movement.
answer
a) the military-industrial complex.
question
Between 1946 and 1960, the American gross national product: a) more than doubled, and wages increased. b) declined as wages stagnated. c) stayed about the same. d) returned to prewar levels. e) increased so dramatically that poverty was completely eliminated.
answer
a) more than doubled, and wages increased.
question
The 1960 presidential debate between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon: a) was broadcast only on the radio. b) allowed Nixon to demonstrate his best qualities, thus winning the debate. c) showed Kennedy to be an ineffective speaker, and thus he lost. d) highlighted the impact of television on political campaigns. e) was little noticed at the time.
answer
d) highlighted the impact of television on political campaigns.
question
Why did Eisenhower intervene in Vietnam? a) To prevent the Japanese from colonizing Vietnam. b) To support Ho Chi Minh's nationalist movement. c) To prevent the French from restoring colonial rule. d) To support the Vietnamese people in their opposition to colonial rule. e) To prevent Vietnam from becoming a communist nation.
answer
e) To prevent Vietnam from becoming a communist nation.
question
The ability to influence the world with American goods and popular culture is called: a) hard power. b) coercive power. c) persuasive power. d) cultural power. e) soft power.
answer
e) soft power.
question
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference: a) was a coalition of white southerners who resisted desegregation. b) was a coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists who fought for desegregation. c) worked primarily on the local level. d) did not seek federal assistance. e) had the support of all southern congressmen.
answer
b) was a coalition of black ministers and civil rights activists who fought for desegregation.
question
(Ch 25) Week 6 "The Sixties" The Cuban Missile Crisis: a) brought the United States and the Soviets to the brink of nuclear war. b) brought the United States into Vietnam. c) revolved around the placement of missiles in the Soviet Union. d) revolved around the placement of missiles in the United States. e) occurred when Cuba threatened to attack the United States.
answer
a) brought the United States and the Soviets to the brink of nuclear war.
question
Chicano farm workers found a powerful advocate in: a) the bracero program. b) Cesar Chavez. c) Mario Savio. d) Carlos Bulosan. e) the Border Patrol.
answer
b) Cesar Chavez.
question
During the Bay of Pigs invasion: a) the CIA failed in its mission. b) Eisenhower suspended trade with Cuba. c) the CIA restored Fulgencio Batista to power. d) a popular uprising of anti-Castro Cubans toppled Castro's regime. e) Fidel Castro took over American landholdings.
answer
a) the CIA failed in its mission.
question
The legacies of the 1960s include: a) fewer personal freedoms. b) a transformation in the status of women. c) the return of school prayer. d) an end to the welfare state. e) mass conformity.
answer
b) a transformation in the status of women.
question
The Gulf of Tonkin resolution: a) authorized the president to take "all necessary measures to repel armed attack" in Vietnam. b) authorized the president to take "all necessary measures to repel armed attack" in Cuba. c) was a formal declaration of war. d) called for an immediate end to the hostilities in Southeast Asia. e) had little Senate support at the time.
answer
a) authorized the president to take "all necessary measures to repel armed attack" in Vietnam.
question
On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated: a) while in Memphis, supporting a garbage workers' strike. b) as he launched the Poor People's Campaign in Dallas. c) and while the nation mourned his death, there was no violence. d) and congressional support for the Open Housing Act declined. e) and no one was ever charged for the crime.
answer
a) while in Memphis, supporting a garbage workers' strike.
question
During Freedom Summer: a) very few white college students participated. b) only black activists participated in the voter registration campaign. c) signers of the Southern Manifesto launched a campaign against integration. d) a coalition of civil rights groups launched a voter registration drive in Mississippi. e) there was little violence.
answer
d) a coalition of civil rights groups launched a voter registration drive in Mississippi.
question
The Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision: a) created a woman's constitutional right to an abortion. b) was the least controversial piece of the rights revolution. c) provoked little opposition. d) declared school prayer was unconstitutional. e) legalized birth control.
answer
a) created a woman's constitutional right to an abortion.
question
In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which: a) prohibited both racial and sexual discrimination in employment and public institutions. b) prohibited racial discrimination in private organizations. c) prohibited only sexual discrimination in the armed forces. d) was passed over President Johnson's veto. e) had the full support of Congress.
answer
a) prohibited both racial and sexual discrimination in employment and public institutions.
question
The free speech movement: a) failed in its efforts to establish free speech on college campuses. b) began in Berkeley to protest a campus ban on political groups convening and distributing literature at a central meeting place. c) began in Los Angeles to protest a campus ban on political literature. d) began in Port Huron to protest a campus ban on political literature. e) had little support among college-age students at the time.
answer
b) began in Berkeley to protest a campus ban on political groups convening and distributing literature at a central meeting place.
question
By 1968, the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam: a) was less than in 1965. b) was decreasing as the peace process accelerated. c) exceeded half a million as the war became more brutal. d) was reduced, as President Johnson considered running for another term. e) was of little concern to most Americans.
answer
c) exceeded half a million as the war became more brutal.
question
The Great Society: a) included Lyndon Johnson's crusade to end poverty in America. b) was John F. Kennedy's initiative to end poverty in America. c) promised a guaranteed income for all Americans. d) was seen as impossible to achieve. e) included a national health insurance plan for all Americans.
answer
a) included Lyndon Johnson's crusade to end poverty in America.
question
In his 1968 election campaign, Richard Nixon appealed to the: a) moral majority. b) New Left. c) Progressive Republicans. d) new feminists. e) silent majority.
answer
e) silent majority.
question
Malcolm X: a) supported integration efforts. b) worked with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. c) insisted that blacks have economic and political autonomy. d) felt that the Black Power movement went too far. e) was inspired by the efforts of Booker T. Washington.
answer
c) insisted that blacks have economic and political autonomy.
question
In 1966, the Supreme Court ruled in Miranda v. Arizona that: a) suspects could not refuse to cooperate with police. b) local elections could be monitored by federal officials. c) states must permit interracial marriage. d) those in police custody had certain rights. e) school prayer was unconstitutional.
answer
d) those in police custody had certain rights.
question
Which event marked the turning point in the Vietnam conflict, forcing Lyndon Johnson to change course and pull out of the upcoming presidential race? a) The Tet offensive. b) Operation Rolling Thunder. c) The invasion of Cambodia. d) The Gulf of Tonkin. e) Revelations about the My Lai massacre.
answer
a) The Tet offensive.
question
When Birmingham police chief Bull Connor used nightsticks, high-pressure hoses, and attack dogs on young civil rights protesters: a) there was little public response. b) there was a public outcry only in the North. c) there was a wave of revulsion globally. d) President Kennedy abandoned his support for the civil rights movement. e) U.S. attorney general Robert Kennedy asked Martin Luther King Jr. to stop the protests.
answer
c) there was a wave of revulsion globally.
question
The Freedom Rides: a) were launched by CORE to desegregate interstate bus travel. b) were ignored by law enforcement and the public in the South c) had little effect on segregation in the South. d) were successful only in the North. e) were the journeys made by blacks as part of their mass migration to the North.
answer
a) were launched by CORE to desegregate interstate bus travel.
question
The 1965 Voting Rights Act: a) banned discrimination at national party conventions. b) empowered local officials to supervise voter registration. c) empowered federal officials to oversee voter registration. d) was vetoed by President Johnson. e) was proposed but never passed by Congress.
answer
c) empowered federal officials to oversee voter registration.
question
The National Organization for Women (NOW) campaigned for all of the following EXCEPT: a) an end to the mass media's false image of women. b) equal job opportunities for women. c) equal educational opportunities. d) equal opportunities in politics. e) an end to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
answer
e) an end to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
question
In 1967, the Supreme Court ruled in Loving v. Virginia that: a) suspects could refuse to cooperate with police. b) local elections could be monitored by federal officials. c) state laws prohibiting interracial marriage were unconstitutional. d) those in police custody had certain rights. e) school prayer was unconstitutional.
answer
c) state laws prohibiting interracial marriage were unconstitutional.
question
Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail" declared that: a) the civil rights movement had become too violent and had to stop. b) the white moderate had to put aside his fear of disorder and commit to racial justice. c) the federal government was solely responsible for the violence in the South. d) the white clergy in the South had done a tremendous job at fighting Jim Crow. e) he was abandoning his policy of civil disobedience and peaceful demonstration.
answer
b) the white moderate had to put aside his fear of disorder and commit to racial justice.
question
Johnson's War on Poverty included all of the following programs EXCEPT: a) Head Start. b) A jobs program for unemployed Americans. c) VISTA, a domestic Peace Corps. d) The Office of Economic Opportunity. e) Food stamps.
answer
b) A jobs program for unemployed Americans.
question
After the Stonewall riot: a) gay men and lesbians divided into two separate political movements. b) the gay liberation movement came to an end. c) prejudice against lesbians ended. d) a militant gay liberation movement was born. e) prejudice against gay men increased.
answer
d) a militant gay liberation movement was born.
question
The counterculture of the 1960s can best be described as: a) a rejection of mainstream values. b) a quest for group identity. c) a movement in search of purity. d) a movement that emphasized the ideal of homogeneity. e) a movement that rejected consumer culture.
answer
a) a rejection of mainstream values.
question
(Ch 26) "The Triumph of Conservatism" The Iran-Contra affair: a) had the approval of Congress and the American public. b) was the greatest achievement of the Reagan administration. c) was the greatest scandal of the Reagan administration. d) resulted in impeachment charges against Ronald Reagan. e) refers to the U.S. efforts to overthrow the shah of Iran.
answer
c) was the greatest scandal of the Reagan administration.
question
When he assumed the presidency, Richard Nixon announced a new policy regarding the Vietnam War known as: a) DĂ©tente. b) Americanization. c) Vietnamization. d) Massive retaliation. e) The New Look.
answer
c) Vietnamization.
question
The election of 1980 reflected: a) the end of conservatism. b) the validation of big government. c) a return to progressivism. d) growing frustration over America's condition. e) a referendum for the ERA.
answer
d) growing frustration over America's condition.
question
In response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, President Carter pursued all of the following policies EXCEPT: a) boycotting the Moscow Olympics. b) breaking off diplomatic relations with Pakistan. c) placing an embargo on grain exports to the Soviet Union. d) funneling aid to fundamentalist Muslims in Afghanistan who fought a guerilla war against the Soviets. e) dramatically increased American military spending.
answer
b) breaking off diplomatic relations with Pakistan.
question
By the end of Reagan's second term in office, he viewed the Soviet Union: a) as an evil empire. b) with great disdain. c) as an expansionist power. d) as a strong ally. e) with much less suspicion.
answer
e) with much less suspicion.
question
President Carter's foreign policy emphasized: a) the need to fight communism around the world. b) the policy of containment. c) the right of the United States to intervene in Latin America. d) an increased military presence in Southeast Asia. e) human rights as a diplomatic priority.
answer
e) human rights as a diplomatic priority.
question
The 1971 ruling Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education led to the: a) use of busing as a tool to achieve school integration. b) implementation of affirmative action in higher education. c) first female students admitted into Yale and Harvard. d) reversal of the Brown v. Board of Education decision. e) firing of suspected communist professors in universities.
answer
a) use of busing as a tool to achieve school integration.
question
Which nation held fifty-three Americans hostage from November 1979 until January 1981? a) Saudi Arabia. b) Nicaragua. c) El Salvador. d) Iran. e) Libya.
answer
d) Iran.
question
Reagan's economic program, known as "supply-side economics" relied on: a) tax cuts and high interest rates. b) tax increases and low interest rates. c) tax cuts specifically for low-income Americans. d) increased environmental regulations. e) increased regulation of workplace safety.
answer
a) tax cuts and high interest rates.
question
Richard Nixon's New Federalism: a) proposed a decrease in funding for Social Security. b) called for a reduction in all government spending and a balanced budget. c) proposed that a system of block grants be assigned to states to spend as they saw fit. d) demanded that the federal government administer all aid, even on the local level. e) proposed that no new federal agencies be created.
answer
c) proposed that a system of block grants be assigned to states to spend as they saw fit.
question
In a historic move, in 1972 President Nixon opened diplomatic relations with: a) Taiwan. b) China. c) The Soviet Union. d) Cuba. e) North Vietnam.
answer
b) China.
question
The Equal Rights Amendment: a) passed Congress but failed ratification. b) passed Congress and was ratified by the required 38 states. c) had the support of all American women. d) had little support from American men. e) was supported by Phyllis Schlafly.
answer
a) passed Congress but failed ratification.
question
The opponents of the ERA defined freedom for women as: a) being within the public sphere. b) the right to control their own bodies. c) residing in the roles of wife and mother. d) economic opportunity. e) the right to an easy divorce.
answer
c) residing in the roles of wife and mother.
question
Under the Nixon administration, the United States: a) supported the government of Salvador Allende in Chile. b) boycotted South Africa to protest apartheid. c) supported democratic reforms in Iran. d) continued to undermine Third World governments. e) focused its foreign policy on Southeast Asia.
answer
d) continued to undermine Third World governments.
question
Domestically, President Gerald Ford: a) was successful at reviving the American economy. b) introduced programs that encouraged growth in the manufacturing sector. c) reversed the economic policies of his predecessor. d) restored Americans' confidence in their nation, as business boomed. e) failed to revive the economy.
answer
e) failed to revive the economy.
question
The handling of the Iranian hostage crisis: a) was a diplomatic achievement for President Carter. b) restored Americans' confidence in their nation. c) made Jimmy Carter appear weak and inept. d) made Ronald Reagan appear weak and inept. e) ended with the signing of the Camp David Accords.
answer
c) made Jimmy Carter appear weak and inept.
question
When they were arrested, the burglars at the Watergate apartment complex were breaking into: a) the psychiatrist Daniel Ellsberg's office. b) the Washington Post's headquarters. c) the Democratic Party headquarters. d) George McGovern's apartment. e) the Committee to Reelect the President's (CREEP's) headquarters.
answer
c) the Democratic Party headquarters.
question
Reagan's economic policies: a) expanded food stamps and school lunch programs. b) enlarged government revenue. c) decreased the national debt. d) strengthened labor unions. e) resulted in a rise in economic inequality.
answer
e) resulted in a rise in economic inequality.
question
In 1972, Congress passed Title IX, which: a) was passed over President Nixon's veto. b) banned racial discrimination in higher education. c) banned gender discrimination in higher education. d) banned gender discrimination in the workplace. e) guaranteed women equal access to pay.
answer
c) banned gender discrimination in higher education.
question
In foreign policy, Reagan: a) opposed "authoritarian" noncommunist regimes. b) embraced Carter's emphasis on human rights. c) decreased military spending. d) called for a halt to the development of nuclear weapons. e) initiated the largest military buildup in American history.
answer
e) initiated the largest military buildup in American history.
question
During the 1970s, conservatives: a) continued their overt opposition to the black struggle for racial justice. b) insisted on more local control and resisted the power of the federal government. c) employed the fiery rhetoric and direct confrontation tactics of Bull Connor and George Wallace. d) made little progress. e) appealed primarily to urban Americans.
answer
b) insisted on more local control and resisted the power of the federal government.
question
Voters approved Proposition 13 in California, a law that banned: a) Mexican immigration. b) bilingual education in public schools. c) abortions. d) further increases in property taxes. e) issuing drivers licenses to illegal aliens.
answer
d) further increases in property taxes.
question
Richard Nixon's appointments to the Supreme Court were intended to: a) continue the liberal trend set by the Warren Court. b) be balanced with conservatives and liberals. c) lead the court in a conservative direction. d) break gender barriers by his appointment of the first female justice. e) appease the Democrats, since he had to work with them in Congress on other issues.
answer
c) lead the court in a conservative direction.
question
The Reagan Revolution: a) included an emphasis on global human rights. b) introduced an expanded welfare state. c) strengthened the labor movement. d) included cuts to government programs. e) had little appeal for most Americans.
answer
d) included cuts to government programs.
question
Nixon's Family Assistance Plan: a) proposed to guarantee a minimum income for all Americans. b) won approval by Congress. c) was seen as too radical by liberals. d) replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children. e) was seen as inadequate by conservatives.
answer
a) proposed to guarantee a minimum income for all Americans.
question
(Ch 27) Week 8 "Globalization and Its Discontents" The third-party candidate Ross Perot: a) received few votes in the 1992 presidential election. b) criticized only President Bush's foreign policy. c) ran as a Progressive Party candidate. d) received the least votes for a third-party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt. e) received the most votes for a third-party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt.
answer
e) received the most votes for a third-party candidate since Theodore Roosevelt.
question
What is a visible sign of Native American quasi-sovereignty? a) Casinos. b) Reservations. c) Citizenship. d) Increase in professional jobs. e) Political participation.
answer
a) Casinos.
question
By the start of the twenty-first century, the largest minority group in the United States was: a) Cambodian. b) Filipino. c) Chinese. d) African-American. e) Latino.
answer
e) Latino.
question
By the start of the twenty-first century, dot coms symbolized the: a) continued economic vitality of the computer revolution. b) lasting positive social impact of the computer revolution. c) negative impact of stock speculation among technology companies. d) stabilization of the stock market. e) potential increase in manufacturing jobs in the United States.
answer
c) negative impact of stock speculation among technology companies.
question
By the year 2000, the AIDS epidemic: a) affected only homosexuals and transgender Americans. b) affected only drug users and hemophiliacs. c) was spreading less rapidly among gay Americans. d) brought an end to the gay rights movement. e) had been brought under control around the world.
answer
c) was spreading less rapidly among gay Americans.
question
Casey v. Planned Parenthood of Pennsylvania: a) upheld the view that those who used violence against abortion clinics had to be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. b) ruled that a woman had to inform her husband before getting an abortion. c) overturned Roe v. Wade. d) repudiated the centuries-old claim that a husband had a legal claim to control the body of his wife. e) was a triumph for supporters of the pro-life position.
answer
d) repudiated the centuries-old claim that a husband had a legal claim to control the body of his wife.
question
By the end of the 1990s, the American economy: a) was characterized by rising employment rates and declining income for poor and middle-class Americans. b) went into a deep depression as the federal deficit forced up interest rates. c) boomed as workers' wages rose and the savings rate of Americans increased. d) thrived as union membership increased and the labor market grew more "sticky." e) was strongest in rural areas as computer technologies allowed companies to move into more remote locations.
answer
a) was characterized by rising employment rates and declining income for poor and middle-class Americans.
question
Countless corporate scandals and stock frauds stemmed directly from the 1999 repeal of which New Deal measure? a) The Glass-Steagall Act. b) The Federal Communications Act. c) The Securities and Exchange Act. d) The Reconstruction Finance Corporation. e) The Bank Holiday Act.
answer
a) The Glass-Steagall Act.
question
What were the student protesters who occupied Tiananmen Square in Beijing in June 1989 demanding? a) Fair wages and better working conditions. b) Suspension of martial law imposed earlier that year. c) An end to communism in China. d) Freedom for Taiwan. e) Greater democracy.
answer
e) Greater democracy.
question
Militia groups arose in America during the 1990s: a) to protest the increasing influence of the Christian Coalition. b) and engaged in acts of domestic terrorism. c) but were quickly eliminated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). d) but posed no immediate threat to the nation. e) and were based primarily in the Northeast.
answer
b) and engaged in acts of domestic terrorism.
question
What spurred the new economy? a) The automobile. b) Housing. c) NAFTA. d) Television. e) The computer.
answer
e) The computer.
question
By the end of 1991, Soviet attempts at economic reform had created chaos, and the: a) Soviet military staged a successful coup. b) Soviet Union dissolved, ending the Cold War. c) United States had to intervene with financial aid. d) Soviets sought U.S. assistance. e) Soviets turned to the United Nations for help.
answer
b) Soviet Union dissolved, ending the Cold War.
question
____________ has been called "the concept of the 1990s." a) Liberty b) Money c) Technology d) Globalization e) Liberalism
answer
d) Globalization
question
Bill Clinton's foreign policy centered on: a) elevating human rights to a central place in international relations. b) defeating the few pockets of communism left in the world. c) taking a hard line against economic competitors like Mexico and Canada. d) building what he called a New World Order. e) preemptive strikes to weed out dictatorial leaders that posed a threat to American security.
answer
a) elevating human rights to a central place in international relations.
question
Operation Desert Storm: a) quickly drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait. b) ousted Saddam Hussein from power. c) lacked a clear strategic political goal. d) was criticized by the United Nations. e) quickly drove the Iraqi army out of Iran.
answer
a) quickly drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait.
question
Whose election campaign director was fond of the saying "It's the economy, stupid"? a) Bob Dole's. b) George H. W. Bush's. c) Pat Buchanan's. d) John Anderson's. e) Bill Clinton's.
answer
e) Bill Clinton's.
question
President Bill Clinton: a) abolished child poverty. b) terminated the food stamp program. c) ended public housing programs. d) replaced welfare with state grants. e) initiated diplomatic ties with China.
answer
d) replaced welfare with state grants.
question
The 1995 truck bombing of the federal building in Oklahoma City was organized by: a) militant African-American separatists. b) a left-wing paramilitary group. c) a far-right private militia group. d) Islamic fundamentalists. e) Osama bin Laden.
answer
c) a far-right private militia group.
question
The term "pay gap" refers to the difference in: a) pay differences between workers and CEOs. b) pay rates for skilled and unskilled workers. c) pay rates between men and women. d) pay gaps between new hires and senior employees. e) the difference between gross income and take-home pay.
answer
c) pay rates between men and women.
question
The 2000 presidential race between George W. Bush and Al Gore was: a) finally decided by the Supreme Court. b) decided by the Florida Attorney General. c) in question because of voter fraud in Florida. d) a landslide victory for Bush. e) finally decided by the U.S. Senate.
answer
a) finally decided by the Supreme Court.
question
In the 1990s, school segregation: a) declined as the nation became more diverse. b) was on the rise. c) was less widespread than it had been in 1970. d) declined because the Supreme Court ruled that school funding could no longer rest on property taxes. e) was not a problem in the North.
answer
b) was on the rise.
question
In 1992, Bill Clinton secured the Democratic nomination for president because he: a) promised to expand welfare. b) pledged to continue the policies of President Bush in the Middle East. c) combined social liberalism with elements of conservatism. d) promised to restrict access to abortion. e) did not support gay rights.
answer
c) combined social liberalism with elements of conservatism.
question
During the 1990s, twenty-three states passed laws: a) legalizing gay marriage. b) limiting the rights of gay, lesbian, and bisexual Americans. c) banning all abortions except for medical emergencies. d) making English the official language. e) raising the drinking age to twenty-one.
answer
d) making English the official language.
question
At the end of the twentieth century, the Christian Coalition: a) was a major force in Republican Party politics. b) reversed its long-standing opposition to abortion. c) declined in numbers but grew more vocal at the same time. d) campaigned for the introduction of a national tax funding community churches. e) dominated the Democratic Party.
answer
a) was a major force in Republican Party politics.
question
The abortion rate declined throughout the 1990s, largely because: a) of the successful efforts of the pro-life campaign. b) there are few doctors who will perform abortions. c) of the success of abstinence campaigns. d) teenagers had increasing access to contraception. e) there was a large conversion to Catholicism.
answer
d) teenagers had increasing access to contraception.
question
(Ch 28) Who among the cabinet members strongly urged President Bush to ban torture in the war on terror—with certain exceptions provided? a) Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. b) Secretary of State Colin Powell. c) National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice. d) Vice President Dick Cheney. e) Central Intelligence Director George Tenet.
answer
b) Secretary of State Colin Powell.
question
President George W. Bush insisted that the war on terror was: a) not a war on crime. b) not a war on Islam. c) not a war on women. d) not a war against Afghanistan. e) not related to the war in Iraq.
answer
b) not a war on Islam.
question
All of the following statements about President Obama's first year in office are true EXCEPT: a) The Obama administration abolished the military tribunals Bush had established. b) The Obama administration barred the use of torture. c) The Obama administration passed a "stimulus" package amounting to nearly $800 billion in new government spending. d) The Obama administration poured taxpayer money into failing banks and assumed responsibility for the banks' debts. e) The Obama administration dispatched more American troops to Afghanistan.
answer
a) The Obama administration abolished the military tribunals Bush had established.
question
Early in 2003, President Bush announced that the United States would go to war against Iraq: a) with the full support of the United Nations. b) because its dictator Saddam Hussein had ordered the terrorist attacks on September 11. c) because it was believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. d) with the full support of the international community. e) and unlike during the Vietnam War, an antiwar movement did not develop.
answer
c) because it was believed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.
question
Operation Enduring Freedom was launched in October 2001: a) against Afghanistan, because the nation was harboring Osama bin Laden. b) against Saudi Arabia, because they were harboring Osama bin Laden. c) against Afghanistan, because the United States did not approve of the Taliban's treatment of women. d) against Afghanistan, because the Afghan government had ordered the terrorist attacks of September 11. e) as a way to combat rising unemployment.
answer
a) against Afghanistan, because the nation was harboring Osama bin Laden.
question
In 2001-2002, all of the following policymakers were determined to oust Hussein from power EXCEPT: a) Dick Cheney. b) Donald Rumsfeld. c) Colin Powell. d) Paul Wolfowitz. e) George W. Bush.
answer
c) Colin Powell.
question
In the midst of the stock market crash of 2008 and the housing crisis, most Americans: a) cut back on spending, leading to business failures and a rapid rise in unemployment. b) bought up stock in Lehman Brothers. c) invested in property as housing prices increased. d) attempted to invest in mortgage-based securities. e) were confident that the economic crisis would be short-lived.
answer
a) cut back on spending, leading to business failures and a rapid rise in unemployment.
question
After the September 11 attacks, who authorized the National Security Agency (NSA) to listen to domestic telephone conversations without a court warrant? a) Defense Secretary Rumsfeld. b) State Secretary Powell. c) National Security Advisor Rice. d) President Bush. e) Central Intelligence Director Tenet.
answer
d) President Bush.
question
By mid-2003, the American economy: a) had fully recovered from the impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11. b) was slowly recovering, as the number of new jobs increased. c) was mixed, as the recession ended but the unemployment rate rose. d) was especially strong in the technology sector. e) rebounded, as fewer jobs went overseas.
answer
c) was mixed, as the recession ended but the unemployment rate rose.
question
What happened at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq? a) American soldiers were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their conduct under tough circumstances. b) Over 100 Al Qaeda prisoners escaped in an elaborate scheme, embarrassing the United States. c) Saddam Hussein was tried and hanged by an American military tribunal. d) Under the supervision of U.S. military personnel, many prisoners were mistreated, humiliated, and tortured; some even died. e) It was blown up in an insurgency attack, killing the United Nations' chief ambassador to Iraq.
answer
d) Under the supervision of U.S. military personnel, many prisoners were mistreated, humiliated, and tortured; some even died.
question
The USA Patriot Act: a) overhauled airport security measures. b) expanded the rights of law enforcement agencies to conduct secret searches and detain suspected aliens. c) required every American to swear a loyalty oath. d) ceased all Islamic immigration into the United States. e) was vetoed by George W. Bush for violating civil liberties, but his veto was overridden by Congress.
answer
b) expanded the rights of law enforcement agencies to conduct secret searches and detain suspected aliens.
question
In a September 20, 2001 speech, President Bush announced that "freedom and ____________ are at war." a) tyranny b) communism c) Islam d) fear e) evil
answer
d) fear
question
Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee, selected Sarah Palin as his running mate: a) because she was a Washington insider with extensive political experience. b) because he sought to draw Democratic women into the Republican Party. c) because her attacks on Americans as being unpatriotic, lacking traditional values, and not representing the "real America" proved extremely popular with the Democratic Party's base. d) because she lacked familiarity with many domestic and foreign policy issues. e) because she was a third-term senator from Alaska.
answer
b) because he sought to draw Democratic women into the Republican Party.
question
The Hurricane Katrina disaster highlighted which of the following to Americans in 2005? a) The housing crisis was a minor problem compared to natural disaster. b) Global warming required immediate action and generous government funds. c) The nation and its economic recovery remained dependent on the price of oil. d) Racial segregation in the lower wards of New Orleans had not changed since the 1950s. e) A Democratically dominated Congress was as unsympathetic to the poor as a Republican one.
answer
c) The nation and its economic recovery remained dependent on the price of oil.
question
In the 2008 election, when Barack Obama "redrew the nation's political map": a) he only won in Democratic strongholds. b) he did extremely well in cities. c) he only won in the North and West. d) he won in states that had been reliably Republican for years as well as in Democratic strongholds. e) he won 53 percent of the popular vote and a large majority in the Electoral College.
answer
d) he won in states that had been reliably Republican for years as well as in Democratic strongholds.
question
During his first year in office, George W. Bush: a) raised tax rates for wealthy Americans. b) sponsored legislation to protect the environment. c) supported the accelerated reduction of nuclear weapons. d) had the full support of Congress, which had a commanding Republican majority. e) persuaded Congress to enact the largest tax cut in American history.
answer
e) persuaded Congress to enact the largest tax cut in American history.
question
All of the following contributed to the banking crisis of 2008 EXCEPT: a) The Federal Reserve Bank had kept interest rates at unprecedentedly low levels. b) Banks and other lending institutions issued "subprime" mortgages. c) Wall Street bankers developed complex ways of repackaging and selling "subprime" mortgages to investors. d) The Federal Reserve Bank and other regulatory agencies slowed the speculative frenzy. e) Public and private policies favored economic speculation and get-rich-quick schemes.
answer
d) The Federal Reserve Bank and other regulatory agencies slowed the speculative frenzy.
question
In response to the nation's economic woes, the Bush administration: a) did nothing. b) raised taxes and interest rates. c) raised taxes but cut interest rates. d) cut taxes but raised interest rates. e) cut taxes and interest rates.
answer
e) cut taxes and interest rates.
question
In response to the terrorist attacks on Washington, D.C., and New York City on September 11, 2001, President Bush: a) appealed to the United Nations to start peace talks. b) declared a war on terrorism. c) declared war on Saudi Arabia. d) declared war on all Muslim countries. e) disbanded the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
answer
b) declared a war on terrorism.
question
How did immigrants respond to the House of Representatives bill that made it a felony to be in the country illegally and a crime to offer aid to illegal immigrants? a) They put on a series of massive popular demonstrations demanding their right to remain in the United States. b) They largely ignored it. c) They began a mass exodus out of the United States. d) They threatened major border crossings with bomb threats. e) They petitioned Bush for sympathy since he had been governor of Texas.
answer
a) They put on a series of massive popular demonstrations demanding their right to remain in the United States.
question
What did the Justice Department label the captured members of Al Qaeda in order to get around the Geneva Conventions? a) Prisoners of an insurgency. b) Detainees. c) Army regulars. d) Rebel forces. e) Unlawful combatants.
answer
e) Unlawful combatants.
question
What made Barack Obama's presidential campaign "the first political campaign of the twenty-first century"? a) Its widespread use of the Internet to raise money and communicate directly with voters. b) Its use of televised debates. c) Its use of television advertisements. d) Its use of direct calling. e) Its use of direct mailings.
answer
a) Its widespread use of the Internet to raise money and communicate directly with voters.
question
Early in Bush's first term, his administration did which of the following? a) Signed a new Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union. b) Rejected the Kyoto Protocol. c) Established a new international criminal court. d) Raised taxes to balance the budget. e) Banned drilling for oil in Alaska's Artic National Wildlife Refuge.
answer
b) Rejected the Kyoto Protocol.
question
Which of the following statements about Saddam Hussein turned out to be true? a) He possessed a mobile chemical weapons laboratory. b) He had hidden weapons of mass destruction in his many palaces. c) He was a horrible tyrant who ruled Iraq ruthlessly. d) He was hiding in his palace as a safe haven from the war. e) He was seeking to acquire uranium in Africa to build nuclear weapons.
answer
c) He was a horrible tyrant who ruled Iraq ruthlessly.
question
Which state's supreme court ruled that homosexual marriages must receive legal recognition, spurring a moral values debate during the 2004 presidential election? a) Vermont. b) California. c) Florida. d) Oregon. e) Massachusetts.
answer
e) Massachusetts.