Health II Final Exam Study Notes

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Which of the following terms means a global outbreak and spread of a disease?
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Pandemic
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For disease to occur, the immune system of the host must be in a
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weakened condition
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Not getting enough sleep and eating a regular diet of junk food will have what effect on the immune system?
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Will impair its ability to fight disease
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Which of the following risk factors for disease can you control?
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Nutritional status
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The transmission of an infectious disease occurs through a process known as the
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Chain of infection
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Rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and type 1 diabetes are examples of which type of disease?
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Autoimmune
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Which of the following makes the body vulnerable to pathogens?
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Breaks in the skin or mucous membrane
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Redness, swelling, pain, and heat are the cardinal signs of
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inflammation
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Which type of blood cells play a primary role in the body’s immune response?
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Lymphocytes
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Tuberculosis, meningitis, and staph infections are caused by
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Bacteria
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Rocky Mountain spotted fever is transmitted by
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Ticks
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An example of an endemic disease is
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a common cold
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Diseases caused by bacteria can be treated with
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Antibiotics
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The form of hepatitis that can be contracted from eating food or drinking water contaminated with human feces is
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Hepatitis C
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Shingles is most common in people over the age of
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60
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Bob is a 62-year-old male who had chicken pox as a child. This increases his risk for the virus to reoccur in the form of
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Shingles
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Jock itch is an example of a condition caused by
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Fungi
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Rabies is which type of pathogen carried by animals?
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virus
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Which of the following are signs of meningitis?
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Sudden fever and severe headache
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Staying indoors at dawn and dusk and wearing long-sleeves and long pants when outdoors are measures that can protect you from
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Being bitten by an infected mosquito
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Which of the following is NOT an antigen?
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Antibody
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How are fungal infections transmitted?
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Physical Contact
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Which of the following directly attack infected or malignant cells?
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Killer T cells
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Which infections disease is second only to HIV/AIDS in terms of deaths caused each year?
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Tuberculosis
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Which of the following involves infection and inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord?
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Meningitis
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The most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in the United States is
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Chlamydia
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Sharon has pelvic inflammatory disease that occurred as secondary damage from a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Which STI did she have?`
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Chlamydia
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One of the major consequences of untreated pelvic inflammatory disease is
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Infertility
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Scott is diagnosed with gonorrhea. Which type of pathogen caused his infection?
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Bacteria
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Which of the following is true about gonorrhea?
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It is treated with antibiotics
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Which sexually transmitted infection has recently been implicated as a risk factor for coronary artery disease?
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HPV infection
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Candidiasis is more commonly referred to as
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yeast infection
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Which of the following is not a common symptom of having an STI?
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sore throat
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Which of the following is NOT a method of HIV transmission?
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Using a contaminated toilet seat
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In what year was AIDS first identified as a threat?
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1981
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Which of the following poses the greatest risk of cervical cancer in women?
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HPV
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Genital warts are caused by
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HPV
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The virus that causes AIDS is the
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HIV
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About how many new cases of STIs are there each year?
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20 million
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Which of the following is true about herpes?
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At the present time, there is no cure for herpes
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Olivia is pregnant and has genital herpes. What will her physician recommend?
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Cesarean delivery
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The second leading cause of death in the United States is
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cancer
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Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by
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uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
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Jack was told that the tumor in his brain is malignant. This means that the tumor is
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cancerous
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Tomas was told that the tumor in his brain is benign. This means that the tumor is
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noncancerous
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Cancers are caused by two types of risk factors, those related to heredity and those that result from a person’s
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environment
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Substances that are known to cause cancer are referred to as
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carcinogens
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Nearly 77 percent of all cancers are diagnosed in people in which age range?
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Over age 55
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Which of the following may increase the risk of breast cancer?
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Being obese
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“Never smokers” make up what percentage of all lung cancer cases?
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15
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When Angeline seeks treatment for this sexually transmitted virus, her doctor tells her that it has been linked to an increased risk of cervical cancer. The virus she has is
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HPV
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The leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States is
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lung cancer
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What percentage of all lung cancers could be avoided if people did not smoke?
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90%
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Increased risk for colon and rectal cancers is linked to
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high consumption of red and processed meats
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Men in which of the following ethnic groups have the highest risk of developing prostate cancer?
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African Americans
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Excluding skin cancer, the most common cancer in American males today is
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prostate cancer
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The most dangerous form of skin cancer is
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malignant melanoma
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The best form of prevention for skin cancer is to
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limit exposure to harmful UV rays
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Members of which of the following groups are most at risk for skin cancer?
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people with fair skin, blonde or red hair, and blue or green eyes
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The minimum SPF necessary for a sunscreen to protect the skin is
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SPF 15
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Which of the following age groups is at highest risk of testicular cancer?
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Age 15 to age 35
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A Pap test is effective for early detection of
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cervical cancer
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HPV and herpes increase the risk of which type of cancer?
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cervical cancer
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Cancer of the blood-forming tissues is known as
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Leukemia
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The procedure in which a tissue sample is removed and examined to determine if cancer is present is
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biopsy
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A neoplasmic mass that grows more rapidly than surrounding tissue is a
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Tumor
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The most common form of cancer in the United States today is
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skin cancer
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After heart disease, cancer, and stroke, what is the next leading cause of death in the United States?
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chronic lower respiratory disease
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The two lung conditions referred to as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are
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chronic bronchitis and emphysema
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The vast majority of persons with (COPD) have a history of
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smoking
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A hypersensitivity reaction in which the body produces antibodies to a normally harmless substance is a(n)
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allergy
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An allergic response begins with exposure to a(n)
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antigen
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An immune response to a specific food is a(n)
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food allergy
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Difficulty or inability to digest a specific food is a(n)
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food intolerance
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The type of headache that often involves debilitating symptoms is the
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migraine headache
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In about 25 percent of cases, a sensory warning sign precedes a migraine; this warning sign is called a(n)
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aura
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Which of the following conditions is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain and is characterized by loss of muscle control?
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Epilepsy
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Which of the following conditions has no known cause and is characterized by extreme fatigue and painful, aching joints and muscles?
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Fibromyalgia
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Which of the following can be triggers for irritable bowel syndrome?
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All responses are correct
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The sensation of heartburn is caused by
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back flow of stomach acid in to the esophagus
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Which of the following is the most common type of arthritis diagnosed?
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osteoarthritis
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The growing incidence of arthritis can be attributed largely to
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obesity and sedentary lifestyle
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People in which age group have the highest risk for low back pain?
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Age 20-45
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Which is the most common type of headache?
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Tension
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The disease characterized by inflammation and spasm of airways, blocking air flow in and out of the lungs is
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asthma
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Two of the most common food intolerances are to
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lactose(milk sugar) and gluten
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Bones becoming brittle, weak, and more prone to breakage is characteristic of which of the following conditions?
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osteoporosis
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The most crippling form of arthritis is
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rheumatoid arthritis
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Which of the following symptoms would warrant seeking immediate medical care?
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sudden or severe chest pain
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Which of the following is true about generic drugs?
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They contain the same active ingredients as name brand drugs
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Which of the following over-the-counter drugs are used to relieve pain and inflammation?
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Aspirin and ibuprofen
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In total, about what percentage of Americans are uninsured?
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16%
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Antacids are drugs used to
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relieves heartburn
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Lindsay is a nurse with an advanced degree who performs routine exams, conducts diagnostic tests, and can prescribe medication. Which type of nurse is she?
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nurse practitioner
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Which of the following is true about physician assistants?
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They must work under the supervision of a licensed physician
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Antioxidants in foods are important in the diet because they
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combat free radicals and oxidative damage in cells.
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Because Kevin has a history of back problems, his old health insurance plan would not cover any back-related injury until his policy has been in place for 12 months. This practice, which is not legal as of 2014, is known as a(n)
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preexisting condition clause
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Becky is 80 years old and is covered by a federal health insurance program. Which program provides her coverage?
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medicare
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The federal-state health insurance program that provides coverage for low-income individuals and families is
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medicaid
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The approach taken by complementary and alternative therapies that focuses on treating the whole person-the mind and the whole body-is known as
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holistic
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The intentional use of physical force or the threat of force to inflict physical or psychological harm is the World Health Organization’s definition of
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violence
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Injury done to another person with the intent to harm is
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intentional injury
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Death that results from the deliberate intent to injure or kill is a(n)
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homocide
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Homicide is the second leading cause of death for persons age
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15 to 24
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In one third of homicides in the United States,
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the perpetrator and the victims are part of the same family
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The use of force or the threat of force to control and maintain power over another person in the home environment is
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domestic violence
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Which of the following behaviors is considered neglecting a child?
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failure to provide meals on a daily basis
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Deliberate acts that cause harm to a child is
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child abuse
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Assaults on the personality, character, competence, or dignity of a child are considered
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psychological abuse
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Many of the elderly who are abused fail to report abuse, neglect or exploitation because they
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fear retribution or removal from their home
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Sexual penetration without the victim’s consent is
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rape
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Any form of unwelcome sexual attention related to any condition of employment, education, or performance evaluation is
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sexual harassment
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Which serious crime is the least reported to police?
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rape
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In the event of a rape, the victim should first call 911 and then immediately
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go to a clinic or hospital immediately for examination
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A bias-motivated crime is
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a hate crime or ethnoviolence
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A woman often remains a victim of domestic violence because
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she fears retaliation against herself or her children
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If a friend confided that she was forced to have sex and did not consent, this is an example of
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sexual assault
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Children who have experienced sexual abuse are at increased risk for
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anxiety disorders, depression and suicide
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Based on statistics about campus violence, female students who are victims of rape
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usually know the perpetrator
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In 2012, how many people died in the United States due to motor vehicle accidents involving alcohol-impaired drivers?
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10,300
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Drivers in which of the following groups are most likely to be involved in an accident?
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Teenagers
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What percentage of accidental drowning deaths among adolescents and adults involve alcohol?
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About three-quarters
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More than 8 out of 10 people who drown while boating were
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not wearing a life jacket
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Each year in the United States, fireworks cause approximately how many injuries?
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7,000-12,000
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The first-aid procedure that involves performing chest compressions and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation on an unconscious victim is
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CPR
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Speeding plays a role in what percentage of fatal motor vehicle crashes?
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About one-third
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A substance that contaminates some aspect of the environment and causes potential harm to living organisms is a
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pollutant
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Molly and Gary bought a home that was built before 1970. Which of the following potential contaminants should they be most concerned about?
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Asbestos
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Making sure a wood stove is properly vented will reduce the potential buildup of
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Carbon monoxide
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After smoking, the next leading cause of lung cancer is
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radon
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One of the primary causes of sick building syndrome is
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poor ventilation
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The ozone layer of the stratosphere protects the Earth from
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UVB radiation
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A primary cause of skin cancer is
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ultraviolent B radiation
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How much of the Earth’s surface is covered with water?
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75%
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About what percentage of the Earth’s water supply that is available for human use?
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1%
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Chemicals used in farming and gardening to kill insects or rodents are
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pesticides
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Sorting, collecting, and processing materials to be reused in manufacturing new products is
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recycling
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Approximately what percentage of municipal solid waste in the United States is currently recycled or composted?
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35%
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The percentage of trash that could potentially be recycled in the United States is estimated to be as much as
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90 percent

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