Grunig and Hunt’s Four Models of Public Relations
Grunig and Hunt ( 1984 ) ’s four theoretical accounts of public dealingss are possibly the most normally used theories in the field. They are utile in that they divide a complicated capable affair into four cardinal countries which can so be individually addressed. Corporations may mention to these theoretical accounts in set uping their CSR attempts.
For illustration. the first country ( Press Agentry ) deals with the activities of those who will make anything to derive promotion. Possibly Bransonesque stunts are non appropriate for set uping converting societal duty. but surely widespread advertisement of a peculiar enterprise ( such as BP’s cleansing agent fuel promise ) will be good. The Second theoretical account describes the modern complexnesss of the growingly accurate one-way information for corporations.
An effectual illustration of this can be seen in Shells out of the blue honest environmental coverage ; companies wishing to be seen as ethical must follow similar schemes whether they be communicated through big scale media administrations or possibly through the companies own web site ( a cheaper and safer option ) . Model 3 and 4 trade with asymmetric and symmetric bipartisan communicating severally. Some argue the being of a true symmetric theoretical account is non possible. but Grunig and Hunt ( 1984 ) insist it to be the most effectual. Companies should take to implement CSR plans that consider the aim of the PR work to be every bit of import as or more of import than the company itself ; such as the aforesaid BP drawing out of a potentially moneymaking Alaskan Oil boring undertaking in the involvements of the environment.
I steadfastly believe that in most instances where a corporation is trying to go more responsible. the scheme is merely another method of deriving competitory advantage in a turning market. A corporation’s demand to distinguish themselves from competition in a society where the consumer is more informed than of all time before agencies that CSR is an of import aspect of any corporation’s strategic planning.
BP’s repute ( through extended advertisement ) of ‘cleaner petrol’ was merely a by-product of an unselfish socially responsible plan to make cleaner more efficient fuel? I don’t think so! BP’s attempts to make cleaner/better fuel is a cagey attempt to make a distinguishable merchandise in a homogeneous market whilst constructing a favorable repute. As Leisinger ( 2002 ) provinces:
“In 1994. harmonizing to a study conducted by the Walker Research Institute. some 78 % of American consumers avoided merchandises from companies of which they had negative perceptual experiences ; 48 % of these consumers said that their buying determinations were influenced by the morality of companies’ concern patterns. ”