FTCE Professional Education Test: Assessment Essay

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reliability
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the consistency of a measurement over time and repeated measurements
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validity
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can be determined by comparing a test score against some separate or independent observation of whatever is being measured
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unbiased test
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a test that does not unfairly favor a particular group
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standardized test
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a test that has been carefully constructed and field-tested so that (ideally) it has a high degree of reliability and validity
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norm-referenced test
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a test that assesses students by comparing their performance to that of a norm group (ex: California Achievement Test)
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criterion-referenced test
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a test that assesses students by comparing their performance to a per-determined level of mastery (ex: FCAT)
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measures of central tendency
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mean, median, and mode
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mean
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determined by adding up all the scores and dividing this sum by the total number of scores that were added
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median
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the midpoint in a distribution of scores from highest to lowest
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mode
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the score in a distribution that appears most frequently
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measures of variability
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used to describe the amount of spread
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range
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the greatest score minus the least score in a set of scores; the simplest measure of variability
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standard deviation
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a measure of dispersion of a set of data values about the mean of the data set
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raw score
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the total number of correct responses on an assessment
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z-score
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the distance in standard deviations from the mean of the scores on the assessment; (raw score – mean) / standard deviation
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percentile
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a value at or below which P percent of the data fall
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quartile
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values that divide an ordered data set into four portions, each of which contains approximately 1/4 of the data
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stanine scores
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scores derived from percentiles; compare test performance using nine intervals that are numbered 1 to 9
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grade equivalent score
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used to describe student’s performance in comparison to the performance of an average student at a specified grade level
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formative assessment
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occurs before and during instruction
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diagnostic assessment
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administered before instruction and are designed to identify students’ strengths and weaknesses (e.g., pre-tests, student interviews, learning style inventories)
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Florida School Readiness Uniform Screening System (SRUSS)
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requires that new kindergarten students in Florida public schools be assessed for school readiness at the beginning of the school year (ESI-K and DIBELS)
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Early Screening Inventory – Kindergarten (ESI-K)
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assesses children’s visual-motor/adaptive development, their language and cognition, and their gross motor skills
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Dynamic Indicators of Basic Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
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measures important skills that form the basis for early success in reading
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summative assessment
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most often used to determine students’ academic achievement in each class or course, often for the purpose of grades (e.g., student projects, unit and chapter tests, standardized tests)
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Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT)
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summative assessment tool which measures students’ achievement on the Florida Sunshine State Standards; administered in grades 3-11; measures skills in reading, writing, science, and math
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authentic assessment
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incorporates real-life application tasks and enables the teacher to directly assess meaningful and complex educational performances
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performance assessment
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same as authentic assessment; long been used in assessment of music, art, drama, and physical education
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process/product assessment
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same as authentic assessment; long been used in science, math, social studies, and language arts
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instructionally embedded assessment
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(aka teacher observation) uses systematic observational methods along with checklists, interviews, and questioning while students are engaged in learning activities
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portfolio
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meaningful collection of student work; one of the best ways for students to engage in assessing their progress over time
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projects
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include stories, essays, drawings, models, audio recordings, videos, powerpoints, and other mechanisms that allow students to demonstrate their acquisition of knowledge and skills
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checklist
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an assessment tool, listing skills or performances, that can used by teachers or students to monitor learning
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conferences or interviews
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provide an opportunity to discuss and question a student about what the student knows and is able to do
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journals
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provide a way for students to respond in writing to a prompt by the teacher and to reflect on their own learning
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student self-assessment
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performed by the students (e.g., grading their own papers, group participation, and portfolio assessment)
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peer assessment
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assessment by students of their classmates’ products or performances

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