First Aid and Emergency Care

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Who is the most important link between the emergency medical service (EMS) and the victim?
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Bystanders
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Who primarily benefits from first aid training?
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Other people
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First aid is intended to:
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Provide temporary assistance until competent medical care, if needed, is obtained.
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Properly applied, first aid may mean the difference between:
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All of the above
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Consent to give first aid must be obtained from every victim who is:
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All of the above
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If the victim is unresponsive, permission to give first aid is known as:
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Implied consent
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Which of the following is a true statement regarding obtaining consent to give first aid?
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Consent should be obtained from every responsive, mentally competent adult.
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Why might someone hesitate to get involved during an emergency?
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All of the above
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A first aider must stay with the victim until another equally or better trained person takes over. Failure to do so would be considered:
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Abandonment
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Deviating from accepted standards of care that results in further injury to the victim is known as:
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Negligence
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Duty to act, breach of duty (substandard care), and injury and damages inflicted are all factors involved in:
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Assault or battery
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Which statement concerning duty to act is correct?
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All of the above
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EMS personnel should definitely be called for:
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Breathing diffuculty
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A first aider who breaks his or her responsibility to a victim by failing to provide the type of care that another person with similar training would proved, commits:
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Breach of Duty
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Failure to do what a reasonably prudent person with the same or similar training would do in the same or similar circumstances is known as:
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An act of omission
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Which of the following is a sign of inadequate breathing?
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All of the above
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Cyanosis would cause what kind of skin color?
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Blue-gray
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The most common type of personal protective equipment available for first aiders to protect against bloodborne pathogens is:
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Gloves
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The “O” in DOTS stands for:
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Open wound
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How would you check a victim’s abdomen for tenderness?
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Gently press the four quadrants
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Which of the following is a sign?
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Moist skin
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Something that the victim tells the first aider about is:
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A symptom
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Which of the following is a symptom?
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Nausea
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The “L” in SAMPLE stands for:
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Last oral intake
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The “E” in SAMPLE stands for:
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Events leading to the injury or illness
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A bystander who has seen the emergency happen is ___ to help than a bystander who arrives after the event.
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More likely
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Why might someone hesitate to get involved during an emergency?
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All of the above
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What should the rescuer look for during the scene survey?
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All of the above
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EMS personnel should definitely be summoned in which instance?
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All of the above
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In a serious situation, who should you call first?
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EMS
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What information will you need to provide to the EMS dispatcher?
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All of the above
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The passage of air into and out of the lungs is called
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Respiration
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The process of breathing out is called
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Exhalation
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A person with a back or neck injury must be handled with extreme care to prevent injury to the:
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Spinal cord
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The lowest part of the sternum is called the:
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Xiphoid process
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Which of the following is part of the initial check?
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B-broken bones
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A victim’s level of responsiveness or mental status can be described according to the ___ scale.
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AVPU
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The “U” in AVPU stands for
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Unresponsive to any stimulus
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The physical exam on an adult should be started at the victim’s:
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Head
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Something that the first aider sees, hears, or feels is:
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A sign
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You cause the victim to roll down the hill and hit a tree when examining him. The good Samaritan Law protects you even though you caused further harm.
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False
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You are required to provide first aid to any injured or suddenly ill person you encounter.
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False
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First aiders should assume that blood and all body fluids are infectious.
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True
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A scene survey should be done before giving first aid to an injured victim.
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True
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The human body can store oxygen for hours.
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False
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Name one location for feeling a pulse.
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Wrist (radial)
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You must perform a complete assessment for every injured or suddenly ill victim.
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False
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What position is known as the recovery position?
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Left side
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There is no need to wash your hands after performing first aid if you were wearing protective gloves.
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False
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Tuberculosis is a bloodborne disease.
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False
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An estimated 80% of all burn injuries occur:
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In the home.
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Burns that affect only the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin are considered:
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First degree (superficial)
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Burns that extend through the entire outer layer and into the inner skin layer are considered:
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Second degree (partial thickness)
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Burns that penetrate all the skin layers and into the underlying fat and muscle are considered:
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Third degree (full thickness)
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Blisters, swelling, weeping of fluids, and severe pain are characteristics of which type of burn?
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Second degree (partial thickness)
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Skin that looks leathery, waxy, or pearly gray are characteristics of which type of burn?
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Third degree (full thickness)
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The first step in caring for a burn victim with a first degree or small second degree burn is to:
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Run cold tap water over the area as soon as possible.
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What is the first step in caring for dry chemicals spilled on the skin?
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Brush off the substance and flush with water.
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When washing chemicals from the body, the area should be flushed for at least:
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20 minutes
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If you can safely reach the victim of electric shock caused by downed power lines, attempt to remove the wires:
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Do not attempt to move any wires.
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Shock refers to the failure of which system?
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Cardiovascular
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Shock occurs when body parts do not receive adequate:
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Oxygenated blood
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The Perfusion Triangle includes:
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Heart, blood vessels, blood.
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What type of shock is caused by inadequate function of the heart?
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Cardiogenic
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Neurogenic shock results from:
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Damage to the nervous system.
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Septic shock develops in some victims with:
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Bacterial infection
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Anaphylactic shock:
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is a massive allergic reaction
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Which of the following are signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis?
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All of the above
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When a person experiences shock, the person’s skin is usually:
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Clammy
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The term ___ refers to a large amount of bleeding in a short time.
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Hemorrhage
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In ___ bleeding, blood spurts up to several feet from the wound
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Arterial
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Which is the most serious type of bleeding?
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Arterial
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If a dressing becomes blood-soaked, what should be done?
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Apply another dressing on type of the old one.
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What should be done when caring for a victim of severe internal bleeding?
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All of the Above
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Which results when the top layer of skin is removed, with little or no blood loss?
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Abrasion
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Which wound results in skin cut with jagged, irregular edges?
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Laceration
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Which wound is smooth-edged?
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Incision
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Which wound is usually deep and narrow, with a high risk of infection?
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Puncture
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Which wound usually involves ears, fingers, and hands, and results in tearing of a flap of skin?
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Avulsion
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Which wound involves the cutting or tearing off a body part?
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Amputation
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Care for open wounds includes which of the following guidelines?
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All of the above
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How should animal bites, dirty wounds, and puncture wounds be cleaned?
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They should be cleaned only by medical personnel.
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Which first aid supply is applied over a wound to control bleeding and prevent contamination?
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Dressing
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What are the signs and symptoms of an infected wound?
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All of the above
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Which of the following factors increases the likelihood of wound infection?
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All of the above
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Tetanus shots must be given within ___ hours of the injury to be effective.
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72
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Which type of amputation is a clean cut complete detachment?
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Guillotine
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What type of amputation occurs when an extremity separates by being crushed or mashed off?
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Crushing
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What is the proper procedure for breaking a blister?
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Drain the fluid by making a small hole at the base of the blister.
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The only time an impaled object can safely remove is:
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When it is stuck in the cheek
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In cases of scalp wounds, the first aider should expect ____ bleeding.
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Profuse
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How should you control bleeding when a depressed skull fracture is suspected?
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Apply pressure around the edges of the wound.
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How should you care for cuts of the eye or lid?
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Bandage both eyes lightly
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When flushing an eye burned by chemicals:
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Both A and B: hold the victim’s head under a faucet, or pour water into the eye from a clean container. Use a clean eye cup.
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If an eye is avulsed from its socket:
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Cover the eye loosely with a moist, sterile dressing.
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When damage or death of part of the heart muscle occurs as a result of ischemia, it is called ______
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A heart attack
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The condition where air fills a portion of the chest cavity is called ____
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Pneumothorax
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What is the primary symptom of fractured ribs?
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Pain
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What can be used to stabilize fractured ribs?
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A soft object, such as a pillow
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What is the most important step in caring for a victim of an impaled object in the chest?
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Stabilizing the object in place
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How do you care for a sucking chest wound?
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Seal the wound
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For an abdominal wound in which organs protrude, you should:
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Cover the organs with a moist, sterile dressing.
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How should you first aider treat a victim with a pelvis injury?
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All of the above
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A fracture that cuts across at right angles to the bone’s long axis is called:
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Transverse
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When the fracture line crosses the bone in a slanting direction, the fracture is called:
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oblique
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A fracture in which the bone is fragmented into more than two pieces is called:
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Communuted
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A fracture that usually results from a twisting injury is called:
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Spiral
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A fracture that commonly occurs in children whose bones are pliable is called:
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Greenstick
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What mneumonic can be used to identify signs and symptoms of a fracture?
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DOTS-deformities, open wounds, tenderness, swelling
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The C is CSM stands for:
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Circulation
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The O in DOTS stands for:
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Open wound
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What should be used to keep swelling out of a joint?
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RICE-rest, ice, compression, elevation
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A ___ results when the muscle is stretched beyond its normal range of motion.
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Strain
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A ___ occurs when a muscle goes into an uncontrolled spasm and contraction.
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Cramp
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A ___ occurs when a joint is twisted or stretched beyond its normal range of motion.
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Dislocation
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Inflammation of a tendon from overuse is called:
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Tendonitis
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In the mnemonic RICE, the E stands for:
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Elevation
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The painful pressure caused by accumulation of blood under a fingernail or toenail can be relieved by:
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Melting a hole through the nail with a red-hot paperclip.
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What is the purpose of splinting an extremity fracture?
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All of the above.
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A stroke occurs when:
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Blood vessels to the brain rupture or become plugged.
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Weakness, numbness, and paralysis of the face, an arm, or a leg on one side of the body are signs and symptoms of:
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Stroke
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Seizures are a symptom of
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Epilepsy
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When should a first aider call 9-1-1 for seizure victim?
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All of the above
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Type ___ diabetics tend to be overweight
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II
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Very low blood glucose is called:
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Hypoglycemia
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Confusion, trembling, and pale color are all signs and symptoms of:
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Hypoglycemia
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Under what conditions should you give a diabetic sugar?
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If all of the above conditions are met.
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Which of the following is a sign or symptom of hyperglycemia?
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All of the above
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Coughing, cyanosis, wheezing, and inability to speak in complete sentences without pausing for breath are all signs of:
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Asthma
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A device used to stabilize a fracture or a dislocation is called:
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A splint
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When should a fracture be stabilized?
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Before you move the victim
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When should you suspect a penetrating eye injury?
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The lid is lacerated or cut.
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In a ___, the skin is not broken.
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Closed chest injury
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____ occur when the internal abdominal tissues are damaged but the skin is unbroken.
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Closed abdominal injuries
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Bruising of the tissue is considered a:
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Contusion
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A ___ results when bones are displaced from their normal joint alignment.
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Dislocation
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When applying a compression bandage to an injured area, always wrap ___ the injury upward.
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From below
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Proper first aid for a heart attack includes:
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All of the above
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First aid for a stroke victim should include:
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All of the above
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Airway inflammation and overly sensitive airways are all components of:
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Asthma

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