Explaining the global issues of environment and health
The purpose of this paper is to clearly explicate two planetary issues ; the environment and wellness ; why it is a planetary issue and its consequence on human being. The issue of wellness and the environment are of import because the negative impacts of both could find whether the human population will go on or non.
The manner in which the ends of this paper will be achieved is by foremost specifying the environment and wellness ; placing some of the issues impacting both, explain which each are considered planetary issues ; giving illustrations of cases of impact, their consequence on concern globally and locally. After this is done an account would be given as to how these separate issues are in fact connected and eventually recommendations would be provided as to how these issues could be dealt with. The wellness of the people is really of import and in order to acquire to the root of some of the wellness jobs in the universe some environmental issues would hold to be addressed. All this will be done through the analysis of cyberspace based beginnings, personal cognition, academic articles and media article, this will assist in supplying a better image of the issues at manus.
The environment is all around us, it is our milieus, and it affects our really existence on this planet. The environment includes both life and non life things ( Princeton Online Dictionary, 2010 ) . There are many issues impacting the environment in a manner that has negative deductions for both works and carnal life, some of these issues includes ; pollution and planetary heating ( Oracle, 2010 ) . Although there are many other issues impacting the environment these are the 1s which will be addressed in this paper.
The first issue is pollution. Pollution is defined as the careless dumping of harmful/waste stuffs into the dirt, air and H2O ( Earth 911, 2010 ) . There are many types of pollution but for the intent of this paper merely land/soil and H2O pollution will be addressed. Land pollution is fundamentally the act of polluting the Earth ‘s surface via the discarding of waste merchandises with no respect for the negative impacts of such activities. This issue of land pollution is one which is present in all parts of the universe. One can non go forth their topographic point of abode without seeing some signifier of land pollution, although there are many attempts to protect the Earth from this, some people still display small respect for the environment which is reasonably much prolonging their very being on this Earth. Littering, agribusiness and landfills have all been identified as ways in which land pollution take topographic point ( Oracle, 2010 ) and each of the identified has nil but harmful effects on the environment. It is hard to find which 1 does the most damage since they all have their single impacts. However the one thing they each have in common is that they are in some manner, form or signifier holding negative deductions on the environment and the people who leave in these contaminated countries.
Water pollution involves the taint of the organic structure of H2O environing the Earth. It is rather sad when you think about it, the land is polluted and the sea environing this land is besides polluted so in kernel the Earth merely seems to be a circle of taint. What is even more sad is that despite the attempts of many people this job is one which will ne’er be wholly eradicated from the Earth. It will finally take a life-time to clean up the Earth at the rate at which killing attempts are traveling. In the instance of H2O pollution it is non merely human life that is at interest ; marine life is besides in rather a spot of problem. Thingss like oil spills and the dumping of waste merchandises into the H2O is merely two of the ways in which the life of our aquatic workss and animate beings are been put at hazard. An illustration of an case where the spilling of oil affects the life of our marine animal home ground and besides human life was the instance of the BP oil spill in April of this twelvemonth. When the oil made its manner to the shores and coastline and interacted with elements such as bowlders, stones, crushed rock, flora, Marine home ground, wild life and worlds it caused eroding and taint. The long-run effects of the oil spill are far worse than that of the short term since the oil residue settees on the underside of the ocean. The nutrient concatenation for which fish and sea animals depended on in order to reproduce successfully reproduce was interrupted. There was a great possibility of commercial fishing in the contaminated parts been for good affected. Lack of O in the H2O causes the H2O to be warm hence increasing the likeliness of unsafe hurricanes and alteration in conditions forms ( Embach, 2010 ) .
This brings me to my following environmental issue of planetary heating. Global warming harmonizing to Princeton University ‘s on-line lexicon is defined as “ an addition in the mean temperature of the Earth ‘s ambiance ; particularly a sustained addition that causes climatic alterations ” ( 2010, para.1 ) . The issue of planetary heating is one which has received high concern over the old ages and is believed to will have even higher degrees of concerns as the old ages elapse. There are many grounds for this planetary heating ; one been the increased emanation of nursery gasses. The human race has been lending to the addition of this emanation of these gasses through the combustion of fossil fuels and other nursery gas emanations ( National Geographic, 2010 ) . With natural catastrophe happening, non inclusive of oil spill this means that individuals are losing their manner of life for illustration individual doing their life through the fishing industry.
Global impact of the environmental issues on concern
The issues identified as environmental are planetary issues because it is non merely a instance of these jobs happening in merely one portion of the universe. These jobs are prevailing throughout the Earth in its entireness. These issues non merely have effects on the life of human but concerns are besides affected.
For BP, the oil spill has caused them to lose a great sum of money. They had to clean up the spill plus wage people to transport out the cleaning up procedure while settling claims ; so the cost of this pollution is great. This could besides be the instance for fabrication companies, harmonizing to the merchandises they are utilizing so this could impact the individuals devouring their merchandises and besides their employees. Therefore it is safe to state that there is a lessening in gross when a concern has to do allotments for cleaning up pollution that they caused, and a concern ‘s money gets tied up in this. They might hold to cut back occupations and this would diminish production, which could besides intend that consumers would non be acquiring the measure of green goods that is normally expected from the company.
There could besides be a loss of gross in footings of the touristry industry ; worldwide. It is rather obvious that individuals would non desire to go to topographic points that are polluted. So this means that the economic system of these states would endure because of the deficiency of income from this beginning. This can farther take to poverty, particularly if the state ‘s chief beginning of financess was reliant upon the touristry industry.
One of the concern signifiers that are most affected by this dramatic alteration in clime is the agricultural industry. Some harvests require a certain temperature to turn. With a alteration in the clime these harvests are non turning as they should. This is doing jobs for these agricultural companies because this would intend that they can non reap their green goods in clip to sell. It could besides intend that they are passing money to works the harvests but they unluckily the harvests are non run intoing the criterion of quality needed to sell, hence doing the concern to lose money. This non merely affects the concerns but it would besides impact us as consumers because your picks would now be limited. There is a general regulation of economic sciences which provinces that when supply decreases monetary values addition ; this could finally ensue in even more of the universe ‘s population traveling under the poorness line. An illustration of an case where is the appendage of the alteration in clime is impacting the growing of a peculiar harvest is the instance of java. The job as it exists in India will be used ; it was said in their September study entry to the international java council, that planetary heating was holding negative impacts on the growing of their java beans. Their harvests are been infested with plagues that thrive in het conditions and the increased heat is besides doing the harvests to mature before the clip which leads to a lessening in its quality
( Business Line, 2010 ) . Obviously consumers/manufacturers who depend on java beans from India would non desire to buy from them because of this job and other java bean agriculturists in that part who are non sing such jobs with their green goods would increase their monetary values due to this lessening in supply.
Local impact of environmental issues on concern
The both instances of land and H2O pollution concerns in Grenada would be affected. In the instance of land pollution, some of the impact can be seen every clip rain falls. Due to the drains been clogged up with waste merchandises and soil every clip there is a great sum of rainfall all the H2O flows into the route and even into some of the concerns doing it hard to go on with their yearss work. This is particularly true for concern in the Grand Anse country. When a concern has to shut its doors for any ground, particularly in the instance of supermarkets and eating houses this means that money is lost.
Besides the touristry industry might be affected by this environmental job ; tourer would non desire to come to an island that is polluted and expose themselves to the possibility of undertaking diseases. This lessening in tourer reaching would besides impact the support of individuals depending on the touristry industry to do a life. On the other manus, there could besides be an addition in tourer reaching to the island if other tourer finishs are no longer deemed ‘tourist finishs ‘ because of pollution issues. This is given that Grenada does non fall into the class of non tourer finish because of said ground.
Global heating impacts us locally, because it is impacting the temperature of the sea and air. In recent times we have been sing highly high temperatures, and lifting in the sea degree, our marine live is at interest, it was late discovered that the corals are get downing to decolor because of the this addition in the temperature in Grenada, but this is non a job in Grenada entirely, this is besides a job that is faced on a planetary graduated table. Harmonizing to the manager of Odyssey Expeditions, Jason Buchheim, “ Global clime alteration may play a function in the addition in coral bleaching events, and could do the devastation of major reef piece of lands and the extinction of many coral species ” ( Buchheim, 1998 ) .
The increasing heat can besides do addition in the figure of storms and hurricanes that the island faces.
The heat besides is doing it hard for individuals to make their day-to-day occupation to the degree that they normally do. Persons are experiencing sulky and drained and this is diminishing the productiveness of the workers, which means that in one manner or another the concern might be losing money. To roll from the impact of planetary heating on concern, it should besides be far plenty to advert that this addition in temperatures is besides holding an impact on us as pupils. We are besides experiencing drained and sulky, and the terminal of the twenty-four hours we are merely excessively tired to acquire any work done. As a consequence we are non bring forthing the quality of work that we have the possible to bring forth which unluckily leads to unsatisfactory classs.
Harmonizing to globalhealthaction.net a wellness issue is defines as jobs associating to wellness, issues and concerns, that goes beyond national boundary lines, that are perchance influenced by conditions or patterns in other states and are dealt with by utilizing concerted actions and solutions. This is the significance of planetary wellness issues. The one U have is the definition of wellness.
Harmonizing to Princeton University online dictionary wellness is defined as “ the general status of organic structure and head ” or “ a healthy province of wellbeing free from disease ” ( 2010, para.1 ) . Some of the wellness issues presently been faced by the universe today includes ; cholera, malaria, enteric fever, AIDS, Tuberculosis, H1N1, Influenza, malignant neoplastic disease, dandy fever febrility. It is saddening to state that there are many more diseases presently blighting the Earth, and there are new 1s discovered on a regular basis. At this point we can merely trust that the present and future physicians will be do a important difference by assisting patients with terminal unwellnesss to populate longer lives. This nevertheless may be a job, because it was merely late discovered via an article by The Wall Street Journal, that US based medical schools are non bring forthing plenty medical pupils to prolong the figure of individual who are presently been insured under the new jurisprudence, it is said that harmonizing to projections, in the following 15 old ages at that place will be a deficit in the figure of physicians in the US by 150,000 ( Wang & A ; Sataline, 2010 ) . ) . This begs the inquiry of what if there is an eruption of some disease sometime in the close hereafter, what is traveling to go on to these people who can ne’er acquire the chance to see a physician? It is all good and good that individuals are insured but if there no physicians to go to to them insurance would look really fiddling. It would n’t do a difference if the full population was insured ; if there are non adequate physicians to go to to these patients so they are merely every bit good as dead. What makes it even worse is that although in the article, they were accounting for the US population ; this does non give a true representation of the people who depend on wellness attention in the US. Many individuals travel from states where wellness attention is merely distressing, to seek aid in a topographic point where they believe that the most assistance will be given to them. An illustration would be the instance of Grenada ; there are non many physicians who are versed in many of the wellness jobs of the universe. With individuals going affected by diseases which were ne’er common in our portion of the universe, this means that the physicians here may non be the best beginning of aid. This is why many individuals travel to the US and other states to seek medical attending. If the population of medical professionals is confronting a deficit, so this would hold desperate effects on the universe ‘s population. Another issue of wellness attention is the deficiency of prescription drugs. Though there has been deficit of prescription drugs in the yesteryear, states in Canada are sing an addition in the happening of the deficit ( Derfel, 2010 ) . Some of the prescription drugs that are reported to be short supply are drugs for leukaemia and the antibiotic Penicillin and they are now turning to options which are proven to hold much more side effects than that of Penicillin. This deficit of drugs once more can increase the figure of deceases and if non taken earnestly by the WHO can take to a universe catastrophe. The article besides goes on to state that they are trusting of India and China for the natural stuffs to do the drugs but those two providers are undependable. What will go on when they truly would non be able to obtain the natural stuffs from these states?
A recent wellness issue – one which was identified above in the list – is dengue fever, although it did non hold the sort of impact that the H1N1 virus had when it took the universe by storm two old ages ago, it still had important impact that warrants it as really of import. The issue of dengue febrility became a planetary issue and a concern for the wellness of persons because although the mosquito can merely last in tropical and sub tropical countries individuals from outside these parts are still acquiring infected. This is because most of these parts are considered to be tourist attractive forces and individuals are winging out to these topographic points to bask their holiday clip – this is besides how many other diseases are been dispersed. Should the dandy fever mosquito continue to occupy the states of the Caribbean and other tropical/subtropical parts the opportunities of more individuals in states where the mosquito is non present going affected could increase. Most individuals travel to these tourist finishs during the months when they are sing winter and most would hold planned their trip for so long that they opt non to allow their programs go to blow. While dandy fever is non a contagious disease a job is still posed to other people should an septic individual return to their place, should an clean mosquito seize with teeth a individual transporting the dandy fever virus, so that mosquito can contract the virus and base on balls it on to individuals who have non been infected ( Incorrect Diagnosis, 2010 ) .
It is really of import that any and all safeguards are taken as it relates to wellness issues because they have a direct effect on the length of service of all people.
Global impact of wellness issues
Health issues has many effects on the universe on a whole, an illustration of one such consequence will be illustrated by utilizing dandy fever febrility. Persons populating in tropical countries are acquiring sick and those who have travelled to these tropical countries and returned place are besides acquiring badly, transporting with them the dandy fever virus which mosquitoes so contract and spread. Given the fact that the dandy fever febrility is nicknamed ‘break-done febrility ‘ , so it is more than probably that people would be unable to transport out their normal day-to-day maps which would include their occupation. For case in states like Thailand and Vietnam where there are fabricating workss ( dressing makers ) it is more than probably that these fabricating workss ships merchandises to providers worldwide. Suppose about half of their work force gets infected by the dandy fever mosquito so will surely do a arrest in production. This would straight impact the providers ‘ productiveness which could take to a loss of money for both the maker and the purchasers likewise. On a whole any disease which has terrible effects that would halter the day-to-day modus operandi of persons would finally hold an consequence on concern.
As it relates to the fact that there is a lessening in prescription drugs, this merely means that individuals would non be able to acquire their needed medicine. This could besides intend that for some concerns that are able to beginning the natural stuffs need to do these drugs, this is a manner to maximise their net incomes. Lack of supply plus high demand peers increased monetary values. For ill individuals worldwide who are already fighting to do terminals run into, this could intend that they either have to non buy the drugs and perchance decease, or utilize whatever money they have to purchase the drug and so remain without some of the basic necessities of life. This in a nutshell means they would be populating in poorness.
Local impact of wellness issues
The impact that wellness issues could hold on Grenada would foremost include the consequence on the touristry industry. If there is a pandemic of some kind, so the opportunities of individuals going to other states for leisure are traveling to be badly decreased. Even if there is non a pandemic or endemic or even an epidemic, individuals would more than probably non desire to go to a state where a disease is distributing. This will of class lead to a lessening in the state ‘s gross since it is so extremely dependent on touristry.
If larger states can non acquire medicine it is merely a affair of clip for us here to be on the same page. As a little island we are already happening it rather hard to acquire the different medicines needed to help in recover/recuperation procedure, so when the job of limited medicine arises, we need to get down acquiring disquieted about what is traveling to go on to us. If these large states will much more money than we could of all time woolgather of is happening it hard to acquire these drugs than the opportunities of us sourcing limited supplies is even more hard. It is already a job of happening medical practicians in Grenada to execute certain operations so individuals necessitating medical intervention and going overseas to have it will non be able to have the necessary intervention if there is no drug in the larger states.
Health issues could besides do a deficiency of productiveness of employees in any concern. This is particularly common during cold and grippe season, which many individuals being infected with the cold this would intend that the occupation which they are supposed to be making will non be done until the individual is good plenty to return to work, and accordingly the sum of money that could hold been made as a consequence of the employees been at that place to make their occupation would besides diminish.
What is the connexion between both issues?
The correlativity between the issues of the environment and wellness is rather simple ; it is because of environmental issues that some wellness related issues even exist and utilizing the two environmental issues highlighted above there can be more than adequate wellness jobs originating from them.
It is a known fact that pollution non merely has negative impacts on the wellness of worlds but it besides threatens the life of workss and animate beings likewise. Through the release of toxic stuffs in the land this is poisoning the workss and besides the animate beings in the dirt every bit good as those that feed on the workss. As for worlds, we besides depend on workss for nutrient so depending on if the contaminated works is a beginning of nutrient supply so this means that these toxins are acquiring into our organic structures and this can take to assorted wellness issues and in utmost conditions decease. This is besides really true in the instance of H2O pollution, for in the instance of the BP ‘s oil spill, an article entitled Gulf Oil spill was released which read: Scientist buttockss wellness effects from the L.A. Times environmental newspaper, Greenpeace, written by Amina Khan stated that scientist and natural Resource Defense Council has indicated that the oil spill will hold wellness effects on seafood and worlds that are more extended than expected. The article besides stated that in an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, an scrutiny of the possible effects of the oil spill on workers and, occupants and seafood that comes from the gulf of Mexico was been done ( Khan, 2010 ) .
They pointed that petroleum oil releases chemicals into the ambiance and one time inhaled the volatile aromatic hydrocarbon can do take a breathing jobs every bit good as affect the cardinal nervous system. Benzene is besides another chemical found in rough oil that has been linked to deliver defects and leukaemia. Hundred of killing workers in the province of Louisiana have reported agony from concerns, purging, trouble external respiration and terrible thorax strivings ( Khan, 2010 ) . Pollution in general can do tonss of wellness jobs which includes: respiratory jobs, possible birth defects and it can besides do different sorts of malignant neoplastic diseases ( Buzzle, 2010 ) .
Then there the issue of planetary heating ; which besides affects the wellness of all life on Earth ( World Health Organization, 2010 ) .
“ Global heating is non merely a menace to our hereafter wellness, it already contributes to more than 150,000 deceases and 5 million unwellnesss yearly, harmonizing to a squad of wellness and clime scientists at the World Health Organization and the University of Wisconsin at Madison-and those Numberss could duplicate by 2030 ” ( Larry, 2010 ) .
Scientists have been supervising the turning impact of planetary heating on the wellness of people populating in different parts of the universe. It has been realized that the people most affected by this turning job of planetary heating are those people populating in the hapless states. They found this really dry because these people are the 1s who contribute the least to the job of planetary heating as it is right now. Yet they are the most susceptible to wellness hazards and perchance decease as a consequence of this dramatic alteration in the Earth ‘s clime ( Larry, 2010 ) .
The additions in temperatures mean that there is besides an addition in the figure disease borne insects ( Buzzle, 2010 ) . This was the instance this twelvemonth with the dandy fever febrility transporting mosquito.
Harmonizing to Martin Krause, UNDP ‘s Bangkok-based proficient adviser on clime alteration for the Asia-Pacific part, “ A major public wellness menace is coming from the vector-borne disease that depends on temperature and on humidness ” ( Heller, 2010 ) .
The ground why the alteration in clime can increase the hazard of dandy fever febrility is because planetary heating is doing the addition in the fluctuations of mosquitoes. The heat of the clime is a cardinal subscriber in easing the endurance of the mosquito species ( Heller, 2010 ) .
“ The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ‘s Fourth Assessment Report summarized research demoing that assorted arthropods that carry vector-borne diseases, such as ticks, mosquitoes and sand flies, have all been traveling into more northern latitudes in response to recent heating ” ( Varner & A ; Gale, 2010 ) .
Several surveies have been done by public wellness research workers, in relation to the connexion between the dandy fever virus hazard and the alteration in clime, and it was found that vapor force per unit area accounted for 89 per centum of the circulation of the dandy fever instances. This squad of research workers projected that by 2085, the universe ‘s population at hazard for dandy fever would hold doubled ( Heller, 2010. There are rather a figure of wellness issues that can originate from the infection of dandy fever febrility ; it is non called the break-bone febrility for no ground. Although it has been said that you can non decease from dandy fever febrility, some individuals develop ‘Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever ‘ and in some cases people do decease as a consequence ( World Health Organization, 2010 ) .
Environmental issues though they may look to be a wholly different job as compared to wellness related issues, it can be seen that is does non keep true. While some wellness related jobs may non be related to the environment there are a great figure of them that are in fact straight affected to the environment and the issues with the environment are straight related to what we as worlds do, our actions.
Both these issues can besides ensue in poorness, for illustration it was mentioned that individuals were left unemployed because of the oil spill, because economic times are really hard at this point, it may be really hard for every unemployed individual to acquire a new occupation. Although they would non immediately fall below the poorness line, it would take some clip and if there are no employment chances. This could do these people to non be able to prolong their basic demands. This is besides true for wellness. Even though it may non be the instance with the catching of dandy fever febrility, some other diseases could do some households to populate in poorness ; particularly diseases that are life endangering. All the household ‘s money could be spent in medical disbursals with small or none left for basic necessities. The state of affairs could besides be reversed ; households in poorness could hold no money to take attention of their ill members.
In the universe today. all states depend on each other for nutrient, and other supplies. More than 65 % of Grenada exports come from the United Stated. A decrease in productiveness as a consequence of eruption of diseases will cut down the export sum, non merely to Grenada but the universe at big. This could take to nutrient deficits as the sums imported by states are non able to run into the demands of their citizens.
Grenada and several other economic systems at present depend to a great extent on remittals from First World states. Lost of occupation, as a consequence of decreased productiveness would intend that poorness would somewhat increase in these states that depend on remittals.
The productiveness of a state is reflected in its Goss Domestic Product ( GDP ) and besides in the economic activity. Decrease in GDP means that authorities would hold to borrow externally from establishments such as the International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) and the World Bank for financess to prolong economic development, therefore increasing the sum of external debt. In order to service debts authoritiess would hold to implement financial policies which may really good include revenue enhancements. An addition in revenue enhancements leads to cut down salvaging, income, foreign direct investings ( FDI ) and ingestion. This could take to a cut down in imports from foreign states, such as the US, cut down in production for the US, which could besides take to loss of occupations and decrease in remittals that Grenada receives.
The effects of a healthy environment and healthy people is all a rhythm, where one thing affects the being of another.
These point are of import so please include them.
Sustainability is the key to cut downing the effects of environmental issues.
Human being demand to increase attempts to utilize natural resources within sustainable bounds.
Educate the populace: It is non simple to educate the populace but it is really much needed to assist work out our environmental jobs
To cut down ingestion recycles all wasted or fresh natural resource.
To cut down deforestation, recycle stuff industries utilizing trees or workss
To run into our increasing demands, reuse recycled stuffs
The sum of biodegradable stuffs consumed on a day-to-day footing should be reduced
The activities that increases pollution of H2O organic structures, the air, the dirt, and the wood
To cut down pollution and development of nature cut down ingestion of energy
Reduce the sum of C emanations emitted into the ambiance
Businesss should increase their corporate societal duty.
Enforce ordinances ( stiffer punishments ) . As it related to BP oil spill — – if stiffer punishments such as prison sentences was incorporated with paying a all right, executive would be more careful and more ethical in carry oning concern
Educate the populace about safe wellness patterns
Inform about out interruptions of new diseases and how to travel about covering with them and forestalling them.
For e.g. the eruption of the H1N1
Wash manus on a regular basis
When coughing and sneezing screen oral cavity and olfactory organ
Do non recycle serviettes
Immediately seek medical attending one time any marks have been detected
What over the antagonistic drug to purchase to handle symptoms
Continuous preparation of bing wellness workers:
New diseases are emerging, with similar symptoms like old diseases. If workers are trained continuously they will be better able to name diseases and get down intervention as they see fit.
Hire qualified wellness workers:
Because of the economic recession, medical employers see it suit to cut down cost hence the addition in the employment of uneducated and unskilled workers ( non qualified would hold to pay them less ) . Employment of unqualified workers could take to an escalation of bad lucks in the wellness system such as misdiagnose, incorrect disposal of drugs for intervention.
Health information should be routinely checked, updated and strengthened.
The wellness section of an state should hold resources in topographic point to acquire updates on new diseases.
Invest in constructing capacity to ease staff and people in order to set about analysis, for supervising and to increase the quality of wellness installation records.
Increase installation capacity to suit patients, for illustration in the event of a pandemic such as malaria larger installations would be needed to go to to individuals who are sick ( e.g. labs for running trial ) . Besides a larger installation would besides increase the comfort degree of staff and create storage infinite to do medical records more accessible.
Encourage and contribute to the sharing of information with and within vicinity to break the direction systems. And besides guarantee that the flow of information is accurate.
Information about diseases should be shared among vicinities to assist forestall farther eruptions into other vicinities.
Make possible coordination between Non Governmental organisations ( NGO ) and public sector organisations.
In order to battle the spread of infective diseases authoritiess need to further coordination between the NGO such as WHO and Caribbean wellness environmental Institute ( CEHI ) in order to obtain fiscal support, updates and ways of covering with the epidemics.
Monitor migration, domestically, regionally and internationally to set up tendencies or forms with the eruption of infective diseases.
After the carnival season here in Grenada it has been noticed that that there has ever been eruptions of the grippe, pinkeye ( Red eyes ) , and lily-livered syphilis. If the wellness functionaries monitor migration so they would be able to observe the beginning of these infective diseases and be able to screen individuals who are coming in.