Exam 3 Part 2 Anthropology

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The process organisms undergo to achieve a beneficial adjustment to a particular environment, which not only leads to biological changes in the organisms but also impacts their environment, is called
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Adaptation
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Among the Tsembaga of Papua New Guinea, there is a relationship between the physical and social environments that involves ritual slaughter in order to re-establish harmony. What animal is slaughtered to reduce pressure on the local environments?
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Pigs
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According to \”Surviving in the Andes,\” Aymara Indians adapted to high altitude by having approximately _____ % of greater pulmonary diffusing capacity through their expanded heart and lungs
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30
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The Aymara Indians, who live in the mountains of Bolivia, have become biologically adapted to their environment by being
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short legged and barrel chested and surviving on lower oxygen content
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A system composed of both the natural environment and all living organisms within it is called a(n)
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Ecosystem
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The Comanche and the Cheyenne were quite different culturally until they moved out onto the Great Plains and made use of the horse to hunt the buffalo and raid settled peoples. They then became more similar in cultural adaptations, a process called
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convergent evolution
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The development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditions by people whose ancestral cultures were already rather alike is called
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parallel evolution
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What principle of evolution is best illustrated in the example of the changes that occurred to the Cheyenne when they moved out onto the Great Plains from the Great Lakes region?
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They gave up growing crops in order to pursue hunting and gathering
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Which of the following statements about Easter Island and the Rapanui is not correct?
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The Rapanui raised pigs and also fished for subsistence
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In anthropology, geographic regions where a number of societies have similar ways of life are known as
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culture areas
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The concept that states humans are moving forward to a better, more advanced stage in their cultural development is called
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progress
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The oldest and most universal mode of subsistence is
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food foraging
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Today, food-foraging societies
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are found only in the world’s most marginal areas
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All of the following statements except one correctly describe food-foraging societies. Which is it?
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They are primitive because they did not progress to a higher level
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The average number of people in a food-foraging group is
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less than 100
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The number of people that can be supported by the available resources at a given level of technology is called the
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carrying capacity
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To say that food-foraging societies are egalitarian means that
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the only status differences are age and sex
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Food-foraging societies are egalitarian because
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their mobility and type of technology limits the accumulation of surplus possessions
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Among food foragers, social equality is marked in all of the following except
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strict division of labor
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The transition from food foraging to food production first took place about _____ years ago in _____.
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10,000; Southwest Asia
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Which of the following is most likely to require cooperative hunting skills?
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Net hunting
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The cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes is a type of farming called
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horticulture
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The extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops then planted among the ashes is known as slash-and-burn cultivation. It is also called
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swidden farming
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In what country do we find the Mekranoti?
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Brazil
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Three years after planting their gardens, the Mekranoti are left with only
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Bananas
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In the Americas, the crop complex that was most adaptive and typical was
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maize, beans, and squash
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One of the most significant characteristics of the food-producing way of life was the development of
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permanent settlements
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Someone who uses irrigation, fertilizers, and the plow to produce food on large plots of land is known as a/an
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agriculturalist
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What was the primary goal of the Cusichaca Trust research and applied work in the Patacancha Valley of Peru?
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Revival of ancient farming techniques
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Pastoralists are like food foragers in that
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both now live in areas that are marginal, where land is not suitable for farming
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Food producers who specialize in animal husbandry, and who consider their way of life to be ideal and central to defining their identities, are called
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pastoralists
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pastoral group who raise goats and sheep
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The Bakhtiari
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What is a primary labor activity of Bakhtiari women and girls?
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Spinning wool into yarn
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Which of the following statements about the Bakhtiari khans is not correct?
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They give away all of their possessions to gain prominence
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All of the following statements about peasants are true except:
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they are large-scale producers of crops
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Mass food production is a characteristic of which type of food production?
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industrial
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Agribusiness is associated with all of the following except
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maximizing employee benefits
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A society in which human labor, hand tools, and animal power are largely replaced by machines, with an economy primarily based in big factories, is called a(n)
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industrial society
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Which innovation is considered the beginning of the industrial revolution?
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Steam engine
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Which part of the U.S. chicken is a primary export to China?
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Feet

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