exam 2 anthro

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The concept of race began:
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during the Renaissance
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In the 1700s, _____________ developed a scientific classification of race
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Blumenbach
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Frank Livingstone, a noted physical anthropologist, is famous for having said about human diversity in appearance, \”There are no _________; there are only ___________.\”
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races; clines
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The medullary cavities of bone exist in the
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diaphyses
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The eruption of the first permanent molar and the completion of brain growth happen during ____________ development.
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childhood
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The period of time from about 20 years old to the end of the reproductive years is called:
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prime
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According to Bergmann’s and Allen’s rules, all of the following are true EXCEPT:
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the Inuit in Greenland are tall and long-limbed
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The disease rickets, which affects bone mineralization, results from a deficiency in:
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vitamin D
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There is an old adage that \”a fat baby is a healthy baby.\” A critique of this statement might be that:
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overnutrition is linked to an increase in diabetes, cholesterol, and blood pressure
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One of your classmates moved to the United States from Somalia as a kid in the late 1990s. After seeing a picture of his family, you notice that he and his sister must have been undernourished for several years. You arrive at this conclusion because your classmate:
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and his sister are both much shorter than their parents.
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A gradual change in phenotype over a geographical area is called a:
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cline
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A major criticism that can be leveled against Johann Blumenbach’s racial typology is that
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his five types did not take into account thousands of years of human evolution.
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The growth and development of females is more sensitive to stressors in the environment than is the growth and development of males.
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false
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Human adaptation occurs at four levels – genetic, developmental, acclimatization, and cultural.
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true
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For humans, hair loss and sweating are both thermoregulatory adaptations to heat.
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true
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Vasoconstriction results in the red face of a person in a hot environment.
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false
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In general, populations living between 0-20°N latitude have the darkest skin color.
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false
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Developmental (or ontogenetic) adaptation:
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occurs at the individual level during childhood.
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For women with very low body weight, high amounts of exercise can result in:
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reduced ability to conceive relative to women who do not exercise.
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Stressors during the prenatal stage include:
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smoking, alcohol, and drugs.
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Which is a major contributor to the success of our species?
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human adaptability
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Allen’s rule indicates that humans will have:
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longer limbs in hot environments and shorter limbs in cold environments.
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Dark skin (a result of increased melanin production in equatorial peoples) is likely a response to ultraviolet radiation, because UV radiation can cause:
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skin cancer
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Melanin:
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is advantageous because it provides protection from solar radiation.
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Genetic adaptation:
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occurs at the population level via natural selection.
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The obesity pandemic is due to:
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the increased ability to produce and consume inexpensive, high-fat foods.
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The prenatal stage in humans consists of:
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trimesters.
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Relative to people with a history of living in temperate climates, the Inuit and other cold-adapted populations:
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have short limbs and large bodies.
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Which of the following is related to the biological process of homeostasis?
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senescence
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Sexual maturation or puberty is marked by:
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menarche in girls.
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The postnatal stage includes:
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the growth of the deciduous teeth, motor skills, and cognitive abilities.
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R.C. Lewontin found that human \”races\” have no taxonomic significance. He demonstrated this:
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through research indicating that most genetic variation is found across human populations.
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Johann Friedrich Blumenbach:
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categorized skulls into five racial types.
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When epiphyses fuse to the diaphyses:
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full adult height is attained.
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David Barker’s research on poor early health led to the hypothesis that:
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poor health during the fetal period results in the reduced ability to maintain homeostasis.
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Franz Boas:
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showed that U.S.-born children had different head shapes than their immigrant parents.
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Multiple biological traits:
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do not lead to clear-cut racial classifications.
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The long limb measurements of Turkana pastoralists indicate that:
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the population is on the continuum of variation observed in Allen’s rule.
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Wolff’s law:
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says that bone mass is taken away where it is needed and produced where it is not needed.
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The American economist David Seckler hypothesized that:
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shortness in height is an adaptation to reduced food supplies.
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Hypoxia has been shown to be an agent of natural selection in that Tibetan women:
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with alleles for high oxygen saturation in their hemoglobin had more surviving children.
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Which of the following is NOT true of primates?
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Primates inhabit every continent.
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On a visit to the zoo, you overhear a teacher telling a young student that the chimpanzees climb and swing on branches because their
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good sense of touch lets them grip trees.
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Visual differences between primates and other animals include
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overlapping vision fields.
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The dental formula for Old World primates, including humans, is
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2 / 1 / 2 / 3
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Primates’ enhanced ___________ led to a reduced sense of ___________.
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vision; smell
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The fact that humans are related to chimpanzees can be seen in Linnaean taxonomy, where both are
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in the superfamily Hominoidea.
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Your sister calls you crying because she just hit an animal with her car, and she thinks it was a ring-tailed lemur. You calm her down by saying that
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lemurs exist in the wild only in Madagascar, so she probably hit a raccoon.
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Anthropoids differ from prosimians in all the following ways EXCEPT that they
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have more teeth than prosimians.
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One of your friends is originally from Ecuador. When he was a kid, he would sneak into the forest and watch howler monkeys. On one of these trips, though, he insists that he and his friends found a human skull. As he describes it, you realize it was not human because
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the foramen magnum was not located at the bottom of the skull.
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Primates that are adapted for eating large amounts of plants and leaves can be distinguished by their
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sagittal crests.
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At the primate exhibit at the zoo, you notice a slew of monkeys dangling from branches by their tails. The information plaque notes that they are colobus, macaques, and baboons. When you read this, you immediately seek out the zookeeper to complain about the error because
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none of those monkeys have prehensile tails.
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According to British anatomist Wilfrid Le Gros Clark, the main tendencies that help to define what a primate is include
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the ability to eat a wide variety of foods; investing time and effort into offspring; and adaptations to life in the trees.
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The teeth of Old World monkeys and apes differ in that
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apes have a Y-5 pattern of cusps, whereas Old World monkeys have a bilophodont pattern.
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Fingerprints help enhance primates’ sense of touch.
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True
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All primates have opposable toes.
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False
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A fossil with bilophodont molars is most likely an Old World monkey.
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True
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Male primates use their canines for eating food and for scaring enemies.
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True
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Hominoids do not have tails.
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True
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Strepsirhines have:
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a tooth comb, a grooming claw, and ischial callosities.
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Anthropoids include:
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monkeys, apes, and humans.
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The typical dental formula of lorises and lemurs is:
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2 / 1 / 3 / 3
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Strepsirhines have a special lower incisor called:
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diastema.
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While observing primates at the zoo, you notice that the particular monkey you are watching uses its hands, feet, and tail to move throughout the trees in its enclosure. This is most likely:
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an Old World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.
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Colobine primates:
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are mostly frugivorous.
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African monkeys, including Miss Waldron’s red colobus, are:
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not highly adaptable to changing environments but do well in zoos.
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Anthropoids differ from prosimians in that they:
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have more teeth.
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Relative to other primates, prosimian adaptations include:
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a larger brain.
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Which of the following are prosimians?
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lemurs
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Old World monkeys have:
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bilophodont molars.
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A feature unique to human teeth and human ancestors’ teeth is:
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a canine that shows wear on the tip.
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Primates’ enhanced sense of vision stems from:
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the fact that their eyes are rotated forward.
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The increased brain size observed in the order Primates:
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results in extended periods of nursing and development to accommodate increasing behavioral complexity.
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Prehensile tails:
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are present in most primates.
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The variation in living primates provides models for understanding:
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alternative forms of classification.
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The dental pattern of Old World higher primates is:
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2-2-2-3
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Living lemurs are found only in:
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Africa
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The Y-5 molar morphology is present in:
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chimpanzees
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The suborder prosimians includes:
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only nocturnal species.
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The reintroduction project of lemurs on St. Catherines Island provided more evidence of:
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the fact that primates exhibit remarkable levels of adaptability under many circumstances.
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Low, rounded cusps indicate a diet of:
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insects
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In your primate anatomy lab you are shown the mandible (lower jawbone) of a species of primate. While looking at the teeth you notice a large space between the canine and first premolar. In your lab book you note:
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that this is likely the lower jaw of a human, given the presence of a nonhoning chewing complex.
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Among all primates, humans have:
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the largest body relative to other animals.
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Arboreal adaptation is:
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the ability to move on four limbs.
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A feature unique to human teeth and human ancestors’ teeth is:
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a canine that shows no wear on any surface.
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During an internship at the Jane Goodall Institute, you are tasked with observing the residence patterns of the chimpanzees in Gombe National Park. At the end of the summer, you have learned all of the chimps’ names and have recorded all of the following groups of chimps living together EXCEPT
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Athena, Cindy, Kay, and Lulu.
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Which of the following is true about chimpanzee tool use?
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Chimpanzees use tools mostly for acquiring food.
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Researchers have found that many primates can learn how to fashion tools and pass this information along to younger members of their society, indicating other primates may tell us more about ancient humans’
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material culture
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When there is competition among primates for mates,
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males may become larger.
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The primate residence pattern of one-female, multimale can also be described as
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polyandrous.
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At the primate habitat at the zoo, your friend comments that the orangutans seem to be monogamous or mated for life. You take one look at these apes and assert that you friend is wrong when
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the male orangutan bares his large canines and rears up to show he is twice the size of the female
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While swimming in the ocean with your friends, one of them starts to struggle to stay above the water. Your other friend braves a strong undertow, and both emerge safely on the beach. When the lifeguard arrives, he chastises your friend for brazenly jumping into the surf, but you praise your friend’s instincts, noting that
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cooperative behaviors such as altruism have a long history in both human and primate societies.
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Chimpanzees are known to hunt other animals for their meat. A chimpanzee group will have the most success in which of the following scenarios?
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A dozen male chimps hunt juvenile red colobus monkeys.
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Female primates with good nutrition have
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shorter intervals between birth of offspring.
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A female primate has a better chance of feeding herself and her young when
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large patches of fruit-bearing trees dot the landscape.
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Primate behavior studies targeting the mother/infant bond suggest that
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growing up with a wire surrogate mother causes infants to lack social skills.
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During a class presentation on communication among apes, your classmate makes an error while listing examples of this behavior. Based on your knowledge of primate communication in general, which of the following is INCORRECT?
answer

Diana monkeys can count to five by stomping on the ground.
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During your first week as an intern at Gombe National Park, you fail to spot any chimpanzees, even in areas replete with food that the chimps are known to frequent. Dejected, you tell your supervisor, who reassures you that it will get better when
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the chimpanzees become habituated to your presence.
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Natural selection is related to primate communication in that
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the ability to communicate allows primates to pass on information necessary for survival.
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The average life span of humans is about
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twice as long as other primates’.
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A polygynous primate society will tend to have a residence pattern of
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one-male, multifemale.
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Sometimes male primates will kill infant primates
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to gain access to receptive, fertile females.
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Chimpanzees have been trained to communicate with humans through
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American Sign Language.
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These bones were found in the nest of an eagle, a major predator of tree-dwelling primates. Analysis of these bones reveals they are from primate species known to live a mainly solitary existence. From this analysis, you can hypothesize that
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primate sociality is beneficial to survival.
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Male reproductive strategies emphasize:
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competition between males for access to reproductive-age females.
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Altruistic behavior:
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is behavior that benefits others while causing a disadvantage to the individual.
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Chimpanzee communication involves different combinations of sounds, such as:
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grunts, pants, and hoots.
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Three key factors that contribute to a female primate’s success at feeding are:
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quality, distribution, and availability of food.
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Diversity in primate societies means that:
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primates express themselves socially through a wide range of behaviors.
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Variation in predator-specific vocalizations in the monkeys of the Tai Forest:
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includes two different loud alarm calls in response to predators, aerial and terrestrial.
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Grooming involves:
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bonding between two members of a social group, calming or appeasing the primate being groomed if he or she has a higher dominance.
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Quality in feeding strategy refers to:
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a food’s providing energy and protein that are readily digestible.
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Natural selection favors behaviors that enhance:
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survival and reproduction.
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Predator-specific vocalizations in Diana monkeys vary based on:
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the type of predator and the predator’s attack strategy.
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Primatologists:
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explore the relationships between specific social behaviors and reproductive fitness.
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Sexual dimorphism:
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tends to be lower than in groups where males disperse and compete with unrelated males.
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Monogamous:
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refers to a social group that includes an adult male, an adult female, and their offspring.
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Sexual selection:
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is the frequency of a trait’s attractiveness to members of the opposite sex.
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The study of primate vocal communication:
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can give us insights into the selective pressures that may have shaped the evolution of language.
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All-male groups of nonhuman primates:
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often exist together with multimale, multifemale groups.
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Polyandrous residence patterns represent:
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a social grouping in which males cooperate in parenting activities.
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How do primates communicate?
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through vocalizations that serve a range of functions and contexts
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Monogamous behavior is characteristic of which species?
answer

gibbon
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What is special about primate societies and social behavior?
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They are highly diverse.
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Why are primates social in the short term?
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to increase interaction between sexually mature males and females
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Availability of food:
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can be highly variable, depending on season and rainfall.
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Kin selection refers to:
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altruistic behavior that increases the donor’s inclusive fitness and that of the donor’s relatives.
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How do primates acquire food?
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through a wide variety of food-foraging strategies
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Why are primates social in the long term?
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to reduce stress, promote longevity, and enhance reproductive success
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Sociality among primates is likely the result of which of the following selective pressures?
answer

predation
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Altruistic behavior benefits others while being a disadvantage to the altruistic individual. Which of the following reasons does NOT explain why it exists in primate societies?
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Altruistic behavior is random.
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Most prosimians and platyrrhini:
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Often has a dental formula of 2.1.3.3
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Many have prehensile tails
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Some New World monkeys
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None have tails
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All hominoids
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All prosimians living in Africa and Asia
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Nocturnal
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All Lemurs:
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Found on Madagascar
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All can use suspensory locomotion. Some are excellent brachiators:
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All hominoids
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All catarrhine primates:
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Have hooked shaped nostrils.
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All prosimians except tarsiers:
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Large olfactory bulbs and naked rhinarium
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Reduced olfactory bulbs and snout:
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All anthropoids
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Some hominoids:
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Knucklewalkers
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All hominoids:
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Y-5 molars
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Polyandrous:
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One-female, multimale
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Polygynous
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One-male, multifemale
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Usually temporary, waiting to enter a multimale, multifemale group:
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All-male
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Males invest more in raising offspring than any other group.
answer

One-male, one-female
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Gorillas
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One-male, multifemale
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Chimpanzees
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Multimale, multifemale
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Monogamous
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One-male, one-female
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Gibbons
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One-male, one-female
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Greatest amount of sexual dimorphism
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One-male, multifemale
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Least about of sexual dimorphism
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One-male, one-female
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Gorilla
answer

Africa
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Chimpanzee
answer

Africa
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Tarsier
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Asia
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Monkey with a prehensile tail
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Central and South America
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Lemur
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Madagascar
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Nocturnal strepsirhine primate
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Both Africa and Asia
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Ape
answer

Both Africa and Asia
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Monkey with 36 teeth
answer

Central and South America

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