Epidemiology Test 1

True or False? The term epidemiologic transition describes a shift in the patterns of morbidity and mortality from causes related primarily to infectious diseases to causes associated with chronic diseases.
True
True or False? Secondary prevention is directed toward the later stages of pathogenesis and involves programs for restoring the patient’s optimal functioning
False
True or False? Robert Koch developed four postulates to demonstrate the association between a microorganism and a disease.
True
True or False? Secondary prevention involves the prevention of disease before it occurs.
False
True or False? John Graunt is said to be the first to employ quantitative methods to describe population vital statistics.
True
True or False? Epidemiology is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability and mortality in populations.
True
True or False? Epidemiology can help solve a variety of today’s health-related problems, ranging from smoking to youth violence.
True
True or False? Analytic epidemiology refers to studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.
False
True or False? Alexander Fleming discovered the antimicrobial properties of Penicillium notatum.
True
True or False? An endemic is an epidemic occurring worldwide or crossing international boundaries.
False: (A pandemic is an epidemic occurring worldwide or crossing international boundaries)
Which of the following is NOT considered a use of epidemiology:
Select one:
A. To study the workings of health services in the community
B. To provide healthcare services to specific individuals
C. To search for causes of disease and other health outcomes
D. To diagnosis the dimensions and distributions of disease within a community
B. To provide healthcare services to specific individuals
Which of the following is considered a key characteristic of epidemiology?
Select one:
A. Distribution
B. Population focus
C. Quantification
D. All of the above
D. All
Which of the following disease outbreaks occurred between 1346 and 1352 and claimed up to one-third of the population of Europe:
Select one:
A. Black Death
B. Tuberculosis epidemic
C. Pandemic influenza
D. Cholera epidemic
A. Black Death
Whether a contaminated food such as tomatoes caused an outbreak of gastrointestinal disease is an example of investigating:
Select one:
A. A causal association
B. The 1918 influenza pandemic
C. A population distribution
D. All of the above
A. A causal association
Variation in the occurrence of diseases and other health outcomes in populations relates most closely to:
Select one:
A. Population focus
B. Distribution
C. Quantification
D. None of the above
B. Distribution Correct
The probability that an event will occur—an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or by a certain age—is known as:
Select one:
A. Risk factor
B. Risk assessment
C. Risk
D. None of the above
Risk
The physician who determined that a human disease was caused by a specific living organism and proceeded to develop four postulates to demonstrate the association between a microorganism and a disease was:
Select one:
A. Robert Koch
B. John Snow
C. Edward Jenner
D. William Farr
Koch
The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health behavior, or other health related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy is known as a(n):
Select one:
A. Prevalence
B. Epidemic
C. Pandemic
D. None of the above
Epidemic
The English anesthesiologist who linked cholera outbreaks to contaminated water and innovated several of the key epidemiologic methods that remain valid and in use today was:
Select one:
A. Sir Percival Pott
B. John Snow
C. John Graunt
D. William Farr
John Snow
The ancient Greek who contributed to epidemiology by departing from superstitious reasons for disease outbreaks was:
Select one:
A. Ramazzini
B. Paracelsus
C. Aristotle
D. Hippocrates
Hippocrates
Specializations that contribute to epidemiology include:
Select one:
A. Sociology
B. History
C. Law
D. All of the above
All
Operations research illustrates which of the following uses of epidemiology:
Select one:
A. Risk assessment use
B. Historical use
C. Community health use
D. Health services use
D. Health services use
Illness due to a specific disease or health condition is known as:
Select one:
A. Risk factor
B. Mortality
C. Morbidity
D. Exposure
C. Morbidity
Epidemiology searches for associations between exposures and:
Select one:
A. Quantification
B. Determinants
C. Health outcomes
D. All of the above
C. Health outcomes
Epidemiologic methods can be applied to which of the following public health-related fields:
Select one:
A. Health education
B. Health care administration
C. Environmental health
D. All of the above
All
Any factor that brings about change in a health condition or other defined characteristic is known as:
Select one:
A. Risk factor
B. Distribution
C. Exposure
D. Determinant
Determinant
A vaccine that provided immunity to smallpox was created by:
Select one:
A. Ramazzini
B. Edward Jenner
C. John Snow
D. Sir Percival Pott
B. Edward Jenner
A stage of prevention that takes place during the early phases of pathogenesis and includes activities that limit the progression of disease:
Select one:
A. Tertiary prevention
B. Determinant
C. Primary prevention
D. Secondary prevention
D. Secondary prevention
A method for providing quantitative measurements of risks to health is known as:
Select one:
A. The interdisciplinary approach
B. Risk assessment
C. A natural experiment
D. Disease management
B. Risk assessment
All of the following are considered ratios except:
Select one:
A. Proportion
B. Percentage
C. Time
D. Rate
B. Percentage
Data that states that “more than one-third (36.5%) of U.S. adults have obesity” is an example of:

Select one:
a. Risk
b. Neither prevalence nor risk
c. Prevalence
d. Both prevalence and risk

c. Prevalence
Data that states that “food allergies among children increased approximately 50% between 1997 and 2011” is an example of a:
Select one:
a. Rate
b. Both a proportion and a rate
c. Neither a proportion nor a rate
d. Proportion
Rate
Routine surveillance of food borne illness in the country of Atlantis found 738 cases per 100,000 people over the last 2 years. This statistic is an example of:
Select one:
a. Risk
b. Prevalence
c. Both prevalence and risk
d. Neither prevalence nor risk
Risk
Epidemiologic measures provide the following types of information:
Select one:
A. Frequency of disease or condition
B. Association between exposure and disease
C. Strength of relationship between exposure and disease
D. All of the above
All
Epidemiologists can plot data and present it graphically through:
Select one:
A. Bar graphs
B. Line graphs
C. Pie chart
D. All of the above
All
Prevalence measures do not aid in:
Select one:
A. The development of hypotheses
B. Determining the risk of disease
C. Describing the scope of health problems
D. Assessing variations in disease occurrence
B. Determining the risk of disease
Those members of the population who are capable of developing a disease or condition are known as:
Select one:
A. The population at risk
B. Prevalent cases
C. The immune fraction
D. Incident cases
A. The population at risk
What is one of the first steps in presenting data after they have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness?
Select one:
A. Count and tabulate cases
B. Draw a bar graph
C. Calculate crude rates
D. Draw a pie chart
A. Count and tabulate cases
When the incidence rate of a disease increases, the prevalence will:
Select one:
A. Increase
B. Decrease
C. Remain the same
D. None of the above
Increase
Which factors can decrease an observed prevalence?
Select one:
A. Decrease in incidence
B. Better reporting of diagnoses
C. Improved cure rates of disease
D. A & C only
A and C
True or False? Incidence and prevalence are interrelated concepts.
True
True or False? Rates can be expressed in terms of any unit size of population that is convenient.
True
True or False? In a ratio, the numerator and denominator do not necessarily have a specific relationship.
True
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