Topic Test 1 (100%) – Flashcards

question
Free association and dream analysis are techniques used in psychoanalysis to discover a person's unconscious urges. t/f?
answer
true
question
Mamie Clark was the first woman to receive a doctorate in psychology in the United States. t/f?
answer
false
question
Ethnocentrism can lead to all the following except __________. A. tolerance B. stereotypes C. racism D. discrimination
answer
a
question
Psychologists avoid studying emotions because they have little impact on behavior. t/f?
answer
false
question
The stream of consciousness refers to the basic elements in a person's conscious mind. t/f?
answer
false
question
Sports psychologists study factors that affect athletes' participation and performance in sports. t/f?
answer
true
question
A psychologist working from the biological perspective would study all of the following to see how they affect behavior and cognitive processes except __________. A. attention B. brain cells C. genes D. the nervous system
answer
a
question
Cognitive psychologists believe that cognitive processes must be studied in order to understand human behavior fully. t/f?
answer
true
question
Which of the following is not an example of a cognitive process? A. memory B. dreams C. perception D. sleep
answer
d
question
Counseling psychologists typically handle severe psychological disorders. t/f?
answer
false
question
The development of the computer allowed cognitive psychologists to do all of the following except __________. design an interactive model of a human brain on the computer study which parts of the brain are active during certain mental tasks analyze the different parts of the brain by studying computer parts understand the workings of the brain by comparing it to a computer
answer
analyze the different parts of the brain by studying computer parts
question
Social psychology is a subfield of psychology that studies all of the following except how __________. cultural influences affect behavior health habits affect brain development employees function differently in personal relationships peer interaction affects emotional development
answer
health habits affect brain development
question
Explain in detail how educational institutions and personal ideology affect the influence of contemporary psychological perspectives.
answer
Educational institutions can influence what psychological perspectives are taught, studied, and researched. Take, for example, behaviorism. Before the cognitive perspective re-emerged, behaviorism was the dominant perspective being taught in most universities. Personal ideology can also affect which perspective a psychologist supports, the course of research a psychologist undertakes, and also a psychologist's perception and interpretation of research findings. For example, during the dominance of behaviorism, psychologists were discouraged from studying cognitive processes. As a result, much of the research conducted had a behaviorist slant to it.
question
Explain how new discoveries influence contemporary psychological perspectives.
answer
New discoveries can either provide evidence to support or refute contemporary psychological perspectives, or they can lead to the development of new theories and perspectives.
question
Summarize how psychology is considered a science.
answer
Psychology is considered a science because it uses a systematic method of learning about behavior and cognitive processes. That is, its results are reproducible, its theories are falsifiable, its failures are studied closely, it discards or revises theories, and it attempts to develop solutions to problems.
question
A clinical psychologist would least likely __________ on a regular basis. A. evaluate a criminal's mental capacity B. provide individual and group therapy C. treat and diagnose psychological disorders D. develop intervention programs
answer
a
question
Mamie Clark was a psychologist who is known for her research on __________. A. intellectual and developmental disabilities and gifted children B. racism and its adverse effects on child development C. identity development among Asians living in the US D. academic development of children in desegregated schools
answer
b
question
The majority of early psychological research reflected the __________. A. differences among males and females B. concerns and interests of minorities C. differences among various cultures D. concerns and interests of white males
answer
d
question
All of the following are ways in which sports psychologists help athletes except __________. A. staying motivated B. managing fear of failure C. improving performance D. enhancing memory
answer
d
question
The __________ perspective emphasizes the human capacity for personal growth. A. humanistic B. evolutionary C. biological D. cognitive
answer
a
question
Psychoanalysis is a type of therapy that attempts to help people __________. A. reveal personal needs and wishes B. successfully use reinforcement C. repress urges and desires D. organize information into wholes
answer
a
question
Psychologists working from the biological perspective are interested in the __________. A. internal conflicts that affect behavior B. capacity of people to make positive choices C. connection between the brain and behavior D. differences in behavior among cultures
answer
c
question
Which school of thought studies how cognitive processes help people and animals develop habits? A. psychoanalytic theory B. functionalism C. Gestalt psychology D. behaviorism
answer
b
question
Unlike the majority of psychologists, psychiatrists __________. A. can diagnose disorders B. use psychotherapy C. treat people with disorders D. prescribe medication
answer
d
question
Julie's psychologist helped her get over her fear of spiders. Which goal of psychology has the psychologist met? A. describe B. predict C. control D. explain
answer
c
question
The requirements for a master's degree in psychology generally include __________. A. four years of undergraduate work in a subfield, a dissertation, and clinical work B. three years of undergraduate work, a thesis on a subfield, and counseling experience C. five to seven years of graduate work and comprehensive exams over a specific subfield D. two years of graduate study in a subfield, practicum experience, and a thesis
answer
d
question
Ethnocentrism helps researchers avoid cultural bias when interpreting research findings. t/f?
answer
false
question
Kenneth and Mamie Clark's doll experiment was cited in the landmark US Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education. t/f?
answer
true
question
The psychologist who was the first woman to earn a doctoral degree in psychology in the US and is renowned for writing a comparative psychology book in which she described the cognitive processes in both humans and animals is __________. A. Martha Bernal B. Margaret Floy Washburn C. Mamie Clark D. Mary Whiton Calkins
answer
b
question
Increased interest in cultural diversity can be attributed to all of the following except __________. A. personal travel B. advances in communication C. natural selection D. international trade
answer
c
question
Which philosopher believed that sense perceptions and observations are essential for knowledge? A. Socrates B. Plato C. Hippocrates D. Aristotle
answer
d
question
_________ is the school of psychology that believes perception is more than the sum of its parts—it involves a whole pattern. A. Behaviorism B. Structuralism C. Functionalism D. Gestalt psychology
answer
d
question
Which school of thought focused on objective sensations, such as sight and taste, and subjective feelings, such as emotional responses, to study the conscious mind? A. behaviorism B. structuralism C. psychoanalysis D. functionalism
answer
b
question
Which philosopher suggested that the mind and body are separate but that a link exists between them? A. John Locke B. Plato C. René Descartes D. Aristotle
answer
c
question
Students who are in clinical and counseling programs typically are required to complete an internship to graduate with a doctoral degree. t/f?
answer
true
question
Psychology is a combination of the Greek words psyche, which means "soul" or "mind," and logos, which means "the study of." t/f?
answer
true
question
All of the following were barriers to minority participation in early psychology except __________. A. school desegregation B. academic opportunities C. career opportunities D. perceived level of intelligence
answer
a
question
__________ was the first person of Asian American descent to be elected president of the American Psychological Association. A. J. Henry Alston B. Richard Suinn C. Francis C. Sumner D. Kenneth Clark
answer
b
question
William James was one of the leading founders of which school of thought? A. behaviorism B. functionalism C. structuralism D. psychoanalysis
answer
b
question
Which of the following statements is not true about licensure in psychology? A. Licensing requirements for psychologists in the United States vary by state. B. A standardized test is administered by most state licensing boards. C. Psychologists must be licensed or certified to offer any type of patient care. D. Proof of clinical work is required to renew one's license in all 50 states.
answer
d
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question
Free association and dream analysis are techniques used in psychoanalysis to discover a person's unconscious urges. t/f?
answer
true
question
Mamie Clark was the first woman to receive a doctorate in psychology in the United States. t/f?
answer
false
question
Ethnocentrism can lead to all the following except __________. A. tolerance B. stereotypes C. racism D. discrimination
answer
a
question
Psychologists avoid studying emotions because they have little impact on behavior. t/f?
answer
false
question
The stream of consciousness refers to the basic elements in a person's conscious mind. t/f?
answer
false
question
Sports psychologists study factors that affect athletes' participation and performance in sports. t/f?
answer
true
question
A psychologist working from the biological perspective would study all of the following to see how they affect behavior and cognitive processes except __________. A. attention B. brain cells C. genes D. the nervous system
answer
a
question
Cognitive psychologists believe that cognitive processes must be studied in order to understand human behavior fully. t/f?
answer
true
question
Which of the following is not an example of a cognitive process? A. memory B. dreams C. perception D. sleep
answer
d
question
Counseling psychologists typically handle severe psychological disorders. t/f?
answer
false
question
The development of the computer allowed cognitive psychologists to do all of the following except __________. design an interactive model of a human brain on the computer study which parts of the brain are active during certain mental tasks analyze the different parts of the brain by studying computer parts understand the workings of the brain by comparing it to a computer
answer
analyze the different parts of the brain by studying computer parts
question
Social psychology is a subfield of psychology that studies all of the following except how __________. cultural influences affect behavior health habits affect brain development employees function differently in personal relationships peer interaction affects emotional development
answer
health habits affect brain development
question
Explain in detail how educational institutions and personal ideology affect the influence of contemporary psychological perspectives.
answer
Educational institutions can influence what psychological perspectives are taught, studied, and researched. Take, for example, behaviorism. Before the cognitive perspective re-emerged, behaviorism was the dominant perspective being taught in most universities. Personal ideology can also affect which perspective a psychologist supports, the course of research a psychologist undertakes, and also a psychologist's perception and interpretation of research findings. For example, during the dominance of behaviorism, psychologists were discouraged from studying cognitive processes. As a result, much of the research conducted had a behaviorist slant to it.
question
Explain how new discoveries influence contemporary psychological perspectives.
answer
New discoveries can either provide evidence to support or refute contemporary psychological perspectives, or they can lead to the development of new theories and perspectives.
question
Summarize how psychology is considered a science.
answer
Psychology is considered a science because it uses a systematic method of learning about behavior and cognitive processes. That is, its results are reproducible, its theories are falsifiable, its failures are studied closely, it discards or revises theories, and it attempts to develop solutions to problems.
question
A clinical psychologist would least likely __________ on a regular basis. A. evaluate a criminal's mental capacity B. provide individual and group therapy C. treat and diagnose psychological disorders D. develop intervention programs
answer
a
question
Mamie Clark was a psychologist who is known for her research on __________. A. intellectual and developmental disabilities and gifted children B. racism and its adverse effects on child development C. identity development among Asians living in the US D. academic development of children in desegregated schools
answer
b
question
The majority of early psychological research reflected the __________. A. differences among males and females B. concerns and interests of minorities C. differences among various cultures D. concerns and interests of white males
answer
d
question
All of the following are ways in which sports psychologists help athletes except __________. A. staying motivated B. managing fear of failure C. improving performance D. enhancing memory
answer
d
question
The __________ perspective emphasizes the human capacity for personal growth. A. humanistic B. evolutionary C. biological D. cognitive
answer
a
question
Psychoanalysis is a type of therapy that attempts to help people __________. A. reveal personal needs and wishes B. successfully use reinforcement C. repress urges and desires D. organize information into wholes
answer
a
question
Psychologists working from the biological perspective are interested in the __________. A. internal conflicts that affect behavior B. capacity of people to make positive choices C. connection between the brain and behavior D. differences in behavior among cultures
answer
c
question
Which school of thought studies how cognitive processes help people and animals develop habits? A. psychoanalytic theory B. functionalism C. Gestalt psychology D. behaviorism
answer
b
question
Unlike the majority of psychologists, psychiatrists __________. A. can diagnose disorders B. use psychotherapy C. treat people with disorders D. prescribe medication
answer
d
question
Julie's psychologist helped her get over her fear of spiders. Which goal of psychology has the psychologist met? A. describe B. predict C. control D. explain
answer
c
question
The requirements for a master's degree in psychology generally include __________. A. four years of undergraduate work in a subfield, a dissertation, and clinical work B. three years of undergraduate work, a thesis on a subfield, and counseling experience C. five to seven years of graduate work and comprehensive exams over a specific subfield D. two years of graduate study in a subfield, practicum experience, and a thesis
answer
d
question
Ethnocentrism helps researchers avoid cultural bias when interpreting research findings. t/f?
answer
false
question
Kenneth and Mamie Clark's doll experiment was cited in the landmark US Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education. t/f?
answer
true
question
The psychologist who was the first woman to earn a doctoral degree in psychology in the US and is renowned for writing a comparative psychology book in which she described the cognitive processes in both humans and animals is __________. A. Martha Bernal B. Margaret Floy Washburn C. Mamie Clark D. Mary Whiton Calkins
answer
b
question
Increased interest in cultural diversity can be attributed to all of the following except __________. A. personal travel B. advances in communication C. natural selection D. international trade
answer
c
question
Which philosopher believed that sense perceptions and observations are essential for knowledge? A. Socrates B. Plato C. Hippocrates D. Aristotle
answer
d
question
_________ is the school of psychology that believes perception is more than the sum of its parts—it involves a whole pattern. A. Behaviorism B. Structuralism C. Functionalism D. Gestalt psychology
answer
d
question
Which school of thought focused on objective sensations, such as sight and taste, and subjective feelings, such as emotional responses, to study the conscious mind? A. behaviorism B. structuralism C. psychoanalysis D. functionalism
answer
b
question
Which philosopher suggested that the mind and body are separate but that a link exists between them? A. John Locke B. Plato C. René Descartes D. Aristotle
answer
c
question
Students who are in clinical and counseling programs typically are required to complete an internship to graduate with a doctoral degree. t/f?
answer
true
question
Psychology is a combination of the Greek words psyche, which means "soul" or "mind," and logos, which means "the study of." t/f?
answer
true
question
All of the following were barriers to minority participation in early psychology except __________. A. school desegregation B. academic opportunities C. career opportunities D. perceived level of intelligence
answer
a
question
__________ was the first person of Asian American descent to be elected president of the American Psychological Association. A. J. Henry Alston B. Richard Suinn C. Francis C. Sumner D. Kenneth Clark
answer
b
question
William James was one of the leading founders of which school of thought? A. behaviorism B. functionalism C. structuralism D. psychoanalysis
answer
b
question
Which of the following statements is not true about licensure in psychology? A. Licensing requirements for psychologists in the United States vary by state. B. A standardized test is administered by most state licensing boards. C. Psychologists must be licensed or certified to offer any type of patient care. D. Proof of clinical work is required to renew one's license in all 50 states.
answer
d
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