Ecology and Environmental Science Mid-Term

Environmental Aesthetics is the study of how to appreciate beauty in the natural world.
Industrial ecology is the study of laws which are designed to protect the health of human beings and their environment.
Ideally, the _____ of a particular nation or community should match the ethical commitments of those living there.
CITES is an international treaty signed by 164 countries focused on preventing illegal trade in endangered species.
The establishment of the Environmental Equity Work Group in 1989 by the EPA is an example of
environmental justice.
The concept of putting aside land for the continuation of a traditional lifestyle is referred to as
extractive reserve.
In 2002, the FBI testified before Congress that two ecoterrorist groups alone, the ______________ and the ________________, had committed over 600 criminal acts in the United States.
Earth Liberation Front, Animal Liberation Front
The legal trade in rare or endangered species is estimated to earn over 5-8 billion a year, to aid habitat conservation measures.
Ethics is
one branch of philosophy.
Brazil nuts, latex rubber, and native medicines are examples of extractive reserves from the Brazilian rainforest.
Across the world, cultures have different ethical commitments, which are reflected through
cultural relativism.
What is the name of the theory which suggests that the environment has direct rights and qualifies for moral personhood?
Author of Walden, which describes a year in which he lived in direct contact with nature.
Henry David Thoreau
Corporate expansion is determined primarily by
profitability and cost reduction.
Wrote Silent Spring, which dramatized the danger of pesticides to wildlife and humans.
Rachel Carson
Which of the following is NOT one of the General Motors Environmental Principles?
oil spill reduction
Anthropocentrism is a philosophy of environmental responsibility that focuses primarily on human interests.
The chief aim of CITES is to
to prevent illegal international trade of endangered species.
Environmental justice is a law that allows cities, states, or individuals the right to sue companies for contamination of water supplies.
The Oil Protection Act of 1990
regulates supertankers and reduces the chances of oil spills.
Stresses a balance between resource use and resource availability
conservation ethic
In 1994, delegates from around the world gathered for the Conference on Population and Development. Representatives from developing countries protested that
a baby born in the United States will consume 20 times the resources in its lifetime as an African or Indian baby.
World food production has doubled in the last 40 years because of
fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yielding varieties.
Aldo Leopold published his thoughts on land-use ethics in A Sand County Almanac.
Predominant feeling of a culture concerning ethical issues.
The environmental justice movement emerged from the opposition of a PCB landfill in Warren County, North Carolina.
To get around the Oil Protection Act of 1990 many oil carriers
use lightly regulated oil barges pulled by tugboats.
In Ecocentrism, it is suggested that the environment itself, not just living organisms that inhabit it, has moral worth.
The view that a healthy relationship with the environment relies upon a spiritual oneness with the Earth.
deep ecology
Extractive reserves involve
preserving part of the rainforest for the continuation of traditional lifestyles.
Early critic of rampant economic development and the “invasion of nature by trade.”
Ralph Waldo Emerson
The fuel cell is the likely future technology that will replace
Which of the following universities prohibits investment in companies that conduct business with the government of Sudan as part of an environmental investment responsibility policy?
Founded the field of game management and wrote A Sand County Almanac.
Aldo Leopold
Assumes that the human race is the master of nature and that the Earth’s resources exist for our benefit.
development ethic
Thomas Malthus was an ecologist that declared in his book The Population Time Bomb that worldwide famine was inevitable when human population growth exceeded food production.
Believed that “wilderness mirrors divinity, nourishes humanity, and vivifies the spirit.”
John Muir
Personal ethical commitment can
All of these are correct.
Environmental Pragmatism is an approach that focuses on ethics rather than policy.
Biocentrism is also known as
Life-centered environmental ethics.
Nature has intrinsic value or inherent worth apart from human appropriation.
preservation ethic
Stresses recycling of waste resources rather than discarding them.
industrial ecology
Which naturalist stated that only government control could save California sequoia groves?
John Muir
What percent of the Earth’s water is undrinkable?
Which naturalist was fascinated by the countryside around Concord, Massachusetts and wrote of his experiences living close with nature?
Henry David Thoreau
Sustainable Development is a term first coined in a U.S. sponsored document called the “Brundtland Report” in 1987.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary area of study that deals with all of the following except
All of these are correct.
Environmental science is a narrowly defined field of physical and biological sciences.
Environmental decisions involve economic considerations because often one group of people is receiving income from the resource being used.
Economic considerations are not involved with environmental decisions.
The organization of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada that promotes sustainability in higher education is called
The reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park did not have an impact on the ecosystem.
Biodiversity is fundamental to human welfare and economic development and plays a critical role in meeting human needs by maintaining the ecological processes upon which our survival depends.
The scientific community can advise governments but cannot insist that certain policies be adopted.
Agenda 21 was an agreement by
178 nations for comprehensive sustainable development in 1992.
The result of the 1997 Kyoto Summit was an international commitment to
reduce emissions of greenhouses gases.
Economics factors should be considered when
making any environmental decisions
An area of land in which there is little or no human development is referred to as a
Some ecosystems have easily recognized boundaries, such as lakes, islands, or floodplains.
When dealing with environmental regulations, the United States government can
All of these are correct
Fertilizers and pesticides do not easily enter the ground water.
Before 1993, the U.S. Forest Service sold timber-cutting rights
at below cost.
An ecosystem is
a group of interactive species and their environment.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was
initiated by the United Nations to assess four broad ecosystem services.
UNCED was the former name for the Earth Summit.
The bioaccumulation of contaminants is greatest in the top predators of an ecosystem.
The ecosystem approach requires scientists to recognize and understand natural interactions and to integrate this with human needs for natural resources.
The freshwater resources of the Great Lakes are shared resources of 8 U.S. states and 5 Canadian Provinces.
ASTM International is
All of these are correct.
The general public typically perceives involuntary risks, such as nuclear weapons, a greater risk than voluntary risks, such as smoking.
Which correctly demonstrates the sequence in which the three major worldwide economic transformations occurred?
industrial revolution > technology revolution > globalization
The supply is the amount of goods or service people are willing to sell at a given price.
Environmental costs are easy to assess, since they can be easily converted into monetary values.
Gift to private enterprise by government when the enterprise is in economic difficulty
Risk based corrective action was formed to
protect environmental ecological resources.
Classically there are three kinds of resources, which are
labor, capital, and land
The use of facts and assumptions to estimate the probability of harm to human health or the environment is called
risk assessment.
Decision-making process that uses input such as risk assessment and economic impacts.
risk management
In economics, the price rises when demand exceeds supply.
Economists look at resources as the available supply of something that can be used.
The Superfund law was passed in 1980 to bring about cleanup of abandoned toxic waste sites.
Which of the following is NOT one of the green marketing principles?
consumer proof of value
A similarity between ecosystems and markets is that they both operate in the same time frame.
The basic premise behind the “The Tragedy of the Commons” is
a resource becomes overexploited when its ownership is shared.
Risk analysis consists of two primary considerations:
risk and cost.
Using renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems to produce a rise in real income and improved standard of living.
sustainable development
The goal of a deposit-refund program is to
encourage product recycling through the refund of a deposit.
More people die from aircraft accidents than from motor vehicle accidents.
We assign value to natural resources based on our perception of their _____________.
profit margin
The concept of “DfE,” utilized in the United States by the EPA, is
design for the environment.
There is essentially no difference between risk assessment and risk management.
Which of the following is a market-based instrument?
information programs
One concern of the cost-benefit analysis is that it places an economic value on everything.
ASTM International is similar to ISO since it is a voluntary standard setting organization.
Risk assessment usually involves a statement regarding the possibility that something could occur.
Probability is the same as possibility.
Likelihood that a condition or action will lead to injury, damage, or loss.
The debt-for-nature program’s main goal is the reduction of debt in many developing countries.
Which of the following does NOT demonstrate the use of renewable resources?
using underground coal deposits to produce heat and electricity
More than 50% of the rivers in North America have been modified by dams, diversions, or other artificial controls.
Risk is the probability that a condition or action will lead to an injury, damage, or loss.
Mathematical statement about how likely it is that something will happen.
Man has a tendency to misuse or overexploit any resource that is held in common public ownership.
Environmental risk assessment can include the ASTM International RBCA process as an assessment tool.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of sustainable development?
A market-based instrument is a calculation of the net benefit or total positive impact of an environmental policy.
Relationship between available supply of a commodity or service and its price.
supply/demand curve
In the United States, performance bonds are used
to cover the cost of reclaiming and revegetating mined sites.
The general public perceives new technology as a greater risk than familiar technology.
Which of the following is NOT a pollution cost?
increased health costs
Which of the following labels is an example of a legitimate “green” product?
tested as eco-safe and ozone friendly
Risk tolerance can be based upon
All of these are correct.
What does the price of a product or service reflect?
the demand for and availability of the product
When the supply of a commodity exceeds the demand
producers lower their prices.
“Matter” is made up of
In a controlled experiment, a single test is performed from which the results are gathered and accepted by the scientific community.
Number used as a measure of hydrogen ion concentration. pH
Scientists usually experiment by collecting data
from as large a sample as possible.
Repeatability in an experiment is important because
All of these are correct.
Which of the following light sources is the most efficient?
sulfur lamp
Which of the following small molecules are converted to form sugar in photosynthesis?
water and carbon dioxide
The heat that causes liquid water to evaporate from your skin is called
latent heat.
Heat energy that is used to change matter from a solid to liquid or gas.
latent heat
Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons.
The University of Arizona’s water chilling and ice storage project functions their air conditioning.
Damming water changes its quantity and not its quality.
The second law of thermodynamics states that whenever energy is converted from one form to another, some of the useful energy is lost.
Compound with a low number of hydroxyl ions or low pH.
An acid is an ionic compound that releases hydroxyl ions.
Chemistry is extremely important in discussions of environmental problems.
In the United States, what percentage of energy consumed is in the form of electricity?
Flood control measures to drain the Everglades resulted in devastating native plant and animal communities.
The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan of 2000 would
store water and release it slowly into the system to allow recovery of native species.
Matter may be solid, liquid, or gas, depending on the amount of kinetic energy contained by the molecules.
Some of the steps followed in the scientific method include:
observation, formulate and test a hypothesis, compare results to others and publish.
Which of the following is NOT an inorganic household chemical?
Central region of an atom.
Chemical bonds are physical attractions between atoms resulting from the interaction of their electrons.
An ion is the product of photosynthetic reactions in plants.
The heat that is transferred from a hot object to your hand is known as
sensible heat.
The scientific method involves observation, hypothesis testing, critical evaluation of results, and the publishing of findings.
The energy released as water flows downhill from behind a dam is an example of
kinetic energy.
What is the fundamental subunit of matter?
The nucleus of an atom contains
protons and neutrons.
Reproducibility is an important part of the scientific method and means that
other scientists are able to repeat the experiment and obtain similar results.
The position of an element in the Periodic Table tells you
the number and position of the parts of the atom.
In order to discern whether or not a product is green you should look for
All of the above are true
The scientific method is the process that scientists use to
rigorously test the solutions to new questions.
The release of chemical energy from food is analogous to the burning of fossil fuel.
Compound with a high number of hydroxyl ions or high pH.
Energy that cannot be used to do useful work is referred to as
Process whereby organisms break down large molecules to obtain energy.
A hybrid vehicle
contains an internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
The energy contained by moving objects, such as running water.
kinetic energy
In 2002 Iowa became the first state to regulate the use of phosphorus in lawn fertilizer.
Grazing animals and the grasses they eat have both evolved in response to each other’s influence. This process is known as
Consumers are organisms that require no organic matter as a source of food.
Parasite that lives on the outside of its host.
Everything that affects an organism during its lifetime is known as ecology.
The relationship between frogs and insects is an example of
a predator-prey relationship.
Conversion of natural ecosystems to agriculture ecosystems can lead to less carbon stored in soil and large plants such as trees.
The biotic component of an organism’s environment is the non-living or physical factors.
The use of fertilizers in agriculture has significantly altered several nutrient cycles including
All of these are correct.
Series of stages in the flow of nitrogen in ecosystems.
nitrogen cycle
This meat eater often gets meat from animals that have died by accident or illness, or were killed by other animals.
Stage in the flow of energy in an ecosystem.
trophic level
Competition between members of the same species.
Polyploidy is an evolutionary mechanism that may result i
new plant species.
Phosphorous is released from rocks by which process?
weathering and erosion
Bacteria that convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into usable plant forms.
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Which of the following is an example of a keystone species?
An organism that eats both plants and animals.
Which of the following is NOT a decomposer?
Each step in the flow of energy through an ecosystem is known as a
trophic level.
Competition between members of different species.
interspecific competition
Charles Darwin developed the idea of natural selection without understanding the gene concept.
The introduction of which organism is correlated with a major disruption to the food web of the Great Lakes?
zebra mussels
The carbon cycle is an example of how materials are cycled through ecosystems.
The niche of an organism is the result of many years of natural selection.
Interacting groups of different species in a given area.
About 20 percent of the energy passing from one trophic level to the next is lost.
At the highest trophic level, there is less energy and fewer organisms than at the lower levels.
The chief limiting factor to the success of most trout species is
the dissolved oxygen content in water.
In 2001 the IPCC report concluded that increased CO2 from human activity is contributing to climate change.
Which of the following is an example of an abiotic factor?
the climate of the community in which the species mentioned above inhabit
Among plants, a condition that results in the number of sets of chromosomes in cells to increase, is called
An organism that can manufacture its own food from inorganic substances.
Biting insects that transmit parasites are known as
The source of nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle is found in rocks.
One primary environmental condition that determines the success of an organism.
limiting factor
Populations are all organisms of a specific kind that live within a specific geographic region
Bacteria that convert nitrogen compounds in the soil into nitrogen gas.
denitrifying bacteria
Animal that eats plants.
Which of the following is an example of a detrital food chain?
sewage treatment plan
In a mutualistic relationship
both species benefit.
The small amount of dissolved oxygen found in warm water is considered a _______ to the success of many fish species.
limiting factor
Which of the following organisms is a secondary consumer?
Two organisms that interbreed and produce fertile offspring are said to be individuals of the same
The production of a new species from a previous species is known as mutualism.
Polyploidy is an evolutionary mechanism that may result in
new plant species.
About 50% of photosynthesis activity takes place in fresh water.
If a species becomes isolated from another for a long time as a result of a barrier, speciation will not occur.
Charles Darwin is generally credited with
developing the concept of natural selection
Phosphate mining on the island of Nauru has contributed to a sequence of changes in the island ecosystem that ultimately reduced the life expectancy of islanders.
Genetic variation among individuals of the same species enables some of these individuals to have a greater chance of obtaining resources and therefore, producing more offspring.
Ecologists distinguish two different kinds of competition. One is
Both intraspecific and interspecific are correct.
Producers are organisms that are able to use sources of energy to make complex, organic molecules from simple inorganic substances in their environment.
The flow of carbon from the atmosphere to living organisms and back again.
carbon cycle
In an aquatic ecosystem, sedges and grasses are often found in central deeper portions of the waterbody.
Region with rooted vegetation in a freshwater ecosystem.
littoral zone
Organisms in each biome have adapted to the climatic conditions typical of that biome.
Which biome is characterized by tree frogs, large vines, and fruit-eating birds and bats?
tropical rainforest
Ecologists have learned that succession is influenced by many factors other than climate alone including
invasive species, disease, human land use history, and seed dispersal.
Biome which receives less than 25 cm of precipitation per year.
Seaweed and other attached marine organisms prefer to grow in which of the following regions?
Human impact on temperate forests include
All of these are correct.
The unusual forest biome occurring in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia is called a
temperate rainforest.
Muddy shores are often poor in oxygen.
Coral reefs are cold-water marine ecosystems dominated by tubeworms.
Which biome is characterized by organisms which are inactive during the day and burrow underground?
What is the term used to describe a shallow, partially enclosed area where freshwater enters the ocean?
In a rainforest, most of the sunlight is captured by trees and therefore only
shade-tolerant plants live beneath the canopy.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of temperate deciduous forests?
They produce useful plant products such as cashew nuts, vanilla, and rubber.
The Blue Oak Ranch Reserve in San Jose, California is unique because it has remained undeveloped for its entire history.
Seasonal flooding of the Amazon can create wetland forests known as
the varzea.
Plants in this biome have features to survive long drought even though rainfall totals can be as high as 250 cm in a given month.
tropical dry forest
Biome that has a change of seasons and evenly distributed annual precipitation.
deciduous forest
Twenty percent of wetlands in the United States have been drained and filled.
The primary determiners of biomes are the amount and distribution of rainfall and the yearly temperature cycle.
Biome dominated by grasses and fire- and drought-resistant trees.
Which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?
They have fewer types of interactions among organisms.
What is the dominant organism colonizing bare rock during primary succession?
Which group of organisms forms the base of the energy pyramid in a pelagic marine ecosystem?
You would find a temperate rainforest along the coasts of all of the following states except
northern New York.
Freshwater resources in lakes and rivers account for about 0.02% of the world’s water.
Coral reefs can be altered by fishing and siltation from rivers.
Which is an example of secondary succession?
a burned field
Which of the following is NOT a region in a lake ecosystem?
pelagic zone
Recently, biologists discovered a new community of organisms that live in the canopy of tropical rainforests.
Regional terrestrial climax communities are called eutrophic systems.
A floating bog is an example of
aquatic primary succession.
Each stage in the process of succession is called a
seral stage
Early stages of succession that begin the soil-building process.
pioneer community
In desert biomes, flowering usually coincides with
moisture availability.
Attached organisms in freshwater streams and rivers.
Primary succession is
a progression that begins with a total lack of organisms.
Most temperate deciduous forests have survived without impact from human activity due to their location.
In addition to northern latitudes, patches of tundra-like plant communities are also found
on mountain tops.
The two major factors influencing vegetation in biomes are
precipitation and temperature.
Organisms that live on the bottom of marine or freshwater ecosystems.
Shallow warm nutrient-rich lakes are described as
Amount of oxygen required to destroy organic molecules in aquatic ecosystems.
biochemical oxygen demand
Ecologists have discovered that the process of succession is very predictable.
Conservation easements can
All of the above are correct.
Mediterranean Shrublands (Chaparral) have been heavily impacted by humans because
both they are near the oceans and have a moderate climate
Small organism that has a short life span and produces a large number of offspring.
Movement of organisms into a different region
Combination of all environmental influences that tend to keep populations stable
environmental resistance
Age distribution and sex ratio have little impact on population growth.
Populations of r-strategists will be most affected by
density-dependent factors.
On a population growth curve, the _____________________ phase results in the same percentage increase each year.
exponential growth
Which condition is necessary for a population to grow?
Birthrate must exceed death rate
Movement out of an area that was once one’s place of residence.
Inherent reproductive capacity.
biotic potential
One of the targets of The United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to decrease the proportion of people lacking access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by
Which of the following is the correct sequence of phases in a typical population growth curve?
lag, exponential, stable equilibrium
A measure of the land area required to provide the resources and absorb the wastes of a population is referred to as the
ecological footprint.
K-strategists typically are small and short-lived organisms.
Since 1925, China has had a series of family planning programs aimed at reducing the number of births in their country.
Which organism was introduced into the Great Lakes and has expanded its range to the Mississippi River?
zebra mussel
The scientific study of human populations, their characteristics, how these characteristics effect growth and the consequences of that growth is known as demography.
Phase in a population growth pattern in which the death rate and birthrate become equal.
stable equilibrium phase
As a result of the ban on international trade of elephant products,
the elephant population has exploded.
The current (2004) human population is about
6.4 billion.
Optimum number of individuals of a species that can be supported in an area over an extended period of time.
carrying capacity
Which of the following limiting factors is NOT a component of environmental resistance?
organismal biotic potential
The ecological footprint of Japan is estimated to be 5 times larger than its locally available resources.
Oysters produce a million eggs of which only a few find suitable habitat to live. They are said to be
Available raw materials are one of the limiting factors regulating carrying capacity.
The factors that prevent unlimited population growth are known as limiting factors.
All the different limiting factors that act upon a population are collectively known as environmental resistance.
A population is a group of different species that inhabit a specific area.
K-strategists are
large and long-lived and controlled by density-dependent factors.
The Red-Cockaded Woodpecker is an endangered species primarily due to
commercial logging of mature pine trees which are required for nesting.
The introduction of genetic and cultural characteristics into an existing population is called emigration.
In the real world, many organisms don’t “fit” clearly into either the r-strategist or K-strategist category for
population reproductive strategies.
Measure of how close organisms are to one another.
population density
Combination of all environmental influences that tend to keep populations stable.
environmental resistance
Natality measures the number of individuals that die in a population over a period of time.
Migration of organisms from a concentrated population into areas with lower population densities.
When a population stops growing and its size no longer fluctuates, it is said to
be at stable equilibrium.
Period of population growth when the population increases at an ever-increasing rate.
exponential growth phase
The rate of human population growth has led to political unrest in response to unequal access to resources.
Population growth is determined by the combined effects of birthrate and death rate.
Deer invest a great deal of energy in a few offspring that have a good chance of living to reproduce. They are said to be
Ecologists refer to the maximum sustainable population for an area as
carrying capacity.
The sex ratio of a population is a way of stating the relative number of males and females.
The human population growth curve is currently in which phase?
exponential growth
Comparative percentages of different age groups within a population.
age distribution
Which phase of a population growth curve is characterized by very slow growth due to reproduction and offspring growth?
lag phase
Which of the following countries has the lowest population growth rate?
Large organism that has a long life span and produces few offspring.

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