Consumer Attitude Toward Green Marketing Essay Example
Consumer Attitude Toward Green Marketing Essay Example

Consumer Attitude Toward Green Marketing Essay Example

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  • Pages: 12 (3074 words)
  • Published: June 25, 2018
  • Type: Research Paper
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Literature Review

Some literatures were reviewed in the course of this study. These include the previous researches which are as:

Sourabh Bhattacharya (2011) conducted research on “Consumer Attitude Towards Green Marketing In India”. According to him, Marketing is the process which begins with identifying the needs of the consumer and further includes product development, delivering products to the consumer and providing after sales service. The conventional marketing process is not specifically concerned or bothered about environmental safety.

The contemporary green marketing concept, on the other hand, analyzes, ecological compatibility of the product. It emphasizes on the formulation of marketing strategies in conformation with environmental safety or protection. Conventional marketing paid little attention to the pollution caused to the environment from the actual usage of the products, the raw materials used in manufacturing


or from the packaging materials used. Conventional marketing concentrated on profit taking, while green marketing maintains the philosophy that doing business for a longer period is not possible without protecting the environmental.

He concluded that the green marketers in India should carry out heavy promotional campaigns, because a majority of the Indian consumers are not sure about the quality of the green products. They are indecisive whether to pay premium for purchasing green products. They are highly suspicious regarding the real greenness of the eco-friendly products and tend to search for more information before buying. All these have a negative impact on the success of green marketing in India. Therefore, the green marketers must do heavy promotion, so that the target customers are convinced about the qualitative aspects of the green products.

This is very important as the Indian consumers are i

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general price-sensitive and green products are costlier. If they are not convinced with the quality of the green products, they remain suspicious and will not be willing to pay premium.

Meenakshi Verma & Anuj Verma (2011) conducted research on “Green Marketing-Strategy & Scope Of Growth In Indian Market”, According to him, Green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environ mentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production rocess, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. Green products balance environmental compatibility with performance, affordability, and convenience. They are typically durable, non-toxic, recyclable, and are often made from recycled materials. Green products have minimal packaging, and should carry low environmental impact. Green marketing not only focuses on advertisements and promotion of products with environmental characteristics, but it pervades all the activities of designing, production, packaging and promoting greener products. Green marketing thrives of the underlying philosophy ‘Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.

It was concluded that as the demand for green products undoubtedly exist in growing economies, Green marketing provides an opportunity to the companies to increase their market-share by introducing eco-friendly products. Stricter environmental regulations across the world, growing consumer preference for eco-friendly companies, and the inherent cost advantages in lowering toxic waste are encouraging industries big and small to clean up. The research has revealed that awareness level among the consumers is pretty high and they are willing to adopt green products.

However, the manufacturers need to improve the quality of the product and its after sales service. The consumers are concerned about the global warming and majority of

them believe that green products shall help in reducing this cause however they are not overly committed to improving their environment and may be looking to lay too much responsibility on industry and government. Though it’s the responsibility of the firm to produce products, which are having minimum impact on the environment, but ultimately it’s the consumer who is having responsibility to use eco-friendly products.

Dr. Priyank Azad (2011) wrote an article “Green Marketing: The Innovative Mantra of Marketing”. This article discusses the notion of green marketing, its initiatives, challenges and probable strategies as conclusion. The mounting awareness about/on disturbed ecological balance and environmental consciousness has changed the behavioral patterns both in the individuals and business across the world. The apprehension towards global warming, harmful pollutants, non-biodegradable sold waste has sharply risen in the past decade. Now is the time of recyclable, non-toxic and environment-friendly green products that can help in preserving our nvironment and keeping it healthier. This has led the marketers to take a shift in practices and incorporates the concept of ‘Think Green’. The term ‘sustainability’ has become the keyword of this competitive era. As the resources are scarce and human wants are infinite, this broadening gap has augmented the interest among the consumers all over the world regarding fortification of environment. This increasing awareness and environmental consciousness has transformed the behavioral blueprints both in individuals and businesses.

Now there is an era of recyclable, non-toxic and environment responsive green goods. This led to green marketing which speaks of mounting market for sustainable and socially accountable products and services. It contains a wide range of tasks such as product adjustment, transforming

the production process, changed advertising, modifications in packaging, etc., that aims at reducing the harmful impact of products and their consumption and disposal on the environment. Despite this world awareness, there are numerous potential challenges and issues that are required to be surmounted.

Andrew Franklin Prince, Reuban Jacob and Jerrin M Philipose (2011) conducted a study on “Green Marketing: Recaliberation and Disposal of Exhausted Product Earns for Itself”. In this era of technologically-advanced educated world, products developed considering ecological aspects have more mileage than the regular products. Consumers’ awareness of proper disposal of exhausted products is need of the hour. The products demanded by the customers could be recaliberated to be used further as homogeneous or differentiated products.

Meanwhile, the products which cross the bar of recaliberation could be disposed by the manufacturer. However, product disposal, is yet to find a prominent ground in India. The culture of corporate organizations trying to bag the sensible customers by providing the right kind of product with a tag line of ‘eco-friendly’, has just kick started. At this juncture one may think, is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) a good initiative only in papers? It was concluded that the strategy could bring revelation in the market. It is high time that we emphasize on the concept that “marketing begins and ends with manufacturer”.

This however would need the background support of customers as well as policy makers for the effective implementation of the strategy. The flow of demand is expected to develop the customers’ buying preference for particular manufacturers who are following this strategy. Brand building effort could also be practiced to the maximum. The era

of green market could be enhanced to the utmost. The waste in the Mother Nature will be minimized in the coming era, which shall provide better products for the better customers. Thus, providing recaliberation and disposal will earn itself for the company.

Deeksha Dave & Kartik Dave (2011) conducted a study on “Environmental Management Practices In The Hospitality Industry”. With their massive resource consumption and waste generation, big hotels quite literall function and pollute like a mini city. Hotels consume resources like energy, water, food, paper and pollute the environment in the form of smoke, noise and chemical pollutants. Keeping the above issues in view, the industry has come forward to save the environment and is playing a major role in environment protection by developing awareness and adopting environmental friendly practices.

Since hotels occupy a central place in the tourism industry and its development does impact the environment considerably, it is believed that hotels should be more proactive in their managerial response concerning environmental performance. Keeping this in mind the study explores the environmental management practices among hotels operating in Udaipur. The results have shown that although hotel companies are concerned with environmental management issues, many are not proactive enough in their responses and prefer to only take management initiatives that have considerable financial benefits for their business. Focus has been mainly on cost-cutting management measures such as minimizing energy use and water conservation as this contributes directly towards a hotel’s profitability.

Dr. Ashish Chandra, Anoop Pandey and Navneet Kaur(2010) conducted a research on “Green Marketing: A tool to combat Environmental Challenges”. In this paper, the authors had taken a little attempt to

academically examine environmental and green marketing issues and gray areas.

This article introduces the terms and concepts of green marketing, briefly discuss why going green is important and also examine some of the reasons that organizatios are adopting a green marketing philosophy. He concluded that a successful marketer is one, who not only convinces the consumer, but also involves the consumer in marketing his products and delivering the services. Green marketing should not be considered as just one more approach to marketing, but has to be pursued with much greater vigor, as it has an environmental and social dimension to it.

With the threat of global warming looming large, it is extremely important that green marketing becomes the norm rather than an exception or just a fad. Recycling of paper, metals, plastics, etc. , in a safe and environmentally harmless manner should become much more systematized and universal. It has to become the general norm to use energy-efficient lamps and other electrical goods.

Sunita Dahiya, Dr. Amita Charan & Vijay Kumar (2010) conducted a research on “Green Marketing, Emission Trading and Carbon Crediting In India”. Changing trade pattern, global recession, financial crisis, stock fluctuations, corporate governance, corporate laws, and many other upcoming global challenges are truly difficult to manage for corporate, environmentalists, economists, experts, manufacturers and even administrators at the top. Ecologists, economists and financial planners are continuously debating for global sustainable development and steady economic growth. Most of the intellectuals and eminent personalities are releasing it is a right time to become “Globally Green” and protect environment by reducing pollution and emission.

It was concluded that green marketing covers more issues

than a firm’s marketing practices only. Green marketing is a requirement for our survival on this earth. India can set standards for others to lead in the area of carbon crediting and trading. From decades we are exploiting natural resources but now because of natural calamities: like global warming, Acidic rains, Tsunami, Earthquakes, floods, Drought and green house gases, we are realizing importance of green marketing.

Globally there are number of environmental trading markets as have been explained above which provide for balance in period of environment and effect corporate competitiveness and profitability in terms of standards and final finished products.

Oyewole, P. (2001). Social Costs of Environmental Justice Associated with the Practice of Green Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics, 29(3), Feb, pp. 239-252. This paper presents a conceptual link among green marketing, environmental justice, and industrial ecology. It argues for greater awareness of environmental justice in the practice for green marketing.

In contrast with the type of costs commonly discussed in the literature, the paper identified another type of costs, termed 'costs with positive results,' that may be associated with the presence of environmental justice in green marketing. A research agenda is finally suggested to determine consumers' awareness of environmental justice, and their willingness to bear the costs associated with it.

Merilanen, S. , Moisander, J. & Personen, S. (2000). The Masculine Mindset of Environmental Management and Green Marketing. Business Strategy and the Environment, 9(3), pp. 51-162. Environmental management systems and green marketing programmes have gained increasing popularity in western market economies. They are viewed as cost-efficient, effective and just means of tackling problems associated with the impact of economic

activity on the environment. It is argued in this article, however, that these optimistic views are based on a number of ideas, images and metaphors that retain many androcentric and inadequate assumptions about self, society and nature that may be incompatible with long-term environmental protection goals.

Prothero, A. & Fitchett, J. A. (2000). Greening Capitalism: Opportunities for Green Community. Journal of Macromarketing, 20(1), pp. 46-56. In this paper, the authors argue that greater ecological enlightenment can be secured through capitalism by using the characteristics of commodity culture to further progress environmental goals. The authors reject both naive ecological romanticism and revolutionary idealism on the grounds that they fail to offer any pragmatic basis by which greater environmental responsibility can be achieved.

Drawing on the now well-established theoretical tradition of post-Marxist cultural criticism, the authors offer a conceptual justification for the development and implementation of a green commodity discourse. For this to be achieved and implemented, prevailing paradigms regarding the structure, nature, and characteristics of capitalism must be revised. Marketing not only has the potential to contribute to the establishment of more sustainable forms of society but, as a principle agent in the operation and proliferation of commodity discourse, also has a considerable responsibility to do so.

Prothero, A. (1998). Green Marketing: The 'Fad' That Won't Slip Slide Away. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 507-513. The author introduces several papers discussed in the July 1998 issue of 'Journal of Marketing Management' focusing on green marketing. This includes; a citation of the need to review existing literature on green marketing, an empirical study of United States and Australian marketing managers, a description

of what a green alliance look like in practice in Great Britain, ecotourism and definitions of green marketing.

Kilbourne, W. E. & Beckman, S. C. (1998). Review and Critical Assessment of Research on Marketing and the Environment. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 513-533. This paper provides a review and categorization of the environmentally related research published in the major English language marketing journals over the period from 1971 to 1997. It traces the development from the early research which focused predominantly on the characterization of the "green" consumer, conceptualization of environmental consciousness, environmentally related behaviours such as recycling, and attitudes towards environmental problems such as pollution.

This was followed by a period in which energy conservation, legislation, and public policy issues were added to the agenda which remained predominantly managerialist in perspective. While the same issues were studied within the 1990s, the research agenda was expanded again to include broader issues such as environmental values and institutions. Most recently, the macro issues of sustainable marketing and its relationship to the dominant social paradigm have been introduced into the literature.

The paper concludes by arguing that the examination of the macro issues from an interdisciplinary perspective is necessary for further development of marketing thought in this area, and that a synthesis of the macro and micro perspectives is necessary for effective and enduring public policy regarding the marketing/environmental relationship.

Walker, R. H. & Hanson, D. J. (1998). Green Marketing and Green Places: A Taxonomy for the Destination Marketer. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 623-640. This paper highlights and discusses green/environmental implications and imperatives associated with destination marketing as distinct from

those related to product and services marketing. A comparative taxonomy has been developed to illustrate these, and to provide a framework for discussing their relevance, with reference to the particular case of Tasmania as a tourism destination.

Kilbourne, W. E. (1998). Green Marketing: A Theoretical Perspective. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 641-656. The author discusses the failure of green marketing to move beyond the limitations of the prevailing paradigm.

While there are nascent macro developments in marketing thought that might lead to a truly green marketing considering sustainability, holistic thought, and the limitations of the prevailing paradigm, they remain thus far on the periphery of the discipline. This will remain so until a broader, multi-disciplinary approach incorporating the multiple dimensions of the DSP is developed. The author identifies areas that must be examined for their effect in the marketing/environment relationship, namely economic, political and technological dimensions of the cultural frame of reference.

Fisk, G. (1998). Green Marketing: Multiplier for Appropriate Technology Transfer? Journal of Marketing Management, 14(6), July, pp. 657-677. The effectiveness of "reward and reinforcement" strategy used in marketing activity is compared to a strategy of "mutual coercion mutually agreed upon" as a means for accelerating acceptance of environmentally appropriate production and consumption technologies. The risk and reward consequences of green marketing tactics are traced to identify their implications in pursuing globally sustainable development. Together, reward and reinforcement strategies and coercive regulatory activities are more promising for attaining sustainable development than either one alone.

Grove, S. J. & Fisk, R. P. (1996). Going green in the Service Sector. European Journal of Marketing, 30(5), pp. 56-67. The authors attempted to

bring attention to the general and pervasive exclusion of service industries from discussions of green marketing practices. They explore why circumstance may exist, and provided arguments to support the adoption of environmental practices by services providers.

Also in trying to identify how the service sector can contribute to the preservation of the environment, a greening of services matrix was presented. This matrix was designed to demonstrate through hypothetical examples the many ways that service industries can reduce, reuse or recycle resources, either collectively or individually, and thereby embrace the green initiative. Finally, the authors submitted a total quality/ benchmarking approach as a means by which services organizations may adopt environmental practices.

Menon and Menon (1997) Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular import in the modern market. This concept has enabled for the re-marketing and packaging of existing products which already adhere to such guidelines. Additionally, the development of green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into separate line, lauding the green-friendliness of some while ignoring that of others. Such marketing techniques as will be explained are as a direct result of movement in the minds of the consumer market.

As a result of this businesses have increased their rate of targeting consumers who are concerned about the environment. These same consumers through their concern are interested in integrating environmental issues into their purchasing decisions through their incorporation into the process and content of the marketing strategy for whatever product may be required.

Banerjee, S. , Gulas, C. S. and Iyer E. (1995). Shades of green: A multidimensional analysis of environmental advertising.

Journal of Advertising, 24(2), 21-32. This paper discusses how businesses have increased their rate of targeting green consumers, those who are concerned about the environment and allow it to affect their purchasing decisions. The paper identifies the three particular segments of green consumers and explores the opportunities businesses have with green marketing. The paper also examines the message of green marketing and describes the deceit of 'green washing'. The paper considers three green campaigns of the New Leaf Paper Company, the Courier Corporation and Clorox bleach and concludes that green marketing is something that will continuously grow in both practice and demand.

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