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Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind

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As defined by the text, consciousness includes which of the following?
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All of these conditions; focused attention, sleeping, hypnosis
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The cluster of brain cells that control the circadian rhythm is the
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Suprachiasmatic nucleus
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Compared to their counterparts of 80 years ago, teenagers today average ______ sleep each night
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2 hours less
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Sleep spindles predominate during which stage of sleep?
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Stage 2
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During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal?
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REM sleep
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The sleep cycle is approximately
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90 minutes minutes
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The effects of chronic sleep deprivation include
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All of these effects; suppression of the immune system, altered metabolic and hormonal functioning, and impaired creativity
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One effect of sleeping pills is to
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Decrease REM sleep
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Cocaine and crack cocaine produce a euphoric rush by
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Blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells
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Which of the following is classified as a depressant?
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Alcohol
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Which of the following statements concerning hypnosis is true?
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Hypnosis is in part an extension of the division between conscious awareness and automatic behavior
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People who heard unusual phrases prior to sleep were awakened each time they began REM sleep. The fact that they remembered less the next morning provides support for the
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Information-processing theory of dreaming
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Which of the following preventive measures would have the greatest impact on average life expectancy?
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Eliminating smoking
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According to Freud, dreams are
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A symbolic fulfillment of erotic wishes
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Psychoactive drugs affect behavior and perception through
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Alteration of neural activity in the brain
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All of the following address common misconceptions about addiction, EXCEPT the statement that
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Biological factors place some individuals at increased risk for addiction
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At the beginning, psychology focused on the study of
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Consciousness
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Which of the following is NOT a theory of dreaming mentioned in the text?
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Dreaming is an attempt to escape from social stimulation
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The sleep-waking cycles of young people who stay up too late typically are
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25 hours in duration
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The lowest rates of drug use among high school seniors is reported by:
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African-Americans
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Surface meaning of dreams
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Manifest content
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Deeper meaning of dreams
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Latent content
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Stages of sleep associated with delta waves
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Stage 3 and 4 sleep
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Stages of sleep associated with muscular relaxation
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REM sleep
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Sleep disorder in which breathing stops
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Sleep apnea
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Sleep disorder occurring in stage 4 sleep
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Night terrors
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Depressant
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Alcohol
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Hallucinogen
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Marijuana
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Stimulant
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Cocaine
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Simultaneous unconscious and conscious tracks
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Dual processing
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Disorder in which sleep attacks occur
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Narcolepsy
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Study of how brain activity is linked to mental activity
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Cognitive neuroscience
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Twilight stage of sleep associated with imagery resembling hallucinations
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Stage 1 sleep
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Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?
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REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound
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The perceptual error in which we fail to see an object when our attention is directed elsewhere is
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Inattentional blindness
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Alcohol has the most profound effect on
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The transfer of experiences to long term
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A person whose EEG shows a high proportion of alpha waves is most likely
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Awake and relaxed
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Circadian rhythms are the
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Regular body cycles that occur on a 24 hour schedule
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A person who requires increasing amounts of a drug in order to feel its effect is said to have developed
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Tolerance
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Which of the following is NOT an example of a biological rhythm?
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Sudden sleep attacks during the day
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Which of the following is characteristic of REM sleep?
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Genital arousal
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Which of the following is NOT a stimulant?
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Alcohol
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Hypnotic responsiveness us
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Greater when people are led to expect it
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According to Hilgard, hypnosis is
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A dissociation between different levels of consciousness
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Which of the following was NOT cited in the text as evidence that heredity influences alcohol use?
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Children whose parents abuse alcohol have a lower tolerance for multiple alcoholic drinks taken over a short period of time.
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As a form of therapy for relieving problems such as warts, hypnosis is
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No more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis
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Which of the following is usually the most powerful determinant of whether teenaged begin using drugs?
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Peer influence
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THC is the major active ingredient in
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Marijuana
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Those who believe that hypnosis is a social phenomenon argue that “hypnotized” individuals are
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Merely acting out a role
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Consciousness is defined in the text as
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Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
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I am a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen that produces euphoria and social intimacy by triggering the release of dopamine and serotonin. What am I?
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MDMA
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According to the activation-synthesis theory, dreaming represents
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The brain’s efforts to integrate inflated bursts of activity in visual brain areas with the emotional tone provided by limbic system activity
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How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on
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All of these conditions; the dosage and form in which the drug is taken, the user’s expectations and personality and the situation in which the drug is taken
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Drug that is both a stimulant and mild hallucinogen
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Ecstasy
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Drugs that increase energy and stimulate neural activity
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Amphetamines
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Brain wave of awake, relaxed person
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Alpha
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Brain wave activity during stage 2 sleep
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Sleep spindle
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Sleep stage associated with dreaming
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REM
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Drugs that reduce anxiety and depress central nervous system activity
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Barbiturates
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Natural painkillers produced by the brain
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Endorphins
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Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
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Selective attention
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Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
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Consciousness
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theory that dreaming reflects our erotic drives
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Freud’s theory
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a split between different levels of consciousness
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dissociation
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neurotransmitter that LSD resembles
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serotonin
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A person who falls asleep in the midst of a heated argument probably suffers from
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narcolepsy
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Which of the following was NOT suggested by the text as an important aspect of drug prevention and treatment programs?
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“scare tactics” that frighten prepubescent children into avoiding drug experimentation
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REM sleep is referred to as paradoxical sleep because
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the body’s muscles remain relaxed while brain and eyes are active.
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An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness’s memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of relevant research, what should you tell the attorney?
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Most hypnotically retrieved memories are either false or contaminated
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Dan has recently begun using an addictive, euphoria-producing drug. Which of the following will probably occur if he repeatedly uses this drug?
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the dosage needed to produce the desired effect will increase
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Although her eyes are closed, Adele’s brain is generating bursts of electrical activity. It is likely that Adele is
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in REM sleep
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Concluding his presentation on levels of information processinng, Miguel states that:
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conscious processing is serial, while unconscious processing is parallel.
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Roberto is moderately intoxicated by alcohol. Which of the following changes in his behavior is likely to occur?
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All of these changes are likely. If angered, he is more likely to become aggressive than when he is sober, he will be less self-conscious about his behavior, and if sexually aroused, he will be less inhibited about engaging in sexual activity.
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Jill dreams that she trips and falls as she walks up the steps to the stage to receive her diploma. Her psychoanalyst suggests that the dream might symbolize her fear of moving on to the next stage of her life a career. The analyst is evidently attempting to interpret the _________ content of Jill’s dream
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latent
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Barry has participated in a sleep study for the last four nights. He was awakened each time he entered REM sleep. Now that the experiment is over, which of the following can be expected to occur?
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there will be an increase in Barry’s REM sleep
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Of the following individuals, who is likely to be the most hypnotically suggestible?
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Janice, an actress with a rich imagination
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Which of the following statements concerning alcohol dependence is NOT true?
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Adopted individuals are most susceptible to alcohol dependence if they had an adoptive parent with alcohol dependence.
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Research studies of the effectiveness of hypnosis as a form of therapy have demonstrated that
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all of these statements are true. for problems of addiction, such as smoking, hypnosis has not been especially effective. Postthypnotic suggestions have helped alleviate headaches, asthma, and stress-related skin disorders. as a form of therapy, hypnosis is no more effective than positive suggestions given without hypnosis
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a PET scan of a sleeping person’s brain reveals increased activity in the amygdala of the limbic system. This most likely indicates that the sleeper
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is in REM sleep
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Selective attention is most accurately defined as
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the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
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which of the following statements concerning marijuana is true?
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the by-products of marijuana are cleared from teh body more slowly than are the by-products of alcohol
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which of the following statements concerning near-death experiences is true?
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they typically consist of fantastic, mystical imagery
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those who consider hypnosis is a social phenomenan contend that
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hypnotized subjects become unresponsive when they are no longer motivated to act as instructed
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which of the following statements concerning the roots of drug use is true?
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if an adolescent’s friends use drugs, odds are that he or she will too
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concluding her presentation on contemporary theories of why sleep is necessary, Marilynn makes all of the following points EXCEPT
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slow-wave sleep provides a “psychic safety valve” for stressful waking experiences
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for most psychologists this is our awareness of ourselves and our environment
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consciousness
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the interdisciplinary field that studies the links between brain activity and cognition
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cognitive neuroscience
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the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
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dual processing
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the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
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selective attention
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a perceptual error in which we fail to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
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inattentional blindness
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occurs when we fail to notice changes in the environment
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change blindness
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any regular bodily rhythm, such as body temperature and sleep-wakefulness, that follows a 24-hour cycle
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circadian rhythm
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the sleep stage in which the brain and eyes are active, the muscles are relaxed, and vivid dreaming occurs; also known as paradoxical sleep
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REM sleep
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the relatively slow brain waves characteristic of an awake, relaxed state
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alpha waves
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the natural, periodic, reversible loss of consciousness, on which the body and mind depend for healthy functioning
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sleep
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false sensory experiences that occur without any sensory stimulus
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hallucinations
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the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
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delta waves
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a sleep disorder in which the person regularly has difficulty in falling or staying asleep
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insomnia
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a sleep disorder in which the victim suffers a sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks, often characterized by entry directly into REM
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narcolepsy
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a sleep disorder in which the person ceases breathing while asleep, briefly arouses to gasp for air, falls back into sleep, and repeats this cycle throughout the night
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sleep apnea
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a person suffering from this experiences episodes of high arousal with apparent terror. these usually occur during Stage 4 sleep
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night terrors
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sequences of images, emotions, and thoughts, the most vivid of which occur during REM sleep
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dreams
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in Freud’s theory of dreaming this is the remembered story line
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manifest content
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in Freud’s theory of dreaming, this is the underlying but censored menaing of a dream
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latent content
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the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
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REM rebound
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a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
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Hypnosis
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a suggestion made during a hypnosis session that is to be carried out when the subject is no longer hypnotized
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posthypnotic suggestion
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a split between different levels of consciousness, allowing a person to divide attention between two or more thoughts or behaviors
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dissociation
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includes stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens, are chemical substances that alter moods and perceptions. They work by affecting or mimicking the activity of neurotransmitters
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psychoactive drugs
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the diminishing of a psychoactive drug’s effect that occurs with repeated use, requiring progressively larger doses to produce the same effect
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tolerance
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refers to the discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of addictive drugs
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withdrawal
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a physiological need for a drug that is indicated by the presence of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is not taken
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physical dependence
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the pyschological need to use a drug is referred to as
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psychological dependence
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a compulsive craving for a drug despite adverse consequences and withdrawal symptoms
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addiction
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psychoactive drugs such as alcohol, opiates, and barbiturates, that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
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depressants
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are depressants sometimes used to induce sleep or reduce anxiety
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barbiturates
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depressants derived from the opium popp, such as opium, morphine, and heroin; they reduce neural activity and temporarily lessen pain and anxiety
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opiates
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are psychoactive drugs, such as caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine, that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
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stimulants
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are a type of stimulant and as such as speed up body functions and neural activity
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amphetamines
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a powerfully addictive stimulant that speeds up body functions and is associated with energy and mood changes
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methamphetamine
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classified as both a synthetic stimulant and a mild hallucinogen this produces short-term euphoria by increasing serotonin levels in the brain. Repeated use may permanently damage serotonin neurons, suppress immunity, and impair memory and other cognitive functions
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Ecstasy (MDMA)
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psychedelic drugs such as LSD and marijuana, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
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Hallucinogens
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a powerful hallucinogen capable of producing vivid false perceptions and disorganization of thought processes. LSD produces its unpredictable effects partially because it blocks the action of a subtype of the neurotransmitter serotonin
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LSD
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the major active ingredient in marijuana, this is classified as a mild hallucinogen
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THC
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an altered state of consciousness that has been reported by some people who have had a close brush with death
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near-death experience